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No. 5- Vol. 7.
33 from a pamphlet of the laws of the Mesta, by the consequences, were reduced to one half of that AGRICULTURE.
licentiate Diez Navarro, that in the year 1170 some number.
land, on occasion of the marriage of Alonzo III. of the most remote ages, flocks of the finest wool have SHEEP.
Castile with Leonora, daughter of Henry II. of been found in Spain; that during its possession by Notes, and translations from Spanish authors, made England. The founding of the village of Placentia the Romans, these flocks were crossed, and their at St. Ildefonzo, Segovia, and that vicinity, in in Estremadura, by the same Alonzo III.--the con quality said by Varro and Colmenar to have been 1815, by Anthony Morris, Esq.,—with a view quest of others-and finally the union of the crowns improved by rams from Africa; that notwithstandto the collection of information relative to the of Castile and Leon in the person of St. Ferdinand, ing the want of precise information on this subject, origin, utility, and management of the Merino adding the territories of Truxillo, Cáceres and other during the reign of the Gothic kings, well founded Flocks of Spain; and now published by his per the itinerant shepherds from the Sierras, facilities not extinguished, and that they were preserved and
neighbouring cities of Estremadura, provided for conjectures lead us to believe that these flocks were to gratify curiosity, to show how universal has for increasing and for maintaining their flocks in the cherished by the Moors, who were much devoted been the demand for them, how extensive and winter, in those more temperate climates. The ex- to agriculture and pastoral life; that the Christians permanent the benefits they have conferred on
tent of territory, gradually reconquered from the also preserved, in the mountainous regions, some other countries; and, if duly appreciated, how Moors, greatly enlarged the fine fields of pasturage, flocks, amidst all the confusion of arms, and gradulikely they are to become one of the most certain - In the reign of Alonzo the wise, we find the first that these flocks having found their first and princia
ally extended them into the reconquered provinces; and useful sources of the prosperity of our own.]
systematic code of pastoral legislation, which con-pal stations in the Sierras of Segovia, Burgos, and Spain has been, from the most remote periods to firmed and established the rights and privileges that Soria, began from thence their travels to the more which our historical researches extend, celebrated, had already been granted to the shepherds by his temperate provinces of the south, to avoid the seas well for the great number, as for the superior father. Sancho the brave, adopted and extended verity of winter among the mountains; that the faquality of her flocks, the fleeces of which were said to this system of privileges in the year 1285, ordain- cilities to their passage and the privileges of the have been first called golden, either from the great ing that no tax or tribute should be levied upon shepherds were increased about the year 1170, and prices they commanded, or from their colour and them. Succeeding kings confirmed these ordinances afterwards confirmed in the reign of el Santo Ferbeauty. The golden apples of the Hesperides (of-and particularly Alonzo XI. in 1347, in whose nando; that neither the flocks which were brought which we read,) are said by some of her writers, to reign also sheep were imported from England into from England in the reign of Alonzo III., nor in that mean the beautiful flocks which fed on the banks of Spain,
and the office of judge of the Mesta was in- of Alonzo XI. and Henry III., gave rise, as suggestthe far-famed Betis, now the Guadalquivir, whose stituted.
ed by some, to the race of merinos, though it apAeeces they describe as in colour resembling the The Padre Sarmiento, in a letter to the duke of pears that they were encasted with them, for which rays of the sun, or the first blushes of the morning. Medina Sidonia, on the subject of the mesta, as- purpose also rams were introduced from Barbary in Other writers assert that every ram was worth a serts, that the ganados mestinos were unknown the reign of Don Pedro, and of the catho'ic kings, talent, (see Varro, book 2d, c. 2.-Col. de re rusti- in Spain until the last years of the reign of this a practice which had previously been adopted by ca, lib. 7, c. 2.) and that the wool of Andalusia ex- king Alonzo XI.; suggesting his opinion, that at the Romans in Spain, and which was used by the ceeded that of Colchos; but none of them explain, this period originated the fine wooled flocks, and British, who, as it appears, had imported from with certainty, from whence came, originally, these that they owe their origin to England, adding that thence many flocks; and, finally, that although the fine wooled flocks. We only know, from their testi- the common people called them merinas, meaning origin of trashumacion is somewhat uncertain, the mony, (Col. and Varro,) that the sheep of Spain had marinas, from having crossed the sea. This opinion first ordinances for its regulation are found in the been crossed by rains brought from Africa, by which of Sarmiento, however, seems unsupported, and even reign of Alonzo the wise. These appear to be the their wool was improved, as is asserted by Pliny in refuted, by the consideration that in the ordinances principal facts which are recorded relative to the his Natural History, and by Strabo in his treatise on of Alonzo the wise, and his successors, are often origin and habits of the fine wooled flocks of Spain, Betica. In these ancient authors, we find no notice found the terms mesta, consejo de la mesta, and ga-called Merinos, as distinguished from those which of the trashumacion, or change of place and pasture, nados mestinos-signifying the meeting of the shep- are called coarse wooled, (churras burdas é bastas,) now, and for some centuries past, used in Spain by herds to consider and determine on pastoral affairs. The causes of the fine quality of the merino wool the flocks called merinos; neither does any evidence Lost flocks are also called mestas or mestinas, in are variously accounted for; by some, in their conremain of the actual state of the flocks of Spain in an ordinance of Alonzo IX. of Leon, in 1229, in tinued annual exercise in descending in winter from the times of the Goths, or of the Moors. Lasterie, which are found these expressions-guardar las the northern sierras to the southern plains, and again in his treatise on the flocks of Spain, indeed, asserts mestas, no ocultarlas, venderlas, ni mudarlas, la mar- returning in summer to the mountains; in the qualigenerally, that the fine wooled species had been re-ra, ascertaining the adoption and meaning of the ty of the herbage found in their pastures, and in stored by the Moors; and Masdieu also, in his llis- terms mesta and mestenos before the reign of Alon- avoiding the extremes of heat and cold. Others, toria critica de Espana Arabe, tomo xiii. p. 117, al- zo XI.
again, impute this superior quality of wool to the Jeges that they appreciated duly the horses and But it is most probable that the term merino, as circumstance of the flocks living and lying always floc! s, and that their fibrics of wool, flax, cotton applied to the itinerant flocks, was taken from the in the open air, without being shut up in folds or and silk, were esteemed throughout Europe. title of the judge who presided over the pastoral stables. But by reference to the before mentioned
It is probable that the Moors, who occupied parts affairs of the kingdom, and who was called merino ancient writers, we do not find that any mention is of Spain from about the middle of the 8th to the de pastores. There seems little probability in the made of trashumacion by the flocks of Betica, so 15th century, preserved the casts of fine feered suggestion that the introduction of a few English much celebrated; and even confining our observasherp in some perfection, and that the Christians flocks in the reign of Alonzo XI. should have been tions to the present times, and to the province of fetained in the northern provinces some flocks, from the origin of the Spanish merinos; a suggestion ren- Estremadura, we find there numerous flocks of sheep which were first formed those of Segovia and Soria, dered still less probable by the known fact, that whose fleeces are very little inferior to those of Seand from whence it is reasonable to suppose began there are not now in England any flocks, the quality govia, although they never leave their native fields. the practice of trashumacion: though it is difficult to of whose wool is comparable to that of the flocks of Many are also found in the sierras of Segovia, Buiascertain precisely its actual commencement, it is Spain, though they may admit of a comparison with trago and Pedraza, called rebanos estantes or stamisputable that it existed belore the year 1.200, some of the stationary flocks of Estremadura. tionary socks, which never change their pastures, and had made some progress in the time of the re- The fine quality of the Spanish merino wool, it is and are competitors for fineness of wool with the population of Segovia by Alonzo I. of Castile, and ascertained, has not degenerated in the last three merinos. Neither is trashumacion known in EngVT. of Leon, about the year 1088. In the year 1200 hundred years. The most valued flocks in Spain are land, yet their fleeces are next in quality to the methere were established in Segovia, shepherds, who those which feed during summer on the mountains of rinos; nor has the habit been adopted in France, travelled with, and changed the pastures of their Leon, and are called Lconesas; they belong princi-Saxony, Sweden, and other countries, to which the flocks, as appears by the privileges granted to them pally to the grandees and to the rich convents. The flocks of Spain have been exported, and which are by Alonzo III. of Castile; who, taking under his Segovianas are second in repute; they feed on the nevertheless found not to degenerate. protection all the flocks of Segovia, commanded that Sierras of Segovia, and its neighbourhood. Next The merinos of Spain have also been of late years iher should be permitted to pass, and to feed freely are the Sorianas, which feed in the vicinity of Soria, dispersed through Sweden and Russia, and in alin every part of his realm, without molestation or Molina, &c. There are also numerous stationary most all the countries of Europe, as well as to the hindrance to their shepherds, by taking toll from, or flocks, of fine wool, which never leave Estremadu- United States of America, in all which, notwithotherwise impeding them. (see Colmenar's Hist. of ra; some in the province of La Mancha, and others, standing the varieties of climate, the fleece has preSegoria, cap. 18.) The same privileges were ex- which have never left their native mountains. The served its character and quality without any change tended by Sancho III. in 1159 to the flocks belong- whole number of the fine wooled flocks, amounted of pasture. The practice of living constantly in the ing to the monastery of Valbuena; and by Alonzo in the year 1808, before the irruption of the French, open air, without doubt, contributes much to the VII to that of Las Huelgas of Burgos. It appears to about six million, which, by this event and its cleanness of the wool and the health of the flock;
but neither to this circumstance, trashumacion, nor șively hers in fine wool, for which France paid such ting, which is done by warming the houses by small to climate, is the quality attributable, so much as to large annual sums. To this end was inserted a se- bark fires, it is then cured in about 48 hours, by la naturaleza y casta que les es propria, their pe- cret article in the treaty of Basil, negotiated by Na- log fires which are constantly kept up and attended culiar nature and character as different trees pro- poleon with the Prince of Peace, ensuring annually to. duce different leaves and fruit. The experience of to France, for five successive years, the privilege of In stripping, only six leaves are tied in a bundle many centuries has proved that in Spain there is no importing from Spain 1,000 ewes and 100 merino invariably. At this time it is assorted into three degeneracy in the quality of the merino wool; par- rams.
qualities—the two first qualities are tied in bundles— ticular attention is always paid by the shepherds to The empress Catharine II. of Russia also pro- the third and lowest quality, which is termed ground avoid marshy grounds, and whenever necessity may moted by premiums of honour and value, under the leaves, is stemmed. compel occasional use of stables, to keep them with direction of the Academy of Petersburgh, the intro- After stripping, the tobacco is then shook out and the greatest cleanliness and well ventilated. duction and extension in her dominions, of the same cleaned of dirt and grit, which is done in the fol
Exportation of merinos from Spain into different flocks of Spain, the advantages of which in the dis- lowing manner: a man takes as many bundles as he countries. The earliest notices we find of the ex-trict of Paulogrande and others, have been experi- can in one hand, and as many in the other, and portation of the merinos from Spain into England, enced since their first introduction in 1811. whips them against each other, wbich loosens and are in the reigns of Edward III. and Henry VII.- But the greatest effects and advantages have been disengages the dirt, he then gives each handful a In 1792, the countess of Campo Alanze presented to produced in Saxony, by the admixture of the Spa- violent shake. After stripping, it is then bulked for his late majesty George III. through the agency of nish merino flocks with the native sheep of the coun- giving it a set, viz. to make the bundles straight, lord Auckland, five rams and thirty-five ewes, from try. In the years 1767 and 1768, the first flocks close and nice. In bulking, only one bundle is put her fine flock called Negrete. From this flock ori- were sent from Spain, and were in number about down at a time, and the bundles pass their whole ginated that of the duke of York, at the Oatlands. 1,000 under the direction of Andreas Moreno, an in- length through the hands of the labourers, at which The plan of introducing them into Sweden, which habitant of Vinuesa, near Soria, who remained two moment they are squeezed to compress them in a was first formed by the celebrated Christina, was not years in Saxony, for the purpose of superintending small compass. After bulking nicely, the tobacco is realized until 1723, by Altroemer, a Swede, who, the flocks, and diffusing his knowledge of their pro- weighted to give it the desired set. After remainafter having travelled through Spain to collect infor- per management. Since that time, so great has ing in bulk awhile it must not remain too long, mation on pastoral subjects, introduced them into been the increase and benefit to Saxony, that it not particularly in warm weather, as it might heat, beSweden, where, notwithstanding the severity of the only produces all the fine wool consumed in the cause the tobacco is at this time quite soft, it is climate, they have greatly increased, and have also kingdom, but finds advantageous markets for its ex- then hung up for the purpose of getting it in the by judicious crosses, much improved the native cess at the fairs of Leipsie, from which are supplied right order for prising, which is the most difficult flocks. The Danish government in 1797, procured the cloth fabrics of Aix-la-Chapelle, Holland and part of the business. We watch it, as I said before, in Spain, from the flocks of the Escurial, Guada- Prussia, besides exporting in 1807 more than 50,000 because one hour might get it wrong. The order lupe, Paular, Infantado, &c. three hundred head. Spanish arrobas of wool to England; since which in which we strike down for prising is this—the In 1789, the Hollanders, Twen and Kuper, pro- time its value and export to England has greatly in- stem must be so hard as to break freely two-thirds cured two rams and four ewes from Spain, to which creased, and produces a competition injurious to the of its length, beginning at the bigger end, while the were added in 1802, a flock of two hundred, which, sale of Spanish wool. In 1767 and 1768, the same leaf at the same time is so soft as to bear stretching with the increase of the former, were distributed Andreas Moreno supplied to the Italian states some open to its full breadth; this is the order which will among the proprietors of the native flocks, by a ju- merino flocks, of whose distribution and benefits enable it to go through a sweat and to make it show dicious intermixture with which these have been there does not appear any public documents; but in to the best advantage in the market, and to be best greatly improved, and the importation into Holland Piedmont there are abundant proofs of the benefits handled by the consumer or manufacturer. of foreign wool has been diminished.
derived to the native flocks from their incorporation We always take the tobacco as it comes in order, Frederick of Prussia, in 1786, introduced into his with 150 merinos, selected in 1787, from those of and not as it goes out. When it is struck down for dominions three hundred merinos from Spain, which Segovia, under the direction of the count Graneri, prising, it is bulked in the same careful and neat he directed to be distributed among the native ambassador from Turin to Spain in that year. The manner as before described, and well weighted. It flocks of the country, and by which, particularly in Academy of Agriculture, and some distinguished ought now to remain in bulk at least four weeks; Silesia, he has greatly improved the quality of the individuals there, superintended the management but the longer the better, as it will, when managed woolen manufactures in that province, where fine and distribution of this flock, from which, in a few in this way, daily improve in smell and appearance. fabrics were before unknown.
years, their number was increased to about 5,000, of When taken up for prising, it has a smell more fraIn 1775, at the instance of Maria Teresa, some which one-third part was preserved pure from inter- grant and delightful than any herb in the world. flocks were sent from Spain to Hungary, and after- mixture, and the remainder were incorporated with It is truly “sweet scented,” an epithet always at. wards in 1803 an agent was specially destined from the native flocks of the ecclesiastical states. tached in Europe to good tobacco. Austria, to procure in addition three hundred of the Van Runen, in 1782, took from Spain to the Cape In prising we use the same particularity-only best quality from Segovia and its vicinity, which of Good Hope 400 merinos—and in 1804 or 1805, one bundle is put in at a time, and that by a certain have been found equally beneficial in that empire, colonel Humphreys, minister from the United States rule. This is to make it break nice and look well where they have been also used to incorporate with to Portugal, sent a small flock to his country, where when uncased—all the heads of the bundles are the native flocks.
by the subsequent additions made by the late chan-pointing outwards, and jut against the staves of the The Margrave of Anspach, besides importing into cellor Livingston, by Mr. Meade, and numerous hogshead. his states, in 1788 and 1790, some of the same family others, they have become naturalized.
We never top our tobacco to more than ten from Spain, founded an academy for practical and
leaves, the ends of the top leaves frequently hang systematic instruction to the peasantry in their ma
over the others and touch the ground.
CURING TOBACCO. nagement, and to the manufacturers of woolen fa
It is true that the great body of the planters do bries. From 1783, in Mecklenburgh, Lunenberg, [The following remarks on the curing of tobacco not manage their tobacco in this neat and careful Brunswick, Baden, and Hanover, indeed through- may be of use to our subscribers in Ohio.—They manner; but those who do, get amply rewarded for out the whole of Germany, the same system of im- are extracted from a private letter of a friend in their care and pains, and when once they get their proving the native flocks, by admixture with those North Carolina.)
names up for superior management, they always from Spain, has been adopted.
From the remarks made in one of your letters obtain the very best prices in market. And when In France, the great advantage to the native respecting tobacco, you perhaps have mistaken my we consider that tobacco is a cash article, and that Rocks, and the improvement of their woolen manu- meaning on this matter; I will therefore very brief- it exhibits good or bad management more than any factures, is notorious, from the time of the flock of ly state to you a part of our management of tokacco, plant in the world, we should not spare any pains in Rambouillet, which was first established, and whence premising at the same time, that I will hereafter its cultivation and after management. they were distributed through the whole kingdom. enlarge these remarks and enter more into details, The distinguished member of the National Institute, should you request it for publication. Gilbert, made repeated journeys into Spain, to pro- Our tobacco is so large and heavy,that curing it by
INDIAN CORN, cure flocks of the first quality, and died in the vil- fire is indispensable to enable it to go through a sweat Singular facts in regard to—ascertained by experiment. lage of Sigueruela, district of Sepulveda, in 1805, with safety. As a proof of this, the large western
Edisto Island, S. C., March 20, 1825. when he was most actively engaged in his useful country tobacco (made in Kentucky and Tennessee) Dear Sir, undertaking. That government, indeed, has not is complained loudly of in Europe; in going through Having somewhere read, that seed selected from since its first step in this great national object, a sweat it rots, for the plain reason that they do not the point, or small end of melons, cucumbers and ceased to prosecute it with unremitting diligence; fire it. We have houses for curing in, and larger pumpkins, would exhibit a greater increase than if and its writers now boast of having so completely barns to carry it to after it is cured. Our houses taken from the middle or but-end, I tried the fol succeeded, that the time is not distant when Spain for firing are made very close, to confine the heat; lowing experiment the last season, on corn; which, will yield to her the advantages heretofore exclu- after the tobacco is made yellow enough after cut-Ithough not sufficiently conclusive, should yet lead
to farther inquiry and examination. In the centre measure, equal to about 30 quarts wine measure of protecting the soil as much as practicable during of my field there were two pieces of ground, (not daily, to one giving more,", &c.; objecting to the the summer, illustrated by his experiments in the adapted to cotton,) each 105 feet square, which practice of soiling, as he had “found for years, that two last seasons, upon nearly ninety acres of fine were divided, and planted with seed from the point, two cows ranging over the pastures, give as much alluvion, which, after being early mown, was not middle and but-end, according to the following dia- milk as three confined in the house, and that young depastured until the latter part of the autumn. gram:
ones are more healthy and of better growth, when On the superior effects of recent manure in comTask>No. 1. Task>No. 2.
allowed to run at large;" and presenting a scale and parison with those of rotted dung, ascertained by
On the family of Tunisian mountain sheep preFrom Charles Champion, Esq. dated Feb. 14, in sented by Col. Pickering to Judge Peters—their adreply to an order for Improved Short Horns. It is vantages in fleece, form and properties over those
inquired “whether I think it possible for Mr. -'s which have been recently imported, and his success When the corn was harvested, the product was as Short Horn cows to give 30 quarts of milk daily. I in obtaining a valuable cross from the union of the follows, viz: Task No. 1, point, 3 pecks; middle, 1 can assure you, I have no doubt of it, as I have Bakewell mixed breed with the variety obtained by peck and 4 quarts; but end, 2 pecks. Task No. 2, known several instances of Improved Short Horn Mr. Bones from Col. Pickering's Tunisian sheep and point, 2 pecks and 4 quarts; middle, 1 peck and 3 cows giving larger quantities."
Jeffery's importation of Irish blood. quarts; but-end, 2 pecks. Both tasks were planted From the corresponding secretary of the Agri- Reuben Haines, Esq. communicated a valuable at the same time, cultivated in the same manner, cultural Society at Vevay, Indiana, asking informa-accession to his piggery by a present from Mr. Hayand I am not aware that there existed a difference tion on the culture of the vine, &c.
ward, in England, from whose stock Mr. Haines' fine of soil.
From Richard K. Meade, Esq. of Frederick coun- swine had been originally obtained. The average crop would have been much greater, ty, Va. to the corresponding secretary, inquiring “in Mr. Kersey sent for the inspection of the society had not the season been so peculiarly unpropitious behalf of the Valley Society, the price of Improved an ingenious contrivance by which a dog may be to the husbandman. In the months of June, July Short Horns, their weight when dropped, when one made to work a churn or grindstone. and August the drought was unusually severe, and month, and six months old; their general weight, the Mr. Powel presented some oats, taken in the preportended the most disastrous consequences. A flood increase at intervals of six and twelve months, their sence of himself and the recording secretary, from of rain succeeded in September, and fields which care and keep from first to last, the most profitable the stomach of an imported heifer, which had died had previously exhibited a parched and meagre ap. age to fit them for the butcher, and then their gene- in consequence of having eaten too largely of unpearance, were now literally inundated.
ral weight; and asking information upon “different ground oats just before leaving the ship, and being To the theorist, and him who is emulous of pene- breeds, as to bees, milk, work oxen," &c. communi- allowed free access to water immediately on landing. trating the arcana of nature, I submit the solution of cating his objects, the measurement and weight of the animal had been buried thirteen months under the problem which the above facts present. his cattle, their management and food.
a mound of manure covered closely with clay—the Very respectfully, your obed't servant, The replies to these various questions, embracing oats exhibited the fresh and bright appearance of W. B. SEABROOK. necessarily the whole system of managing and breed- those recently reaped. They were produced to en
ing certain races of neat cattle, as well as distinguish- force the belief that unground oats when consumed ing their properties.
without hay or straw by neat cattle, are very diffiPENNSYLVANIA, AGRICULTURAL SOCIE- A letter from James Cox, Esq. of Buck's county, cult of digestion and highly injurious. TY.
giving his experience of Improved Short Horns, as Mr. Hoopes sent to the society's room an improvgood milkers and quick feeders.
ed Blockley Cultivator. The Society met on Saturday, the 9th inst. in the From Mr. Kersey, on improved breeds of neat Mr. Barnard sent a neat expanding Harrow, ena hall over the Athenæum, in Philadelphia, in confor-cattle and sheep, the excellence of Dishley and Tu- bling the farmer to regulate the distance of the mity with an amendment of their By-laws. nisian sheep when crossed by native breeds; on the tines.
The following communications and letters were early maturity of Improved Short Horns; the re- Extract from the minutes,
JOHN P. MILNOR, From Major Rudd, of Martin Lodge, (Eng.) ac- Horn calf, six months old, bred by Mr. Robt. Clem
Recording Secry. knowledging the receipt of the society's “Memoirs,” mens, the quarters of which weighed 334 pounds in and detailing his experience of the ill effects of soil-'the market, on the extraordinary quantity of rich ing, the evils of breeding in, the advantages to be milk afforded by one of Mr. Powel's imported cows,
ORCHARD GRASS. derived from the use of mangel wurtzel, as “a most a year after her calf had been produced. valuable and nutritious food for cattle,” his objec- From Mr. Comfort, on the quantity of milk given
Inquiry as to the time of its seeding-time for sowtions to the mistakes of many of “the ablest writers by an imported cow at Powelton, in addition to the
ing it, &c. on agriculture, as theoretical, and not good practi- consumption of her healthy calf running at her side,
Scotland Neck, 2d April, 1825. cal farmers,” their errors in “recommending salt as supposed by him to be equal to about 8 quarts at a
Mr. SKINNER, a manure, which, after having been tried by himself, meal.
Several persons in this neighbourhood have in and by others, on various soils, and in various quan- From a gentleman in one of the middle counties their gardens small patches of what they believe to tities, had not produced the least benefit,” &c. of Pennsylvania, after nearly a year's experience, be the orchard grass. Will you get some person
From Charles Champion, of Blyth, (Eng.) dated declaring his entire approbation of the Improved who is well acquainted with it, to give a particular
Respectfully, yours, and stating, that the quarters of the marquis of Short Horn heifer; I have kept them together, and
WM. R. SMITH. Exeter's prize Steer, 2 years 11 months old, weighed they have satisfied our farmers of the astonishing 1456 pounds; that lord Althorp's Steer, two months diference between the improved stock and our na- known to be a very successful cultivator of Orchard
[The above was referred to a friend, who was younger, weighed 1274 pounds of beef, of the finest tive breeds of the best kind. With the same keep Grass, and on whose farm the Editor had recently blood-accompanied by the official account, show- are double that of the other
. The bull promises to seen the best lot of grass which has attracted
his noing, that his Improved Short Horn heifer, Points, be a splendid animal, and besides our own use, he tice this spring. He has kindly favoured us with the gave him a second victory over the Herefords, will soon pay costs.”
following answer—the accuracy of which may be taking the sweepstakes, where the best animals of
From Mr. Alburger, an extensive grazier on cer- fully relied on, as would be better known, if he had various breeds were brought into competition, after tain cattle.
consented to give his name.] a year's preparation.
From Mr. Wm. Bradley, a dairy farmer and gra- So much has already been published in the AmeFrom Mr. W—, of Burley, Yorkshire, to the zier, approving highly of Improved Short Horns for rican Farmer upon the excellent qualities of Orchcorresponding secretary, acknowledging the receipt the dairy.
ard Grass, that it would be presumptuous in a petty of the "Memoirs,” and saying, “I am happy to con- From James Williams, Esq. of Hilton, present- farmer, like myself, to give any additional informafirm your opinions of Improved Short Horns. I am ing some very fine ruta baga, drilled so late as the tion thereon; but from your flattering request, I largely concerned in the cotton business, and having 27th July, between carrots. The roots had been cheerfully state the experience I have had, as to to provide milk for a large establishment in 1810, 1 deposited in a cellar, where they have continued in sowing and reaping upon my small farm. attended Mr. Charles Colling's sale," &c. “I should a state of perfect preservation.
It will answer to sow orchard grass either in the prefer a cow yielding about 3 gallons a meal, ale From John Hare Powel, Esq. on the advantages spring or fall; and if the former season is found most
A BACK-WOODS SUBSCRIBER.
convenient, it may be done upon any growing crop Last spring was rather a late one, and on reference of value to persons about to engage in any untried of grain, and the earlier the better, if the ground be to my diary, I find we commenced mowing on the project. If this idea of Mr. Bosley should prove to sufficiently dry, after which harrow, with a very 8th June, and finished upwards of 40 tons on the be better founded than I believe it to be, it will tend light harrow, or roll—either, or both operations, 20th; and from the same source I find that we reap- very much to retard the spirit now operating in fawill rather benefit than injure the grain crop. But ed with sickles that which was left for seed on the vour of the cultivation of the vine in this countryif the ground is poor, a top dressing of manure will 5th July, when it was quite ripe. I particularly re- because if we must resort to the seed to have perbe requisite immediately after sowing. You cannot commend every farmer to save his own seed, and by manent and durable vineyards, it will throw us "all have a crop of grass to mow the first year, if sown cutting off the head with a sickle it is preserved aback,” to use the seaman's phrase, as it will proin the spring; and indeed it will be better for the pure and free from many noxious weeds, which duce, as many varieties of its kind,
as would the grass if not pastured during that year, except by will generally be found in that purchased indiscri- seed apple, tħe pear, or the potato, respectively, calves, which would not injure it, minately from the stores.
when sown. If ground is prepared for sowing in the fall, the From experience, I am well satisfied that orchard If we can believe what the books on the subject earlier this object is accomplished the better; for if grass, when cut in proper season, makes the best of of the vine say, as to raising vines from seed, we it does not take good root and cover the ground hay. It is easily produced, continues in its pure cannot raise more than one fifth of grape-bearing well before winter, the frost will be very apt to turn state longer than any grass with which I am ac- vines from any. given quantity of seed sown, and the plant out of the ground—which I one year ex- quainted, and after producing a heavy crop of hay, those not of the exact kind sought for; besides many perienced in sowing after potatoes in the month of it affords the best of pasture until christmas, without years must elapse before the kind or quality could November; for although the grass came up hand- apparently injuring the succeeding crop; it also con- be known. From my reading on the subject of the somely, there was none left in the spring, and I then tinues growing in our driest seasons, when other vine, I am led to believe that its varieties are infinite, sowed a second time.
grasses droop or die; hence I consider myself justi- as are those of the apple, the pear, or the potatoLast year I had a poor field, which bore very fied in giving this flattering description, and which while its species, like theirs, are limitted and fixed light crops of English grass; it was ploughed in the I hope may be useful to your readers.
to a certain number. After all that can be said on spring and sown in May with millet, which came April, 10th, 1825.
this subject, let not the young vigneron despond, up very slightly, and was ploughed in, the last of
for there is another, and I might almost say, an equiJune, and the ground immediately sown with buck
valent mode to cuttings or slips, for the continuance
MOLES AND CUT WORMS. wheat, upon which, when in blossom, I spread a
of such kinds of vines as he may desire; the mode light coat of manure, and again, ploughed and har- I wish to ascertain through the medium of your I mean is by layer. This mode by layer will give a rowed: the soil was very finely pulverized, and on the valuable journal, the most expeditious and most ef- perpetual duration tɔ the kinds of vines he may or 4th August I sowed orchard grass seed, which came festual method, of destroying the moles from our will have selected for his vineyard. If the mode by up beautifully without a weed appearing; before gardens. An insect, here called the cut worm, is slips or cuttings should fail, of which I have not the December it was six inches high, and is now a very very destructive to young corn. If you, or any of most remote idea, to the layer then let us look as to luxuriant crop, and will, I make no doubt, produce your numerous correspondents, can suggest a reme- our final hope and dependence, rather than to the between two and three tons to the acre this summer. dy for their ravages, you or they would confer a vines raised from the seed; and although the mode Two years since, I ploughed a field of mixed considerable favour.
by layer is more tedious and diversified than that worn out grasses in the month of November; let it I woald only add the inquiry—what quality gives of cuttings, yet it is more certain of a profitable relay all winter, and in the spring top-dressed with old to the different species of wood their various degrees sult than the raising vines from the seed. stable manure, and without stirring the earth, sowed of durability?*
The foregoing sentiments are the offspring of a oats, which were well harrowed in, and then orchard
Yours, most respectfully,
few moments of leisure; if there is no objection, grass sown, and the whole rolled, making the sur
and I presume there can be none, I'would be glad face very fine—the manure caused the oats to grow
to see them inserted in your useful paper. I. so luxuriantly, I was fearful the grass would be smothered; but aft reaping them I was agreeably
THE HOLLY FOR HEDGES: surprised to find as fine a coat of grass as could be desired, and which continues to produce abundant
Extract of a letter from Col. T. Emory. crops without any of the previous mixed grasses
The holly makes a close and beautiful winter appearing, although the ground was only ploughed
hedge, and no plant bears the shears better.—I once.
State of Delaware, April 9, 1825. have a short hedge of about 60 yards in length in Five years since I sowed orchard grass with tur- John S. SKINNER, Esq.
my garden, that is very pretty when kept in order, nips in the month of August, and it came up re- Sir,--Having planted a vineyard to the extent of and affords an excellent shelter from the north west markably well. The field has not since then been six acres, I feel much interest in the communication wiņds for two or three squares. manured, and the crops of hay are very good and made by Mr. Bosley, in your paper of the 25th of I have not propagated any from the seed, and clean. I always sow two bushels of orchard grass last month, in which he says, "the vine raised from know not whether, like the thorn seed, they require seed to the acre, or as nearly so as can be ascertain-the seed will last 100 years, while those from the mulching to bring them up. If they do, I appreed; this quantity is by some farmers deemed too slip will last only 10 to 12 years.” Now I propose hend scalding water used on them, or on the seed of much, but I am satisfied of the contrary, for it can- to contest this declaration, by respectfully suggest the thorn, would be not only the most expeditious, not well be too thick; and if a smaller quantity is ing a few ideas contrary to his opinion. There can but probably as good a mode as. any. to swell the sown, it does not cover the ground, but grows into be no better mode of doing this than by reference hard rind that encloses the kernel, and cause the large tussucks, supposed by many to be its natural to what experience teaches on the subject. I assert germ to shoot. This method I have tried with the propensity, but occasioned in fact from being too that I planted cuttings of vines more than 20 years hard seed of the locust, with abundant success, andthinly sown. The seed being remarkably light, re- ago, and that they are now in a thrifty, flourishing have also extended that plan to old and dry walnuts quires a calm day and great nicety in laying off the condition, and on as level a piece of land as any in and hickorynuts, and the buckeye,or horse chestnut, ground. You cannot well-make a cast of more than this country. There are other vines within my with equal success. One thing must not be omitfour feet; therefore I have three stakes made, four knowledge, now in a thrifty state, and which, as I ted—As the germ by this means is pushed, the seed, feet each, and plant them in a row, to guide the am credibly informed, were cuttings planted more when taken from the water, must be immediately gowing, and take a boy to remove the stakes, mea- than 20 years ago, and being situate upon as flat covered in moist earth, which must not be suffered suring the distance by their own length; and having land as that upon which mine are planted, of course to get dry till the seedlings rise. sown the field in one direction, I always cross sow they are as liable to decline from this, the chief it in the same manner. But Mr. Sinclair has an ex- cause, as I conceive, if not the only natural cause, [Those who have witnessed the exertions, as well cellent machine upon one wheel and moved by one of the early decline of the vine. man, which will sow 12 feet in breadth at one time,
as the success which has attended them, of the
It is of much importance that Mr. Bosley's idea of and very accurately, although it also requires a cross the carly decline of the vine from cuttings should
gentleman to whom the following paragraph alsowing for two bushels to the acre. If two quarts be controverted: the sooner the better-for an early
ludes, will join their commendations to those of of red clover seed is added to each acre, it makes opposition to a misconception upon any important
the writer.) an addition to the hay which by many is much pre- subject will oftentimes elicit facts, which may prove
From Noali's National Advocate. ferred, and I think it an improvement, more parti
JESSE BUEL, Esq., of Albany, has been elected a cularly as they are in season to cut at the same
* This is, indeed, an important problem
We will corresponding member of the Horticultural Society time.
see if the books contain any thing on this particular of London. We are pleased to find this gentleman Orchard grass is a very early, as also a late grass, subject, and will thank our correspondents, if they so honourably rewarded for his persevering and sucand ought to be cut for hay while in blossom; if meet with any thing satisfactory in regard to it, in the cessful exertions in this useful branch of science.suffered to grow, longer, it becomes harsh and coarse. course of their reading, to point us to it.--Ed: Mr. Buel's devotion to agricultural and horticultural
RAISING FROM THE SEED-NOT APPROVED.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.
pursuits, has rendered him one of their most impor- form into a solid web, so as to shut themselves cessary to fatten them, I believe, does not exceed tant auxiliaries in our country His report to the closely within.
ten days. state legislature, when a member in 1823, on an The larvæ, or worms enclosed in the balls, that agricultural school and experimental and pattern are intended for propagation, cut their way out of farm, is replete with sound argument, practical ob- the silken cell, and escape from their own prison, in INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. servations, and ingenious deductions. He has added the form of a butterfly, with beautiful variegated to our choice of fruits in the last year, several of wings. White paper is placed under them, on Knight's new varieties, by importing them from which the egg is deposited. One butterfly will deLondon, and has this year received, we understand, posite 2000 eggs. These papers with the eggs, are Newport, Campbell county, Ky. April 2, 1825. more than fifty new varieties from the London Hor- laid away in a chest or desk, until the following Dear Sir, ticultural Society. Mr. Buel's farm and garden lie spring, when the process described above is again The obligations I am under to Ohio and Kenabout two miles from the city of Albany, on the repeated. “O Lord, how manifold are thy works! tucky do not at all abate that ardour I have long great western tirnpike; a spot on which was not a in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is experienced for the prosperity of other states in the foot of ground cultivated seven years ago. It has full of thy riches."**
west; I mean Ilinois and Indiana. Though the now become the resort of taste and science, and After this interesting insect has furnished the fine youngest, they are not the least deserving. If their richly rewards their votaries, who visit this hospi- material, the tow is picked off the balls, which are internal resources do not permit them at this time table retreat.
thrown into hot water, and a stick is passed among to compete with the state of Ohio in so laudable an them, to which the ends of the threads attach them- enterprise, they have been casting their thoughts
selves. For sewing silk, forty of them are laid to- around them, but not as idle spectators. They are RURAL ECONOMY.
gether and reeled. The thread, thus composed of looking ahead, and are also disposed to meet future forty fibres, is twisted hard on a large spinning- events. Possessing, most unquestionably, all the
wheel, then doubled and twisted again, and wrought natural advantages of connecting the waters of the THE CULTIVATION OF THE WHITE
into skeins. The whole process of manufacture is lakes with those of the Ohio, for two or three years MULBERRY AND THE RAISING OF completed by scouring in the same manner as wool- past their plans have been devised for the accomSILK WORMS,
len yarn, to detach the glutinous substance, which plishment of this object. This will be the connecRecommended as very profitable in the United States.
the worm employs in the fabrication of its thread. tion of the two pavigable points of the Maume and
It must be remarked, that the black mulberry, Wabash rivers. To meet this event, the legislature ABOUT five years ago, Wm. Gillespie, Esq. of the (morus nigra;) a native of the
United States, will of Illinois have already incorporated a company for town of Montgomery, Orange county, (N.Y.) sowed not answer the purpose so well
. The silk manu- the purpose, by an act passed i3th Jan. 1825. Seeing seed for a nursery of the white mulberry (Morus alba) factured from its leaf is said to be of a very inferior that the policy pursued by the legislatures of New for the purpose of the culture of the silk worm. The quality.
York and Ohio had excluded individual enterprise ground occupied by the nursery is about four
square Mr. Gillespie bad a premium of $8 awarded him from their system of canalling; that their resources rods. This small lot yielded, last summer, 175 at the anniversary of the Agricultural Society of at this time being inadequate, they have found this skeins of sewing silk, rivalling in softness, strength, Orange county, 1822.
channel open, and invited capitalists to participate and beauty, the best imported specimens of the The Legislature of New York have offered a pre- in the benefits resulting from such an enterprize. same article. These skeins with a sufficient quan- mium for the planting of white mulberry trees. The act of incorporation to which I have referred, tity of tow for a pair of stockings, would command Specimens of the ball
, the tow, and the sewing as far as the state of Illinois embraces the Wabash riin market $10. The whole labour expended in the silk, have been deposited with the editor of the ver, has invested in a navigation company, the capital culture, Mr. Gillespie estimates at $2—making the Evangelical Witness, who will take pleasure in stock of 10,000 shares of $100 each, (one million) produce of four square rods $8. One acre culti- showing them to any of his friends
who may have with power to enter upon any land in or adjoining vated in the same way would yield $320, besides the curiosity to examine them. [Evang. Witness. the Wabash river belonging to the people or inthe expense of the labour.
habitants of said state, so far as may be necessary Farmers might clothe their wives and daughters
for opening a canal around the several fulls, or lowin silks of good quality at less expense than it now
PLANTATION GRIST MILLS.
ering the channels of the same; and also to cut requires to clothe them in fine cottons. It is esti- Sir,—It was with great pleasure I read a commu- dams, and loeks, aqueducts, and other works, for mated that $5,000 worth of sewing silk is sold annu- nication on the score of Plantation Grist Mills, in a the improvement of said navigation; and all such ally in Orange county alone, and the whole sales of recent Farmer. They are really much wanted, and lands, on being appraised and paid for, to become the article in the state of New York may probably I hope that some of the Philadelphia iron-masters the property of the company. This company is be estimated at $150,000. All this would be saved will see to the affair, and by uniting the saw mill, also authorized to open a lock and canal navigation to our country by the extension of this very profita- the grist mill and cotton gin, (for I apprehend it around all such rapids and other places on said ble branch of husbandry so as to supply the home could be all done with one principal wheel,) achieve river, and to dam the same for that purpose, &c. consumption. Much of the labour, too, can be per- the desired end. A gentleman in this vicinity has a It may be worthy of remark that the bed of this formed by small children, who would otherwise be mill with cast iron cogs fitted for a grist mill and river, for about 400 miles, forms a natural canal; idle, and thus early habits of industry would be cotton gin, It works well with two wheels, and that there are some falls well calculated for water created. gives him 20 barrels of meal in the day..
works, which in this country is exceedingly valuaThe whole process is simple, and a knowledge of
The most desirable thing would be a drawing and ble, and requires but moderate capital to improve it easily acquired. After the middle of May, the wood cut, with scale and bill of timber, &c. &c. the whole to the portage point, near fort Wayne; egg of the silk worm is brought from the bureau,
AMPHICON perhaps 60 or $100,000 would do it. and exposed to the warmth of the air, but not to the S. Carolina, April 7, 1825.
This act of incorporation runs for thirty years, rays of the sun. Early in June, the term of incu
and then not to be dissolved but by paying to the bation expires, and the small silk worms make their
company the amount of capital which they have appearance. They are now to be fed by mulberry
actually expended, together with ten per cent inteleaves with which they are supplied twice a day
rest per annum thereon, &c. It also provides for the leaves to be scattered in the enclosure where
From a highly respectable Officer of the Navy. the state of Indiana joining in said act. This was they are kept. m about six weeks they attain their When in Barcelona, I learnt from a gentleman pending in the legislature of Indiana, and postponfull growth, when they are of a beautiful golden there, that the usual
way of fattening turkies, was ed until the next session, with a view of obtaining colour. A small quantity of leaves supplies them by feeding them with English walnuts, unbroken. from Congress the land route betiseen. Maume and for the first five weeks, the sixth week, they require I tried the experiment, afterwards on several, with Wabash rivers, which lies altogether in Indiana. an abundant supply, Mr. Gillespie informs us, that entire success-giving one the first day, two the This grant they have, I presume, obtained
. Howduring this week, when a stranger visits their apart- second, and three the third; never exceeding the ever, the Minois charter, even exclusive of this, an ment, they leave off eating, raise their horns, and latter quantity. They are often given, however, as honourable Judge writes me, “is the best in the give plain indications that they know him to be many as six walnuts a day, and ought to have no world!" But Indiana will, no doubt, co-operate and strange.
other kind of food while fattening in this way. I give it efficiency. After feeding about six weeks they quit eating examined the craws of several, and found the wal. The directors of this company, under this exceland are prepared to commence spinning Oak or nuts which had been given them the day previous lent charter, (which is now before me,) will, I exwalnut leaves, dried in the sun so as to be curled, to their being killed, almost entirely digested. The pect, open: books for the subscription in the cities are now thrown into their enclosure: they lodge in walnuts must be forced down the throat, which is of the eastern states. No payments will be re the folds of the leaf and begin to spin from their not so difficult as may be imagined. The time ne- quired until actual operations have commenced. own bowels—first the tow by which they attach
I am, dear sir, your obed't servant, their web to the leaf, then the thread, which they
* Psalm ciy. 24.
Niles' R. Nal. Int.]
TH. S. HINDE.
GOOD FOR FATTENING TURKIES.