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QUERE-AS TO THE PRESERVATION OF PLUM TREES

ON HOVEN SHEEP.

and other seeds, and roots, which have been here

Poplar Grove, Queen Anne's county, cultivated with profit. Nor is this all: the informa

11th April, 1825. tion thus obtained from abroad, and the experience

Sycamore Farm, March 24th, 1825. of practical husbandmen at home, placed at its dis- flattering for the time of year, and taking my crop to inquire, what remedy (if any) there is to prevent

The crop of wheat, generally, in this county looks Through your valuable journal I would beg leave posal, have been extensively and freely distributed, altogether I have decidedly the best prospect I ever the dropping of plums before ripe. I have three with acknowledged benefit. These means, various had. Whether the “grand destroyer" is yet to very fine looking plum trees of natural fruit in my and efficient as they may seem, would have been in make his ravages, time only will disclose. a great degree inoperative, but for the salubrious weather continues seasonable till the 1st of May, ly until a few weeks before ripening, when they all

If the garden, which for several years have borne regularclimate of Pennsylvania, which, co-operating with his incursions will be put at defiance. Our season fall

; and

from their size and appearance promise to industrious habits, has formed a hardy race, whose is at least three weeks in advance of what it usually be something fine, as the three trees have never physical and moral faculties, generously exercised, is by the 11th of April. have increased the agricultural riches of the state.

ripened one solitary plum, to give an opportunity

In haste, but respectfully, yours. Corroborative of this idea, it is believed that the

of judging of their quality. I have tried some remeparallelogram bounded

dies recommended as infallible, such as hanging on North-west, by the Blue-ridge,

Versailles, Ky., 28th March, 1825. old iron, gravelling round the root, and bruising the North-east, by the Delaware,

We have had the most pleasant winter in Ken- bark, without any good effect. Any remedy for the South-east by the Delaware, and the canal which tucky that I have witnessed in 45 years; indeed we above evil would at least favour is about to connect it with the Susquehanna, and have had none like it, except the winter 1780, '81,

A LOVER OF FRUIT. South-west, by the Susquehanna, contains a

which succeeded what has ever since been called (We hope the inquiry of our correspondent will greater proportion of arable land of superior quali

the hard winter. There was more snow in the soon be answered through the Farmer.] ty, and a greater population on a square mile, than winter '87, but perhaps less hard weather. We any equal extent' in the Atlantic states; whilst it have not had more than three inches of snow the cannot be doubted, that the same region enjoys ad- past winter: and we have had turnip greens since

HORTICULTURE.
vantages in mineral products, streams, &c. which Christmas; some of my cabbages has stood out
few other sections of our country can boast.
all the winter and are now going to seed.

THE CHEROKEE ROSE.
AGRICULTURAL QUERIES.

[Of the thousands of cuttings of the Cherokee PROSPECT OF CROPS.

Rose of South Carolina, distributed gratuitously, by

Mr. Rowan, we have very few reports. We had the Richmond, 5th April, 1825.

Fredericksburg, 8th April, 1825. pleasure to see it growing most luxuriantly at PlimTO THE EDITOR,

The Bakewell sheep you bought for me two years himmon, in Talbot county, in October last, on a rich

ago Times are getting much better with us, and I hope proved my flock 100 per cent. "I unfortunately lost gratified with its appearance of health and prospect

have turned out remarkably well

, and have im- and rather moist spot of ground. We were highly your subscribers in Virginia will increase greatly - the old tup and three of my ewes a few days ago, from of continued vigorous growth. The branches were The new zeal and capital employed in the American eating too freely of clover, into a fine field of which very long, and seemed to have grown very rapidly, mines, will produce double the annual supply of specie we have had for many years. This will, of

they were turned the weather being moist and but inclined to spread on the ground.
warm. Have any of your correspondents experi-

It is due to Mr. Rowan, and will be acceptable to itself, cheapen the value of money; and cause a rise enced a similar loss from the same cause? and is the public to publish even the following brief notice in the price of property and labour. To this cause there a cure when attacked?—They were in fine of the success of these plants, being all we have readd the new policy which Great Britain seems disposed to adopt, in withdrawing her restrictive mea- died in 8 or 10 hours from the time they showed the writer's name is omitted.]

order-evidently swelled with excess of food, and ceived, and this not being intended for publication, sures, and the effect must be felt most seriously in

Mr. Wm. H. Tilghman, who is particularly atthe southern states. The duty on tobacco, hereto- symptoms of uneasiness. sore nearly $1 per lb. is to be reduced to 50 cents. would doubtless have given relief.]

[I'he flexible tube to be bought in the shops, tentive to whatever he undertakes, has growing a

very beautiful hedge, on the north side of his garThis will open a new source of consumption to the

den, composed of a row of cedars and a line of Chearticle. Many who have not before been able to in

rokees one foot from them on their south front. dulge the use of it, will now do so; and there will ON PREVENTING LAND FROM WASHING.

The long arms of the nondescript have certainly be less trick in its manufacture in Great Britain.— I should also wish information on another subject, manifested a fondness for embracing and entwining The price of the article has never borne any propor- if any of your correspondents can give it—the means the branches of the cedars, and the combination of tion to the duty on it. At the moment that this nat- of preventing lands on the banks of our large rivers these two beautiful evergreens is rapidly forming a tering prospect is presented to the tobacco planter, washing away and caving in. I have lost annually very ornamental enclosure. a new source of agricultural profit opens on the for the last ten years at least half an acre of land on You probably observed that though the growth husbandman of Virginia and North Carolina, in the the Potomac, where the river is seven miles wide, you saw was vigorous, many of the arms having article of cotton. All the land in both states, here- and the bank thirty feet high-it is a north-east ex- ilung off 6, 8, and 10 feet, they evidenced a dispotofore devoted to tobacco, but suitable to cotton, posure—and I should prefer some trees that would sition to trail too much, and are too low yet for a will be put in the latter article, as most profita- shelter it from these winds, as well as keep up the good fence. This idea of a middle line of cedars ble and less troublesome. The increased use of cot- banks.

with a guard row of Cherokees on both sides, if ton fabrics of every description, and the annual in

the Cherokees can be prevented from strangling crease of the population of the world, are, in my poor

ON THE RUST OF GOOSEBERRIES.

the cedars to death, may be useful. The cedars opinion, at least equal to any increase in the production of the article. So that the price must re

Mrs. is in the cultivation of two varieties will give support to the rose, and the requisite

height to the fence; the strong thorns of the roses main for a long time sufficient to compensate the la- of gooseberries—the one in its fruit, fair, smooth,

would completely guard the cedars, and the combibours of the planter. So long as the policy of the go- and in all respects of easy management, but most

nation form an impervious, most useful, and beautivernment will even protect the fair intercourse of the pertinaciously unproductive. The other, vice versa, ful hedge. solong may they rely on their own industry and re- rust (and bidding defiance to every method short of sonre's for competency, if not for wealth. But a manual agency to remove the evil) as to render it

RURAL ECONOMY. solicitude, too paternal, on the part of the govern- of less value than its almost barren neighbour, the ment, is much to be dreaded. All we ask is, let us amazing fecundity of the latter to the contrary notalone; protect the weak against the strong; and make withstanding.

ON THE QUALITIES OF STUCCO, knaves pay their debts. The freemen of this coun

Any information which it may be in your power try are not chiLDREN, that they are to be fed and to afford on this subject, will be thankfully received clothed by their protectors and guardians. A po- by both Mrs. and yours, &c.

Northampton, 28th March, 1825. litical and natural guardian are two different things. [On receipt of the above, we took a ride to the Sir,

I took up my pen but to ask you to send your garden of P. E. Thomas, who at one time imported Having noticed in your city several buildings of paper to a friend; and you see I am running off at from England 60 kinds of gooseberries. He shewed brick, which were covered with a composition made random into political economy. The theme is too us that the fruit was most rusty where it was most to represent stone, the object of this letter is to ininviting, and I deny myself a pleasure when I cut exposed to the north, and less so in proportion as its quire of you, if it resists the weather, and if it is more short reflections which might be less acceptable to aspect was more southern. We shall be glad to or less expensive than the painting of a brick build: you.

have further information founded on experience.] ling with oil, &c.

AS USED IN BALTIMORE.

Should you be of the opinion that it will resisible and interesting information upon railways. The raised in the centre, and declining at both ends of our northern frosts, I would thank you to inform me agent of the society, who will depart for Europe in each rail to add to its strength.* if it requires a particular artist to perform the March, will have particular instructions to examine They are somewhat broader at both ends, to labour, and if so, if he can be obtained in your city. and report on the subject of railways, and collect make them lie more solid on blocks of stone from Which will much oblige.

all the facts which may be necessary to enable our 9 to 12 inches in thickness, and more than a foot (Not being practically familiar with the subject, the most valuable internal improvements now in use. which these blocks of stone are laid, is beaten down

fellow citizens to resort understandingly to one of square in base and surface. The ground, upon we referred the above to Mr. W. F. Small, a most

MATHEW CAREY, so as to give them a solid bed. The iron rails are respectable and highly promising architect and artist

JOSEPH HEMPHILL, bedded level on the blocks, and a hole about 1 1-4 of our city, from whom we received the following

RICHARD PETERS, JR. inch in diameter is made 6 inches, deep in the cenreply. The whole matter being one of public in

STEPHEN DUNCAN, tre of each block. The hole is filled with a plug of terest, we give it to our readers.]

WM. STRICKLAND, oak. The rails have a square notch formed in the Baltimore, April 2, 1825.

Acting Committee. centre at both ends of each of the rails, about half Dear Sir, GERARD Ralston, Cor. Sec’ry.

an inch on the top, and somewhat narrower on the In reply to your note of this morning, relative to

under side. The ends of the rails are placed togethe character of our mode of stucco plastering, (cal

Feb. 22, 1825.

ther. The notches in each form one square hole, led sometimes rough casting,) I am enabled from The Highland Society of Edinburgh offered for two

which being placed over the plug of wood in the experience to say, that where the materials have

centre of the stone, a nail is driven into it, the head

successive years a premium or reward of a piece of of which exactly fills up the hole in the ends of the been selected and used with proper attention, I plate valued at fifty guineas, for the best essay, mo- two rails; the holes are countersunk, and the heads have never known it to sustain injury from the frosts, del, or drawing, which might tend to the advance of the nails are flush with the top of the rail

. and am of opinion, that our climate, from its sudden ment of the Railway system. Various essays were changes and excessive heats, is less favorable to presented, but none deemed worthy of the premium. feet wide, being filled with broken stone up to the

The space, or "horse track between the rails is 4 stucco plastering than the colder and more regular All, however, being possessed of considerable merit, sole of the rails; but on the outside it is nearly to climate of New England-observing also, that it the amount of the premium was distributed among the top of the flanges. This is a double railway: should never be deferred in use later than July, or the several writers. 1st of August, and the earlier in the season (avoid

and the distance between the two ways or roads is in the frosts) the better, that it may be thoroughly

Mr. Robert Stevenson, civil engineer, at the re- equal to the width of the road. A horse may travel dry before overtaken by frosts. Our mode of stuc- quest of the Highland Society, has selected an his- in the middle space with a wheel on the inner range coing in imitation of marble was first introduced in torical account of railroads, together with certain of each of the roads. Richmond, Va. by Mr. John Gill, (a New England modes suggested for elevating loads from one level The rail now generally introduced is called the man) by whom it has been also introduced in Bal- to another.

edge-rail, and consists of a bar of cast iron about timore. It was he who plastered the Unitarian

He remarks, that the government has, with the 1 1-2 inch in breadth for the seat of the wheel, and Church,* the Exchange, and Masonic Hall, inside most enlightened policy, advanced one-half the ne- from 3 to 4 feet in length, and of a depth corresand out, and is now engaged in plastering the Bal- cessary funds for opening roads in the north of ponding with the weight to be carried. These bars timore Athenæum, which, I flatter myself, will do Scotland, while the landed proprietors have contri- are set up on edge, instead of being laid tlat, and him much credit. Should your friend inquire of buted the other.

are therefore much stronger, weight for weight, than him further, you are safe in recommending on my rivalled in the formation of her waterways or nu- from the great disadvantage arising from the accu

The wealth of England enables her to stand un- the flat laid bars. The edge rail is altogether free responsibility as a man in every particular worthy of patronage. Yours, respectfully,

merous canals. By these the horse load has been mulation of mud, sand, or gravel, on the flat or con

much extended, and the conveyance of merchan-cave tracks, which has occasioned much interruption WM. F. SMALL.

dize greatly facilitated. In Scotland and Wales, to the carriage wheels; for it is elevated 2 or 3 N. B. Stucco is done by Gill (in Baltimore) inclu- her less wealthy neighbours have endeavoured to inches above the level of the pathway, and presents sive of materials, for 40 cents per square foot, ex- supply this want, by the construction of numerous at the same time so acute a surface, that hardly a clusive of scaffolding.

W. F. S.

railways, which are, perhaps, better adapted than single grain of sand can remain upon it. It has canals to the undulating surface of their respective been considered a great inducement to give the flat

countries; while they are more economical, and rails a preference to the edge ones, in consequence INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

more generally applicable to the ordinary purposes of the suitableness of their wheels for travelling of commercial traffic.

either on the rails or upon common well kept hurd RAILWAYS.-SECOND EDITION.

Lord Keeper Guilford in 1676, thus describes the roads. In an account given of the Surrey railway,

wagons and railways:-“The manner of the car- which is 26 miles in length, it is said the rail-wheels Philadelphia, March 22, 1825. riage is by laying rails of timber from the colliery are 2 feet 5 inches high, the fellowes or rims of the The acting committee of “The Pennsylvania So- to the river, exactly straight and parallel; and bulky wheels 2 inches broad, and nearly as thick, with 12 ciety for the Promotion of Internal Improvement,” carts are made with four rollers fitting these rails, spokes; the sharp angles are rounded off, so that the have been, from the formation of the society, parti- whereby the carriage is so easy, that one horse will wheels are capable of being used without damage cularly desirous to lay before the public correct in- draw down four or five chaldron of coals, and is an on any common hard road, a very great advantage formation on the subject of Railways. The publi- immense benefit to the coal merchants." attending the modern use of railways. The axles cations of Europe, and informed individuals, were The method of bringing coals from the wall face of the wheels are fixed at 2 feet 7 inches distance; applied to for this purpose; but it was found that to the pit bottom, was greatly improved by the in- the wagons are 7 feet 9 inches long, 4 feet 5 inches although many facts were obtained, valuable and troduction of cast-iron rail-roads below ground, in wide, and 2 feet 4 inches bigh; and the weight of important in themselves, yet no connected view place of wooden ones. For this improvement the the wagon is 2 1-4 tons. This railway is a double could be given of them, and that many differences mining interest is indebted to Mr. John Curr, who one, and the inclination nowhere exceeds 1 in 120, of opinion prevailed, which, at our distance from introduced them about the year 1776, into the duke or 1 inch in 10 feet. the works to which they apply, could not be cor- of Norfolk's works, near Sheffield.

The difficulties presented to the draught in ascendrectly estimated.

The wooden railways of the present day are com- ing steep places in roads, are little, compared with Under these circumstances, the proposed publi- posed of pieces of timbers called sleepers, about 6 the numerous obstructions that are continually incation by the committee of the society, has been feet long and 6 inches square, laid across the road, terposed by small stones and gravel before the heretofore withheld; although, the attention of the at a distance of 18 or 24 inches from each other; wheels, on even the best made roads. 'The draught legislature and the public having been directed to and upon these sleepers, other pieces of timber, in the most level road yet made, may be said to be railways, the desire of the committee to make the called rails, of 4 or 5 inches square, are laid in two a continual uphill work. Indeed, were it not for the society useful to the community by a communica- parallel lines, 4 feet distant from each other. velocity acquired by a carriage in motion, the obtion in relation to them, was much increased. With- The wagon wheels are constructed with a groove structions presented by an intervening stone, of in a few days the means of accomplishing these to correspond with the rails, and run with little fric- small size, would be altogether insurmountable. It purposes have been obtained by the acquisition of a tion. The friction in some instances is materially is not surprising that a horse on a railway should be recent valuable work, issued by the Highland Society lessened by covering the wooden rails with mallea- able to draw so much more than on the best made of Edinburgh—and the following paper, carefully ble or cast iron.

gravel road or causeway. And as the very essence prepared from this work, will furnish much valua- The railway between Kilmarnock and Troon harbour is laid with flat plate rails of 3 feet in length

*See figure 1, p. 30. * The plastering in the Unitarian Church, especially and 4 inches broad, weighing about 4 lbs. each; where the flanges are cast upon the rails, for the di

† These wheels are only adapted to the plate rail, of the columns supporting the orchestra, is certainly the having a led. e or flange rising perpendicularly onrection of the wagons; but the flanges must be upon most beautiful work of that kind we have ever seen. the inner side of the rail about 4 inches, which is the wheels in the case of the edged railway.

of the railway principle is to present a uniform track is more than one-half of the load. The wheels might this interesting subject, many of which have had the to the wheels, unencumbered with obstructions of be constructed sufficiently strong at less than one- sanction of experience, that the form of the rail has any kind, therefore the more these circumstances are half the weight. They might be made of wood, 25 been greatly improved, by adopting the edge-rail in understood, the more general will be the desire to inches in diameter, with an iron tire, which could place of the flanged or flat-rail, even to doubling the bave railways extended in every quarter.

be renewed as required, while the rest of the wheel effect, a horse drawing 10 tons on the one, as easy In England and Wales the plate rails, with stone remained perfect. Cast iron wheels are very liable as 5 on the other. props, seem to have become general; but experience to snap or break: and when any part of them wears 2nd. That substituting malleable iron, instead of has since shown, that the edge rail possesses many down unequally, the whole must be thrown aside. cast iron, offers an additional improvement, as it is advantages over the plate or fat track; and mallea- It has been suggested, as a great desideratum, to considerably cheaper, and less apt to get out of ble iron is coming every day into use for edge rails. adapt the wheels of common carriages to railroads, shape.

The usual mode of laying railways is to place the and vice versa, adapting the wheels of railroads to 3rd. That constructing wheels of wood rather than upper surface of the rails a small distance above the the common road; but however desirable this ac-of cast metal, would be an improvement with reslevel of the horse track. The consequence is, that commodation of circumstances might be, it does not pect to price and durability, but more especially with the cresting or stuffing on each side is continually appear in any view of the subject to be very prac- respect to weight. coming in contact with the wheels, to the great dis- ticable. The loose manner in which the wheels of 4th. That rail-wagons cannot be well constructed advantage of the draught. As these earthy matters carts or common carriages are fitted to their axles, to suit an ordinary road or street. cannot be supposed of the smallest use for keeping could not be made to coincide with the accuracy 5th. That smal wagons are better adapted to railthe rails in their places, it is much better to lay the required in the railway system, and which indeed ways than large ones, whilst, neither the weight nor rails so as to be wholly above the level of the horse track. is essential to its best effects:--the best mode of the cost, per ton, would be augmented from a greater Such a construction gives additional facilities for overcoming this difficulty would be, to have the number being required. drainage; and may be termed a skeleton railway, body of the wagon unconnected with the axles, so Some of the most celebrated engineers have from the whole structure being exposed to view. thať it could be removed with its load by means of a given it as their decided opinion that railways are This description of railway has been applied in crane, from the railway carriage to the common cart preferable to small canals. Railways may be conpractice with much advantage in several situations, or wagon, which will perhaps under all circumstan- structed in districts where canals are wholly inapparticularly at Lord Elgin's extensive coal and lime ces be found the most effective in practice. plicable. The subject is far from being yet exhaustworks.

Admitting the great utility of an interchange of ed, and it certainly deserves every possible consideThe wagons on cast iron railroads have not re- carriages to and from the common road, there is ration. There is no undertaking that would lead ceived the improvements of which they are capa- still another desideratum in the railway system, that to more extensive and permanent improvements. ble; but with their present disadvantages, the fol- of raising the wagons from one level to another, so as List of the amount of ladings on the following lowing facts will evince the great saving of animal to admit, in an undulating tract of country, of the railways in Scotland, drawn by a single horse. The force to which railways have given rise: power of the horse being uniformly exerted upon a Earl of Eglinton's at Ardrossan, å

oncave iron First, with a declivity of 1 1-4 inch per yard, one level or slightly inclined road; and although various track, from 3 to 6 tons, the distance of about half a horse takes downwards three wagons, each contain- plans and suggestions have been made applicable to mile. The Duke of Portland's, at the Troon, 8 miles, ing 2 tons;

the local situation of respective districts, they are a flat iron track or plate-rail, generally 4 tons 13 cwt. Secondly, with a rise of 1 6-10 of an inch per more or less objectionable on account of the applica- Messrs. Taylor's, at Ayr, an edge railtrack, commonyard, one horse can take 2 tons upwards;

tion of various machines, moved by the powers of ly 8 tons, sometimes 10, about a mile in length. Mr. Thirdly, with 8 feet rise in 66 yards, which is 1 steam, water, wind and animal power, in a perpen-Laing's, an edge railtrack, generally 8 tons 16 cwt. 5-10 of an inch per yard, one horse takes 2 tons up- dicular lift, or upon an inclined plane; and again, it sometimes 11 tons; including in all these cases the wards.

is hardly to be expected that any single plan can be weight of the wagons. The Earl of Eglinton's and Fourthly, on the Penrhyn railway, being the same found to possess a universal character of practical Messrs. Taylors' railways are on a dead level. The slope as above, two horses draw downwards four utility.

Duke of Portland's on a descent of 8 feet in a mile. wagons, containing one ton of slate each.*

It would appear from the foregoing remarks upon Mr. Laing's is on various lines of draught. Fifthly, with a slope of 55 feet per mile, one

FIG. 1. horse takes from 12 to 15 tons downwards, and 4 tons upwards, together with the empty wagons;

Sixthly, at Ayr, one horse draws on a level 5 wagons, each containing one ton of coals;

Seventhly, on the Surrey railway, one horse on a declivity of one inch in 10 feet, can draw 30 quarters of wheat.

In the present form of the coal wagon, the whole lading operates like a wedge to burst the sides of the wagon asunder, which has led to an expensive

B

B В mode lining them with plate iron, which adds considerably to the weight, increasing the burden

FIG. 2. in the same proportion. The form should be reversed, making them broader at bottom than at the top. It is not necessary that the difference should be great. A single inch would be sufficient to relieve the wagon from a constant pressure upon its sides. The wagon should not be made to contain more than 24 cwt.; for the benefit to be derived from having the lading distributed in many wagons, rather than in a few, is so great, that the system already introduced; of having as many wagons for as many tons, ought to be adhered to; for the lighter the lading, the less pressure on the rails, the less racking and wearing, both of the rail and wagon.

The wheels generally used are 27 inches in diameter, and are formed wholly of cast iron, and weigh

B

B 1 1-2 cwt. each, 4 of which, together with their axles, weigh from 7 to 8 cwt. being nearly equal to the whole weight of the body of the wagon; and

FIG. 3. the whole weight, including the wheels and body,

С

C At Penrhyn railway in Wales, the horses go three

D in a team, and generally take down about 20 wagons, containing each one ton of Slates, exclusive of their feed, and a barrel of water for wetting the rails, to

D

D render the draught more easy.

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C

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Communications on hand from Agricola and CurFIG. 4.

wen are withheld, and will not be published in toti

dem verbis; though, to close the controversy, we
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C

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shall give the substance of both in our next, with

further remarks of our own-for which we have now A

no room, and very little inclination. The withdrawal А

of the name of one gentleman, from whom we were

wont to receive many good offices and communica-
B
B
B

tions, has already grown out of this controversy. B

We care not a farthing for the loss of one name, or
one dozen, or ten dozen names, in comparison with

the mortification of our journal being the cause of
C
C
C

exciting any ill blood, or wounding any gentleman's
feelings. The American Farmer was not projected
with any regard to the politicks, or merely to the
number of patrons it might receive—we value the

length of its subscription list at a farthing rushlight,
B
B
B
B

when put in competition with the satisfaction and

the honour of dispensing by the light of its columns, FIG, 5.

solid and lasting benefit to the best interests and to the

most virtuous class of society.
EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.
Fig. 1.

common bars of iron are used without any altera- THE MARYLAND SOCIETY FOR INTERNAL IM

tion. A, is the profile of a flat railway, with the flange; the

PROVEMENT, recently organized in Baltimore, at

BBBB, the stone piers. perpendicular portion of a triangular shape, at right

their meeting on the 5th inst., resolved to institute

CCC, is the bar. angles with the horizontal surface A, on which the

an “EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT,” to be placed under wheels revolve. This form is given to the flange for

D, is the joint, wooden plug, and nail.

the control of J. S. Skinner, Fielding Lucas, jr., and the purpose of strength.

Fig. 5.

J. H. B. Latrobe.
BB, stone piers or props, showing the wooden plug
Is a profile of the improved railway. The reversed

They further recommended the publication of a or nail driven therein, to secure the rail in the proper arch, or springing arch, as at AAA, renders the iron Quarterly Journal, to be entitled the “AMERICAN position.

bar stronger than the same quantity used in fig. 4, in Journal of Internal IMPROVEMENTS,” and have C, a section of the flat rail, the dots representing the form of a bar of uniform thickness. The arches invited J. S. Skinner, Editor of the American Farwheels moving on the horizontal surface C. The per- are all reversed, or all similar to the centre; but to mer, to edit and publish it—and appointed a compendicular portion is the section of the flange.

comprise them in one plate, they are represented as mittee to confer with him on the subject.
Fig. 2.
differing in the same railway.

.

The proposed journal is to be conducted on broad Is a section of a car or wagon; and a section of the They must be sunk to a depth

sufficient to protect them national principles, and is intended as a Repository edge railway for wbich it is designed.

for valuable essays, reports of committees, and of from the action of the frost. AAA, the surface of the earth. The central portion,

They may be elevated to the height of two or three commissioners, and boards of civil engineers, &c. A, is the path for the horses. It is sometimes raised feet above the surface of the soil, to protect the rail appointed by national and state authorities, relatabove, or sunk below, the surface of the ground adjoin- from the snow. It will also improve the line of ing to railways and turnpike roads—the construcing the railway. draught.

tion of bridges and canals—the working of mines N. B. By omitting the interior wheels, (the flanges,) and substituting a spike, attached to the axle of the wheels glide, being one inch and a half in thickness, to the lighting and warming of factories and public

In this rail, the upper portion, CCC, on which the of coal and iron—the application of steam and gas car, which can come in contact in a agle point only, the under portion, AAA, is reduced to three-fourths buildings, and the propulsion of machinery and vemuch friction will be prevented.

of an inch. The strength of this form permits this hicles for the transportation of passengers and merFig. 3.

with perfect safety; thus exhibiting the maximum of
strength, with the minimum of material.

chandise. It is, in short, intended to serve as a Is a plan, or bird's eye view, of the edge railway. It has not been deemed necessary to exhibit an en- complete history of the rise and progress of public CCCC, the edge rail.

graving of the convex or of the concave rails; in these works and internal improvements in all the states DDDD, joints resting on the stone props.

no flanges are required, The wheels of the cars are —and to promote the execution of them on the Fig. 4.

constructed with convex or concave rims, which, ac- most economical plans.

curately corresponding to the curves cast on the rails, The price of the Journal will be $5 per annum Is a profile and section of an edge railway, in which prevent the cars from deviating.

It will be sent gratis to every member of the Mary

land Society for Internal Improvement, and every fine beef especially, to see in a Philadelphia paper subscriber to it, will, upon being ballotted for, beTHE FARMER. the account of Mr. Barney's very fine heifer, as ap- come a member of said society.

peared by weight and age, and moreover felt a little 'The Pennsylvania Society for Internal Improve

proud that she was derived from Maryland stock, ment, being made acquainted with the proceedings BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, APRIL 15, 1825.

(Gen Ridgely's,) and we lost no time in publishing of the Maryland Society, held a meeting, and in a

the account of her great weight and excellent qua- spirit of liberality, expressed their "cordial approTO CORRESPONDENTS.

lity of beef, and here, according to our judgment, bation" of the object and plan of the publication,

it would have been better to have let the matter rest. and unanimously recommended it to the support of It is well and truly observed by Doctor Mease in When the object is merely to compare her or any their sellow citizens. this number, that “politicians will squabble, but that other animal with another of a different race at cultivators of the soil ought to live in peace and home or abroad, then the plainest and most satis- Next CATTLE ShowIt is believed that the harmony with each other.” There is not a single factory way will be, to give statements of age, next exhibition on the first Wednesday and Thursreader of the Farmer more decidedly averse than is weight, keep, and quality, together with correct por- day in June, will be the most interesting we have its editor, to the insertion of any thing calculated to traits, if they can be had, that their forms may be had, particularly in the number of fine animals excite "animosities or irritating discussions.” It judged of. We should be glad to have such data in there will be there for sale. We hear of fine wooled was the apprehension of exciting such irritating dis- this, or in any other remarkable case. As an agricul sheep coming (not for premium, but sale,) from eussions which made us unwilling to insert Agricola tural topic of general interest, it is desirable to have Steubenville, in Ohio, and from Connecticut-also, in No. 52 of the last volume; still we had not firm- the qualities of different races discussed and com- a number of fine horses, cattle, &c. We advise ali ness to follow our own judgment; we yielded to the pared; let the good and the bad be pointed outlet who have any thing of superior qualities, to reserve too common infirmity of wishing to please all, and the great essential points of age, weight, keep, milk, it for that occasion; nor ought purchasers to buy the yet stronger wish, in that case, not to displease meat, and temper, be given; but let not recourse be until that opportunity offers. a much esteemed friend of ourselves personally and had to reflections or sarcasms ad hominem. It is of this establishment.

one thing to question the excellence, or expose the The motion to reduce the duty on Tobacco, made For our own part we care not a fig for one breed defects of a particular breed—it is quite another in the British House of Commons on the 10th of of cattle more than another. We were much grati- thing to charge all the advocates of any breed with March, and anticipated by our Richmond corresfied, as an admirer of all good stock, and a lover of

pondent, was negatived.

RETAIL.

per. from

WHOLESALE.

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The Editor trusts that the improved appearance advanced during the two days about 11 to 14 per

PRICES CURRENT. of his journal, (now printed on type cast in this city lb. but from Tuesday till Friday evening we were by Mr. R. B. Spalding,) with contents no less valu- very flat, and lost about one half the advance menable than heretofore, will warrant him in asking the tioned.- -The sales of the week (the bulk of which ARTICLES.

from aid of each one of its friends, in procuring new sub- to 17,600 bales, which included the following American BEEF, Baltimo.e Prime, bhl. 8,599 were made during the first three days,) amounted

10 scribers. Any previous volume, or all the numbers descriptions: 9,200 bales Uplands at 13} to 15d; 550 BACON, and Hams, : of the present (7th) volume which have appeared, Orleans 14 to 16d; 420 Tennessees 121 to 14d, and 260 COFFEE, W.1. Green, .

20 may be had. Sea Islands at 26d to 78 6d. On Saturday, a better de

do. Common, mand sprung up again—the sales on that day amounted COTTON, Louisiana, &c. The Editor is grateful and returns his thanks for to about 4,000 bags, ai an advance on that day of ls 4d Georgia Upland, . the promptness and punctuality with which his sub- on Friday's prices. We are still in the hands of the spe- COTTON YARN, No. 8.

An advance of 1 cent scribers are paying their dues. He congratulates culators, who can raise or depress us at their

pleasure.

Ashes have been gradually on the decline. Sales last each number to No. 18. his Southern friends on the improvement of their week, 630 bbls. Montreal Pots, 37 a 35s 5d; 200 bbls. CANDLES, Mould,

12 13 staples, and hopes the turn will soon come for the Pearls 41s 64 to 40s 6d. No sales of U. S. Ashes, ex- Dipt, . .

11

12 growers of grass and grain. cept 40 bbls. stained Pots, at 38s to 38s 6d. 1085 bbls. CHEESE, .

32 Turpentine of prime qual. brought the advanced price FEATHERS, Live,

33 A most destructive fire occurred last week in of 13s 60.-222 ts. Cloverseed sold at 625 to 70. Sales FISH, Herrings, Sus. new bbl. 3 50 Boston. The loss is estimated at $500,000—the of Flaxseed, 54 hhds. Baltimore, at 60s; 400 old N. York Shad, trimmed, new,

bush! at 70s, and 100 do. new, at 80s. The business done in FLAXSEED, Rough, : number of houses consumed, fifty-three. Tobacco, has b: en very trifling.

FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 75 5

Fine,
The speculative demand last noticed for almost every
Tobacco.—The following account of actual sales, description of West India produce, nearly subsided Susquehanna, superfi.
reported for the American Farmer, is the best view during the week.

FLAX,

Ib. we can give of the state of the tobacco market.

P. S.-March 14th, evening.–There was a moderate GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 lb 5 One hhd. yellow tobacco, made by Mr. David inquiry for Cotton this evening, which increased to- GRAIN, Indian Corn,

bush 35 Ridgeley, sold for $30 per hundred; 12 hhds. Pa- wards the close of the business. The total sales of Wheat, White,.

95/ 1 10 tuxent tobacco, made by Mr. Clem. Dorsey, of Saint the day are estimated at 10,000 bags--7,000 of which

do. Red, Mary's county, sold for $44 for second and $94 for are Egyptian 131 a 13}d. The remainder were chiefly Rye,

Barley, first; 10 hhds. Potomac tobacco, made by Mr. George American, and of which there were 1,300 Uplands at 13. Prices remain without alteration.

Clover Seed, .

3 50 3 75 4 00 Thomas, of Saint Mary's county, sold for $5 for se

Ruta Baga Seed, cond and $10 for first. The demand for yellow

Oats,

22 25 tobacco has increased within the last week.-625

SEED, GRAIN, FRUIT, &c.

Peas, Black Eyed, hhds. inspected in the last week.

Deposited since last notice with the Editor of the American Beans, White,
Farmer, for the use of his subscribers.

HEMP, Russia, clean, . ton 125
PRICES OF AMERICAN PRODUCE IN FOREIGN MARKETS. HOLLEY BERRIES, From B F. Mackall, Esq. of Cæcil, HOGS' LARD,

Ib.

bush and Mr. R. Watkins, of A. A. also from Col. Emory, for LIME, We confess that we have no tact for keeping a

Ib.

24 commercial record, or for making commentaries or adaptation of this shrub, for hedges, see next number a correspondent in Ohio. For remarks of Col. E. on the LEATHER, Soal, best,

Eastern Tan, prognostications on matters of sheer speculation of the Farmer.

MOLASSES, Havana,

gal.

23
30

37 and trade—all we can promise is to keep our stand- A basket of the Needles Apples, from W. H. Tilgh- MEAL, Corn, kiln dried, bbl. 2 37 ing prices current as near the exact state of this mar- man, Esq. with the following note:

NAILS, 8a20d.

51 ket as possible, and to give, occasionally, the latest

Talbot County, April 6, 1825.

NAVAL STORES, Tar, I bhl. accounts of material changes in the price of our Capt. Roe will also deliver to you a small basket of

Pitch,

Turpentine, Soft, staple commodities in foreign markets. For these we the Needles Apple, by which name they are known

gal. must rely on the newspapers of the day. In regard with us; as I do not recollect ever having seen any of OIL: Whale, common,

Linseed, to cotton, the editor has been furnished by a friend the kind, either on a private or public table, during five

PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl with the following item from a letter received by years residence in Baltimore, such fruit may be acceptable to many of your citizens and our brother far- PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75

do. Prime, him from a very respectable house in New York. mers generally.

bush
(COPY.)

POTATOES,
It is now too late to furnish them with cuttings the

RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3 Dated, April 9th, 1825. present season, which I will do hereafter if any one

SOAP, Baltimore White, lh. 14 shonld wish them. The sample of fruit is the best re

18 We have seen a letter from a French manufac- commendation I can give it, as the proof of the pudding WHISKEY, 1st proof,

do. Brown,

10 turer to-day, who has manufactured Egyptian cot- is in the eating, ton for a long time, and says the cotton this year is fruit, and as such is superior to any I know, and have PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr very inferior, and looses at least 11 per cent. in ma- been preserved in their present state through the win- APPLE BRANDY, 1st pr nufacturing, 5 a 6 per cent of which is sand. The ter with no other care, than frequently picking out the SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50

do. Brown, late accounts from India was one cause of the extra- specked fruit, kept in a dry cellar in open barrels.

Louisiana, ordinary rise in England, from the 22d February to

[The above mentioned apples were extremely fine,

Loaf,

Ib.

15 3d March, which are that the crop of cotton very juicy, round, of light orange colour, with a slight| blush on one side. They were placed on the dinner

Lump, amounted to almost an entire failure. If there table at Mr. J. B. Morris', yesterday, and were much

SPICES, Cloves,

1 10 should be allowed the proportionable consumption admired by the Board of Trustees, as was unequivocally

Ginger, Ground, of American cotton in England to th· last year, the proved by the declarations of the company, and yet

Mace, . stock of 64,000 bales on hand at the end of 1824, more expressively by

Nutmegs,

3 00 the gout with which

Pepper, : with all that has gone forward which will arrive they were eaten.]

SALT, St. Ubes,

bush there before the 1st of April, (this month,) it is sup

Brocoli and CAULIFLOWER-SEED, From Mr. Jeffer

Turk's Island, posed there will not be a bale of American cotton son, sent to him by a friend at Leghorn; but few of

Ground Alum, left at that date. What do you think of this view these received, and all distributed.

Seep of Symblins and Pumpkins, Of superior quality, WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 00 4 00

SHOT, all sizes,

cwt. of the subject, which is the opinion of wiser heads

from Col. Powel. than ours, and can be clearly demonstrated on mat

do. L. M. A cut of LUCERNE, Sent by Col. J. E. Howard, 16

do. ters of fact.

Sicily, inches high. He has two acres of this grass, over which

I 101 1 15
the scythe is now passing for soiling cows and horses.

Lisbon,
Sherry,

1 10 1 15 1 50 1 15 The ship New England, of Boston, Capt. Berry, How long will it be before any other grass is ready for

Claret,

doz. 3 arrived at this port last evening, with London papers valuable resource for the farmer. the same purpose; yet how few cultivate this most

Port, first quality, ga!

2 501 of the 13th, and Liverpool of the 15th ult. one week

WOOL, Merino, full bla b. 40 later than before received. Their contents are

do. crossed,

35 CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.

but free of chiefly interesting to the commercial community.

tags. The following extracts are given in the morning Cattle-Extract from Address of Roberts Vaux-Pros

6
1 75
2
2 2 50

25 27
65

14 15
10 50 11

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Common, Country,

On Grass-The Ox and Horse-Improved Short Horn Skinners' or Pulled, papers:

pect of Crops—Agricultural Queries—The Cherokee Printed every Friday, at $4 per annum, for JOHN S. LIVERPOOL MARKET, March 12.

Rose-On the Qualities of Stucco,-Railways--Internal SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Tov, corner of St. On Saturday and Monday last, particularly Monday, improvement Company--Cattle Show-Editorial- Paul and Market streets, where every description of we bad a brisk demand for Ootton, and our prices Commercial--Prices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

30
35

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