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AND MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS,

4 oz.

daily from the 1st of October to the 1st of February,

market promising enough in appearance, and reand from April to June, and as his class increases,

SPORTING OLIO.

turned home without a cow, but satisfied at the it is his intention annually to add to his course until

price he had got for the "old 'un." The cow-dealer the whole of his design is completed. We must

calculated upon Smithfield market as a better em. refer those who are specially interested, for further

porium for disposing of his bargain, and accordingly information, to Mr. Hoffman's “Course of Legal

drove her there, in order to sell her to the polonyStudy," "Syllabus," Introductory Lecture," and the

pudding merchants; but there was a glut in that de“Circular Letter." We would only add, that his

scription of dainty, in consequence of the late floods, fee is extremely moderate, and that we cannot see

which have proved fatal to many poor beasts. The with what propriety Law Students should neglect

cow would not sell even for the money which had such facilities, when students of medicine, from all

been just given for her, and the owner was about parts of our country, assemble to attend medical lec

to dispose of her for less--when a doctor, who had tures. We have been pleased to find in the Law

been regarding the beast for some time, offered, for Institute, students from nearly every state, but still,

a fee of 58., to make her as young as she had been the extent of his undertaking, and the zeal and abi

ten years before. The fee was immediately paid, lity with which it is prosecuted, demand and merit

the doctor took his patient immediately to a stable, a much more extensive patronage; and, for one, we

carded her all over, prescribed some strange diet would urge this gentleman to persevere in a scheme

for her, sawed down her horns from the rough and which is so manifestly useful, that ultimate success SPORTING AND OTHER ANECDOTES,

irregular condition to which years had swelled would appear to us inevitable.)

them, into the tapering and smoothness of youth,

and delivered her to the owner, more like a calf, Taken chiefly from late English papers received at the office than the venerable ancestor of calves. The cowRECIPES.

of the American Farmer.

dealer was struck with the extraordinary transfor

mation, and it immediately occurred to him (a proof Extraordinary Chase.—A few days ago, lord Fitz- that a cow-dealer can be dishonest as well as a TO DESTROY INSECTS IN VINES,

william's hounds had one of the severest runs which horse-dealer,) to sell her for the highest price he The red spider is the grand enemy to the vine; they had experienced for thirty years. They met at could get for her, without saying a word about her after every winter's pruning and removal of the out- Hunt's closes; but not finding there, drew Raund's defects and infirmities. Having learned that the ward rind on the old wood, anoint the branches, old meadow, where they found a fox, which went Epping farmer (an apron farmer, it may be supposshoots, and trellis, with the following composition, away into Keyston field, where he was headed, and ed, by the upshot;) was in want of a cow, he thought the object of which is the destruction of their eggs the hounds killed him before he again reached cover. he could not send his bargain to better quarters or larvæ:

A second fox was found in a plantation near Dentford than those she was accustomed to, and he forthwith Soft soap 2 lbs.

Ash; he ran with uncommon speed and strength, despatched her to Romford market, where her old Flour of sulphur 2 do.

and was killed about two miles from Huntingdon, master was on the look-out for a beast. She immeLeaf of roll tobacco 2 do.

after a run of upwards of three miles, with only one diately caught his eye. He asked her age. The Nux vomica

check of a few minutes. Out of a field of two hun- driver did not know, but she was a “fine young 'un." Turpentine 1 English gill. dred horsemen, only lord Milton, the huntsman, and "I've seen a cow very like her somewhere," said the Boil the above in 8 English gallons of soft river six or seven others, were in at the death; in a plough- farmer. “Ay,” said the driver, “then you must water, till it is reduced to six.

ed field, in the parish of Alconbury, upwards of have seen her a long way off, for I believe she is an Lay on this composition, milk warm, with a pain- twenty horses were seen standing with their riders Alderney.” “An Alderney! What do you ask for ter's brush; then with a sponge carefully anoint dismounted, who for some time in vain endeavoured her?” The price was soon fixed. The driver got every branch, shoot, and bud; being sure to rub it either to lead or drive them on, they being ridden 151. 78., for the cow, and the farmer sent her home. well into every joint, hole, and angle. If the house to a stand-still. The hounds passed through four- The ingenuity exercised might be guessed at from is much infected, the walls, fues, rafters, &c. are teen lordships, and the distance in a straight line is the fact, that the person who drove the beast home also to be painted over with the same liquor. Wa- supposed to be about seventeen miles.

had been at her tail for the last seven years at least tering over the leaves and fruit at all times, except

twice a day, and yet he did not make the discovery, the ripening season, is the preventive recommended,

REGENERATION OF A cow.

although she played some of her old tricks in the and which all gardeners approve.

journey, and turned into the old cow-house, and (Quere.— Is it not probable that the cow-dealer, lay down in her old bed, with all the familiarity of an TO PROTECT GRAPES FROM WASPS. who got to windward of the doctor in the following old acquaintance. At length the discovery was to be Plant near the grapes some yew-trees, and the case, had taken some lessons from the fancy," who made. The cow was milked, and milked, but the wasps will so far prefer the yew-tree berries, as deal in the same articles about Baltiinore? Could most that could be got from her for breakfast was a wholly to neglect the grapes.

we not name a shrewd gentleman up Market-street, pint, and that was little better than sky-blue. The

who bought up his own old cow, for a young one?] farmer, in grief and astonishment, sent her to a cow TO BOTTLE TABLE BEER.

A gentleman applied to Mr. Hobler, the chief doctor, who had been in the habit of advising in her As soon as a cask of table beer is received into the clerk, to know whether the Lord Mayor could reme- case, and complained that she gave no milk. “Milk!” house, it is drawn off into quart stone bottles, with a

dy a case, in which it could not but be considered said he, “how the devil should she, poor old crealump of white sugar in each, and securely corked.

that a very gross imposition had been practised.- ture? Sure it is'nt by cutting her horns and giving In three days it becomes brisk, is equal in strength been sold, and foisted upon the seller very soon af- that you can expect to make her give milk!” The

The case, he said, related to an old cow, which had her linseed oil-cakes, and scrubbing her old limbs, to table ale, remarkably pleasant, very wholesome, terwards as a young one. and will keep many months.

Mr. Hobler requested to farmer was soon convinced of the imposture, and

know how the deception was practised, as the im- would indeed forgive it if the laugh against him TO RENDER BOTTLED BEER RIPE.

posture was to be collected from the circumstances. could be endured.

The gentleman said his friend had been already so The following method is employed in Paris, by much laughed at for allowing himself to be imposed not interfere. He believed that the farmer must be

Mr. Hobler regretted that the Lord Mayor could some venders of bottled beer, to render it what they on, that he could scarcely appear amongst his neigh- content with the benefit derived from his expe. urm ripe. It is merely by adding to each bottle 3 bours. It would therefore, perhaps, be injudicious rience, which, it was to be hoped, would make him or 4 drops of yeast, and a lump of sugar, of the size to mention the case in a place, in which every thing take a judge with him the next time he went to buy of a large nutmeg: In the course of twenty-four that was said appeared before the public at break- a cow. Some facts had reached him about the hours, by this addition, stale or flat beer is rendered fast next morning. Mr. Hobler said, that perhaps transformation of old jaded horses into spirited most agreeably brisk. In consequence of the fer- the public would be benefitted by knowing the na- steeds, but he had not heard before of the effect mentative process that takes place in it, a small de- ture of the imposition, and that the trick, if exposed, filing down a cow's horns had in restoring old age posite follows, and on this account the bottles should would stand no chance of being repeated. be kept ia an erect position. By this means white

to youth. He supposed this was what was meant

The applicant then made the following statement by “grinding young.” The Lord Mayor was afterwine in .y likewise be rendered brisk.

About a fortnight ago, a farmer residing at Epping wards informed by Mr. Hobler of the nature of the

Forest, having rather an elderly cow which began application; and his Lordship, who, however, could TO KEEP HOPS FOR FUTURE CSE.

to be very slack of milk, he determined to get rid of not help laughing at the deception, also regretted Ilops lose all their fine flavour by exposure to the her, and to purchase another. He accordingly took that nothing could be done, and declared that he air and damp. They should be kept in a dry close her to Romford fair, and sold her to a cow-dealer : wished it was in his power to punish a person capaplace, and lightly packed.

for about 4l. 10s., but he did not see any cow in the ble of so scandalous a transaction.

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Horse leap.-On Saturday, July 20, an extraordi- panion and faithful friend. Bold in war, yet patient

PRICES CURRENT. nary leap was made by a horse in the possession of in all the “dull pursuits of civil life,” humanity, as Mr. Beardsworth, of Birmingham. On the ground well as interest, require that we make ourselves fabeing accurately measured by some gentlemen, who miliar with his anatomy and constitution; thence it ARTICLES.

from witnessed the performance, it was found, that in is that we have appropriated so large a portion of a

9 10 passing over a bar 3 feet 6 inches high, the leap was single number, to enable every young farmer to BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 8 50 9

Ib. taken at the amazing distance of 17 feet 7 inches fulfil a duty, which ought to be as pleasing, as it is BACON, and Hams,

COFFEE, W.I. Green,

17 from it and the whole space of ground covered was imperative.

do. Common, 27 feet 8 inches. The horse is 15} hands high, and

COTTON, Louisiana, &c.

24 carried upwards of 12 stone. He was afterwards The Editor will thank any gentleman who will Georgia Upland, .

21 rode over the same bar several times, and cleared send him some Holly berries--they are for a friend COTTON YARN, No. 8, upwards of eight yards without much apparent effort. in Ohio.

An advance of 1 cent

each number to No. 18.

CANDLES, Mould,
Quere.--Is there in Europe, any adequate check
POETRY.

Dipt,
established to control the keepers of toll-gates? It

CHEESE, .

10 must be obvious to every one, that the temptation FEATHERS, Live,

33
AN ECLOGUE-ON THE PLOUGH.
to defraud, which constantly presses upon these FISH, Herrings, Sus. new bbl.

3 50

Shad, trimmed, new, Wake up my muse! wake up my soul! agents, ought to be, if practicable, provided against,

bush) and it is scarcely to be believed that in the old coun- FLAXSEED, Rough, .

85 Survey the globe from pole to polo

Cleaned, tries, where turnpike roads have been so long in

cask
To what employment shall I bow?
Pursue the arts or hold the plough?

use, the keepers of the gates have been left without FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 50 4 62
check or control. In what other branch of busi-

Fine,
Upon a just and strict attention,

Susquehanna, superfi.

4 50 The plough appears a high invention. ness, or condition of life, are agents public or pri

FLAX,

lb. The great Messiah, when he wrought,

vate, so irresponsible as the toll-gate keepers on the GUNPOWDER, Balti. : 25 16 5
turnpike roads of this country?

35 Made yokes and ploughs, as we are taught,

GRAIN, Indian Corn, · bush

38 Wheat, White,

90 Mogul, renown'd of India's land,

do.

92 First takes the plough into his hand;

Red,
QUERE TO THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE MARY-

Rye,

37 40 His millions then in honour toil

Barley,
To pulverise the fertile soil.
Why has not a large premium been offered for Clover Seed,

3 50 3 75 4 00 The fam'd Elisha, you'll allow,

the famed long-wooled sheep of England, as has Ruta Baga Seed, : He drove the ox, or held the plough,

been done at Brighton?

T. Oats,

22 The stubborn earth he rent and tore,

Peas, Black Eyed,
With oxen number'd twenty-four.

Beans, White,
HOGS' LARD,

Ib.
Th’immortal Job, more rich and grand
Under the new arrangements with our printer, it LIME,

bush 23 25 Than any in the Eastern land,

lb. was impossible to insert the communication from LEATHER, Soal, best,

27 He launch'd his ploughs—the earth gave way,

Eastern Tan,

20 His thousand oxen rend the clay. Dr. Mease in reply to Agricola, in this number-it

MOLASSES, Havana,

371 Of all pursuits by men invented, shall appear in our next.

MEAL, Corn, kila dried, bb). 2 37 The ploughman is the best contented.

NAILS, 8a20d.

Ib. 5! His calling's good, his profits high,

Tobacco.-Five hhds. tobacco, made by Rich'd NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl. 1 75 And on his labours all rely

Battee, of Anne Arundel county, sold this week at Pitch, Mechanics all by him are fed, the following prices—One hhd. yellow, $28 per hun- Turpentine, Soft,

2 50

25 dred; two ditto, $16; two hhds. second, $10; good OIL, Whale, common,

27 Of him the merchants seek their bread; His hands give meat to ev'ry thing, red, well conditioned tobacco, is selling as well, if Linseed,

15 Up from the beggar to the king. not better, than the last two years.—389 hhds. in- PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl

do. Prime,

10 50 11 The milk and honey, corn and wheat spected in the last week.

PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75 Are by his labours made complete.

POTATOES,

bush 33 Our clothes from him must first arise,

FOR SALE,

RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3 To deck the fop or dress the wiseA few pair of beautiful Lambs, by an imported Tu- SOAP, Baltimore White, lb. 14

181 We then by vote may justly state, nisian Broad-Tail Ram on Merino Ewes an excellent

Brown,

10 cross. They were yeaned last January, and will be de- WHISKEY, 1st proof, The ploughman ranks among the great;

23 livered next month, in Baltimore, at fifteen dollars a PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr More independent than them all, pair--male and female.

APPLE BRANDY, Ist pr

27 That dwell upon this earthly ball.

The sire of these Lambs carries a heavy fleece of SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50 All hail, ye farmers, young and old! good wool, free from hair, and is a fine hardy sheep.- do. Brown,

8 50 9 Push on your ploughs with courage bold; Breeders should avail themselves of this opportunity of Louisiana,

7 25 8 75 Your wealth arises from your clod, improving their flocks at a trilling expense. Apply to

Loaf,

Ib. 15 Your independence from your God. the Editor of the American Farmer. April 3.

Lump, If then the plough supports the nation,

SPICES, Cloves,

85 And men of rank in ev'ry station,

GARRICK,

Ginger, Ground, Let kings to farmers make a bow,

An imported full bred Devon Bull, will stand this Mace, And ev'ry man procure a plough. spring and summer at the first Toll-gate on the Balti- Nutmegs,

1 401 1 50 1 701 1 75
more and Harford Turnpike Road, and be let to cows Pepper,
at five dollars each; the money in every instance to be SALT, St. Übes,

bush
sent with the cows, and for which a warranty is given Turk's Island,
NA FARMAR.
Garrick was purchased under this name last summer, Ground Alum,

9 50 at one year old, from the celebrated stock of Mr. SHOT, all sizes, BaltIMORE, FRIDAY, APRIL 8, 1825. Chilues, near Bewaley who has for some years been WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 004 00 the most extensive and successful breeder of North

do.

L. M. do. Sicily,

1 101 1 15 The prize essay on the Horse, which we have se- Devon cattle in England, and Garrick was acknowledg

Lisbon, ed to be his best yearling at the public sale in Septem

1 30 lected for this paper, occupies more space

than we
ber last; he is by Prize out of Fill-Pail as per cata- Sherry,

1 10 1 15 1 50 1 75 could wish to yield to one article; but the use of it logne and pedigree which accompanied him.

Claret,

doz. 3 would be much impaired by dividing it. Attention

April 2-4
JOHN BROWN, Gate-kceper. Port, first quality,

2 501

gal. 2 WOOL, Merino, full bl'd lb.

45 to this essay and the engraving which accompanies

unwasher! it, will enable every one, though without profession

do. crossed, .

but free of CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. al knowledge, to understand, and to designate by

Common, Country,

lags. Essay on the Structure of the Horse-Extract from name, every part of this valuable animal, as well as Address of Roberts Vaux–Philadelphia Society for

Skinners' or Pulled, the diseases incident to their mal-conformation.- Promoting Agriculture—Report of the Season--Im- Printed every Friday, at $4 per

annum, for JOHN SE There are few persons, whatever may be their vo-provement of Wool-Breed of Horses--Hogs-Law SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Toy, corner of St. cation, who have not more or less to do with the Institute – Recipes—Extracts-Editorial - Advertise- Paul and Market streets, where every description of horse; to most of our readers, he is a daily com-Iments—Prices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

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BEST ADAPTED TO PERMANENT PASTURE.

oxen.

No. 4–VOL. 7.
AMERICAN FARMER–BALTIMORE, APRIL 15, 1825.

25

2018 examined in the Duke of Bedford's experiments is When food artificially composed is to be given AGRICULTURE. from the sea meadow grass.

to cattle, it should be brought as nearly as possible Nature has provided in all permanent pastures a to the state of natural food. Thus, when sugar is

mixture of various grasses, the produce of which given to them, some dry fibrous matter should be ON GRASSES

differs at different seasons. Where pastures are to mixed with it, such as chopped straw, or dry witherbe made artificially, such a mixture ought to be ed grass, in order that the functions of the stomach

imitated; and, perhaps, pastures superior to the There has been much difference of opinion with natural ones may be made by selecting due propor- and adhered with equal constancy to the cock’s-foot respect to permanent pasture; but the advantages tions of those species of grasses fitted for the soil, during the remainder of the season.

Dactylus glomerata, cock's foot, or orchard grass.--or disadvantages can only be reasoned upon accord- which afford respectively the greatest quantities of

spring, summer, latter-math, and winter produce; a Oxen, horses, and sheep, eat this grass readily. The Under the circumstances of irrigation, lands are that such a plan of cultivation is very practicable. this was exemplified in a striking manner in the

field ing to the circumstances of situation and climate. reference to the details in the appendix will show oxen continue to eat the straws and flowers from tho

time of flowering till the time of perfecting the seed; extremely productive, with comparatively little

In all lands, whether arable or pasture, weeds of before alluded to. labour, and in climates where great quantities of rain fall, the natural irrigation produces the same every description should be rooted out before the cock’s-foot and red clover,

and the sheep to the ryeeffects as artificial. When hay is in great demand,

In the experiments pubseed is ripe; and if they are suffered to remain in grass and white clover. as sometimes happens in the neighbourhood of the hedge rows, they should be cut when in flower, or lished in the Amænitates Academicæ, by the pupils o metropolis, where manure can be easily procured,

before, and made into heaps for manure; in this Linnæus, it is asserted that this grass is rejecied by the application of it to pasture is repaid by the case they will furnish more nutritive matter in their oxen; the above fact, however, is in contradiction of it. increase of crop; but top-dressing grass land with decomposition; and their increase by the dispersion horses seem to have a greater relish for this grass than animal or vegetable manure, cannot be recommendof seeds will be prevented. The farmer, who suf

It delights in a soil of intermediate quality as ed as a general system. Dr. Coventry very justly and scattered by the winds, is not only hostile to water-meadow at Priestley, it constitutes a considera

fers weeds to remain till their ripe seeds are shed, to moisture or dryness, and is very productive. In the observes, that there is a greater waste of the ma- his own interests, but is likewise an enemy to the ble part of the produce of that excellent meadows soil for seed crops. The loss by exposure to the public: a few thistles neglected will soon stock a there keeps invariably possession of the top of the air, and the sunshine, offer reasons in addition to their seeds, they may be distributed over a whole side of the watercourse; the space below that, to where lecture, for the application of manure even in this country, Nature has provided such ampie resour-the ridge ends, is stocked with cock’s-foot, rough stalk. case, in a state of incipient, and not completed ble tribes, that it is very difficult to insure the de- vernal grass, with a small admixture of some other kinds.

ces for the continuance of even the meanest vegeta-ed meadow grass, Festuca pratensis, Festuen duriuscula, fermentation. Very little attention has been paid to the nature struction of such as are hostile to the agriculturist,

Phleum pratense, meadow cat’s-tail.—This grass is of the grasses best adapted for permanent pasture. the air, will remain for years inattive in the soil,* Pulteney says, that it is disliked by sheep; but in pas.

even with every precaution. Seeds excluded from eaten without reserve, by oxen, sheep, and horses. Dr. The chief circumstance which gives value to a and yet germinate under favourable circumstances

; tures where it abounds, it does not appear

to be reject grass, is the quantity of nutritive matter that the and the different plants, the seeds of which, like ed by these animals; but eaten in common with such whole crop will afford; but the time and duration those of the thistle and dandelion, are furnished others as are growing with it. Hares are remarkably of its produce are likewise points of great impor. with beards or wings, may be brought from an im- fond of it. The Phleum nodosum, Phleum alpinum, Poin tance; and a grass that supplies green nutriment throughout the whole of the year, may be more

mense distance. The fleabane of Canada has only fertilis, and Poa compressa, were left untouched, although valuable than a grass which yields its produce only lately been found in Europe; and Linnæus sup, the greatest perfection in a deep rich loam.

they were closely adjoining to it. It seems to attain in summer, though the whole quantity of food sup- the very light downy plumes with which the seed is tailed in the Amænitates Academicæ, it is said, that poses that it has been transported from America, by

Agrostis stolonifera, fiorin.-In the Experiments deplied by it should be much less. provided.

horses, sheep and oxen, eat this grass readily. On the The grasses that propagate themselves by layers, In feeding cattle with green food, there are many Duke of Bedford's farm at Maulden; fiorin bay was the different species of Agrostis, supply pasture advantages in soiling, or supplying them with food, placed in the racks before horses in small distinct throughout the year, and as it has been mentioned where their manure is preserved, out of the field; quantities, alternately with common hay; but no decidon a former occasion, the concrete sap stored up in the plants are less injured when cut, than when ed preference

for either was manifested by the horses their joints, renders them a good food even in winter. I saw four square yards of fiorin grass cut in food is wasted by being trodden down. They are ardson, in his several publications on Fiorin; and of its

torn or jagged by the teeth of the cattle, and no when in a green state, seems fully proved by Dr. Richthe end of January, this year, in a meadow exclu- likewise obliged to feed without making selection; productive powers in England (which has been doubted sirely appropriated to the cultivation of fiorin, by and in consequence the whole food is consumed: by some.) There are satisfactory proofs. Lady Hardthe Countess of Hardwicke, the soil of which is a the attachment, or dislike to a particular kind of wicke has given an account of a trial of this grass, damp stiff clay. They afforded 28 pounds of fod- fcol, exhibited by animals, offers no proof of its wherein twenty-three milch cows, and one young horse, der; of which 1000 parts afforded, 64 parts of nu- nutritive powers. Cattle at first refuse linseed cake, besides a number of pigs, were kept a fortnight on the tritive matter, consisting nearly one-sixth of sugar, one of the most nutritive substances on which they produce of one acre, and five-sixths of mucilage, with a little extractive matter. In another experiment, four square yards can be fedt

Poa trivialis, rough-stalked meadow.-Oxen, horses,

and sheep, eat this grass with avidity. Hares also eat gave 27 pounds of grass. The quality of this grass

it; but they give a decided preference to the smoothis inferior to that of the fiorin referred to in the

* The appearance of seeds in places where their stalked meadow-grass, to which it is, in many respects, table, in the latter part of the third lecture, which parent plants are not found may be easily accounted nearly allied. was cultivated by Sir Joseph Banks, in Middlesex, are carried from island to island by currents in the and horses are observed to eat this grass in common

for from this and other circumstances.-Many seeds Poa pratensis, smooth-stalked meadow grass.--Oxen in a much richer soil, and cut in December.

sea, and are defended by their hard coats from the with others; but sheep rather prefer the hard fescue, The fiorin grass, to be in perfection, requires a immediate action of the water. West Indian seeds and sheeps' fescue, which affect a similar soil. This moist climate or a wet soil, and it grows luxuriantly (of this description,) are often found on our coasts, species exhausts the soil in a greater degree than alin cold clays unfitted for other grasses. In light and readily germinate: their long voyage having been most any other species of grass; the roots being numesands, and in dry situations, its produce is much in- barely sufficient to afford the cotyledon its due propor rous, and powerfully creeping, become in two or three ferior as to quantity and quality.

tin of moisture. Other seeds are carried indigested years completely matted together; the produce dimiThe common grasses, properly so called, that in the stomach of birds, and supplied with food at the nishes as this takes place. It grows common in some afford most nutritive matter in early spring, are the moment of their deposition. The light seeds of the meadows, dry banks, and even on walls. vernal meadow grass, and meadow fox-tail grass; atmosphere, and abound on the surface of tie sea. mosses and lichens probably float in every part of the Cynosurus cristatus, crested dog's-tail grass.--The

South Down sheep, and deer, appear to be remarkably but their produce, at the time of flowering and

† For the following observations on the selection of fond of this grass: in some parts of Woburn Park this ripening the seed, are inferior to that of a great different kinds of common food by sheep and cattle, 1 grass forms the principal part of the herbage on which number of other grasses; their latter-math, is, how-am obliged to Mr. George Sinclair.

these animals chiefly browse: while another part of ever abundant.

Lolium perenne, rye grass.-Sheep eat this grass the Park, that contains the Agrostis capilaris, Agrostis, Tall fescue grass stands highest, according to the when it is in the early stage of its growth, in preference pumilis

, Festuca ovina, Festuca duriuscula, and Festuca experiments of the Duke of Bedford, of any grass,

to most others; but after the seed approaches towards canıbrica, is seldom touched by them; but the Welch properly so called, as to the quantity of nutritive perfection, they leave it for almost any other kind. A breed of sheep almost constantly browse upon these, mat'er afforded by the whole crop when cut at the

field in the Park at Woburn was laid down in two equal and neglect the Cynosurus cristatus, Lolium perenne, and time of flowering, and meadow cat's-tail grass af- the other part with cock's foot and red clover: from

parts, one part with rye grass and white clover, and Poa trivialis. fords most food when cut at the time the seed is the spring till midsummer the sheep kept almost con- bent. This is a very common grass on all poor, dry

Agrostis vulgaris (capillaris, Linn.,) fine bent; eominon ripe; the highest latter-math produce of the grasses stantly on the rye grass; but after that time they left it, sandy soils. It is not palatable to cattle, as they never

4-VOL. 7.

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.

and bowels may be performed in a natural manner. principal part of all of them a soap, with a basis of There are other considerations in favour of the The principle is the same as that of the practice al- potassa, (s. e. a compound of oily matter and potas-ox, worthy of being taken into account: the harness luded to in the third lecture, of giving chopped sa,) with a little oily matter in excess. He has of a pair of oxen, yoke and chain, costs about $4; straw with barley.

found in them, likewise, a notable quantity of ace- that of a pair of horses about $20. The ox feeds In washing sheep, the use of water containing tate of potassa, and minute quantities of carbonate through the summer on grass, and is ready for his carbonate of lime should be avoided; for this sub- of potassa and muriate of potassa, and a peculiar labour in the morning as soon as his driver rises stance decomposes the yolk of the wool, which is odorous animal matter.

from his bed; but the horse must be allowed at least an animal soap, the natural defence of the wool- M. Vauquelin states, that he found some speci- one hour in the morning to eat, which usually afand wool often washed in calcareous water, be- mens of wool lose as much as 45 per cent. being fords the driver an excuse for loitering two, during comes rough and more brittle. The finest wool, deprived of their yolk; and the smallest loss in his the most precious part of the day. such as that of the Spanish and Saxon sheep, is experiments was 35 per cent.

There is no kind of work on our farms, except most abundant in yolk. M. Vauquelin has analyzed The yolk is most useful to the wool on the back dressing corn, which oxen may not be trained to several different species of yolk, and has found the of the sheep in cold and wet seasons; probably the perform as well as horses also for hauling heavy

application of a little soap of potassa, with excess loads short distances on the roads, they are equally eat it readily, if any other kinds be within their reach. of grease to the sheep brought from warmer cli- as good, and much better for hauling logs; but the The.Welch sheep, however, prefer it, as I before ob- mates in our winter, that is, increasing their yolk ox does not naturally endure heat as well as the served; and it is singular, that those sheep being bred artificially, might be useful in cases where the fine- horse; he seldom perspires, but habit will enable him in the park, when some of the best grasses are equally ness of the wool is of great importance. A mixture to endure it for all necessary purposes. Nor does within their reach, should still prefer those grasses of this kind is more conformable to nature, than he naturally walk so fast—much may be done in which naturally grow on the Welch mountains; it that ingeniously adopted by Mr. Blakewell; but at breaking, to improve his walk. But my object is to seems to argue that such a preference is the effect of some other cause, than that of habit.

the time his labours commenced, the chemical na-examine him as he is usually found. Allowing then Festuca ovina, sheeps' fescue.-All kinds of cattle ture of the yolk was unknown.

for the difference of his capacity to endure heat and relish this grass; but it appears from the trial that

[Davy's Agr. Chemistry. for that of his speed, my experience is, that a pair has been made with it on clayey soils, that it continues

of oxen will plough 1 1-2 acres while a pair of horses but a short time in possession of such, being soon

will plough 2 acres. This difference will be allowed. overpowered by the most luxuriant kinds. On dry

THE OX AND THE HORSE. by all experienced persons as a liberal estimate in shallow soils, that are incapable of producing the larger

favour of the horse. Now, if we suppose the same sorts, this should form the principal crop, or rather Their value and economy for Pennsylvania Farming

difference to exist in all other kinds of labour to the whole; for it is seldom or never, in its natural state,

compared found intimately mixed with others; but by itself.

which the ox is adapted, it will give the labour of Festuca duriuscula, hard fescue grass.- This is cer: MR. SKINNER,

Buck's county, Pa. 28th March, 1825. the horse to that of the ox as 4 to 3—and according tainly one of the best of the dwarf sorts of grasses. It

to the foregoing estimate, the expense of 3 horses is grateful to all kinds of cattle; hares are very fond

I have recently observed some remarks from cor for ten years, (their average life of useful labour,) of it: they cropped it close to the roots, and neglected respondents in your paper respecting the compara- will be,

$1320 the Fustuca ovina, and Fustuca rubra, which were conti- tive usefulness of horses and oxen. Although the guous to it. It is present in most good meadows and subject may seem to be exhausted, I am not with- That of 4 oxen, .

120 pastures.

out hope of being able to add somewhat to the Festuca pratensis, meadow fescue.—This grass is sel general stock of experience on this subject. In

General balance in favour of oxen, . $1200 dom absent from rich meadows and pastures; it is ob- order to understand the relative value of animals served to be highly grateful to oxen, sheep and horses, of this nature, we have only to resort to actual calparticularly the former. It appears to grow most lux

It must be admitted, however, that there are many uriantly wñen combined with the hard fescue, and Poa culation and such facts as will not be denied by any purposes to which the ox is not adapted: such as trivialis.

one who has the least experience on the subject. going on distant journies with despatch, the carAvena eliator, tall oat-grass.—This is a very produc

In the first place, then, a pair of tolerably good riage, gig and saddle, to which that of dressing corn five grass, frequent in meadows and pastures, but is dis work horses can be bought at 5 years old for $160— must be added. No farmer can therefore dispense liked by cattle, particularly by horses; this, perfectly, their lives may be averaged at ten years more, in- with all his horses; but it is bad economy to keep a agrees with the small portion of nutritive matter which cluding diseases, accidents, &c.—the cost of keep- single labouring horse more than is necessary for it affords. It seems to thrive best on a strong tenacious ing them, as our work horses in Pennsylvania are those purposes which the ox is not adapted forclay.

usually kept, will be for grain $1.20 per week, at and when the number of horses which must be thus Avena flavescens, yellow oat-grass.- This grass seems the present price—the grain being ground, and used occasionally employed, is sufficient to perform, at eaten by sheep and oxen, equally with the meadow with cut straw, which is more economical than feed-their intervals of leisure, all the other business of barley, crested dog's-tail' and sweet-scented vernal ing whole grain: in addition to this grain, horses the farm, it would be bad economy to keep oxen; grasses, which naturally grow in company with it. It will eat about the same hay or grass that will sus- for it costs very little, if any more, to keep horses nearly doubles the quantity of its produce by the appli- tain a pair of oxen—the latter food may therefore constantly at work, than it does to keep them in cation of calcareous manure.

be estimated as common to both, and of equal ex- idleness. A horse, though a noble, is an expensive Holcus lanalus, meadow soft grass. - This is a very pense. The cost of a pair of oxen four years old animal, and the high state of his domestication has common grass, and grows on all soils, from the richest is $60, and they may be used five years without the given him a constitution liable to innumerable disto the poorest. It affords an abundance of seed, which least injury to their capacity for fattening—when, if eases, (not found among animals more in a state of is light, and casily dispersed by the wind. It appears the owner did not choose to make a profit in that nature, which increases the expense of his mainduce is not so great as a view of it in fields would in- way, he might sell them for $50. We have from tenance. He is also, from his spirit, more easily

A late writer in your paper, dicate; but being left almost entirely untouched by these data the following results as to expense of the spoiled than the ox. cattle, it appears as the most productive part of the two animals:

who observed that the ox was not as true to the herbage. The hay which is made of it, from the num

draught as the horse, could not have had any genber of downy hairs which cover the surface of the 1 pair of horses cost,

$160 eral experience on the subject; for all who have jeaves, is soft and spongy, and disliked by cattle in Interest on the same 10 years at 6 per cent, 96 long used both animals know that the fact is quite general.

Expense for grain, exclusive of cut straw

the reverse. The present is a period when it beInthoranthum odoratum, sweet-scented vernal grase. and labour of feeding, at $1.20 per week, 624 hoves farmers to practice the most rigid economy. Horses, oxen, and sheep, eat this grass; though in pas

I think there cannot be a doubt, that the introductrres where it is combined with the meadow fox-tail,

$880 tion of oxen as a substitute for wɔrking horses, and white clover, cock's-foot, rough-stalked meadow, it is left untouched; from which it would seem unpa

would greatly improve our agricultural economy, latable to cattle. Mr. Grant, of Leighton, laid down 1 pair cost,

$60 but as this cannot be done very generally upon one half a field of a considerable extent with this An additional pair for the last five years, 60 small plantations, some other substitute must be grass, combined with white clover. The other half of Interest on $60 for five years—and $70 for found, or we must endure the inconvenience. This, the field with fox-tail and red clover. The sheep would

40 I am persuaded, may be done most effectually by not touch the sweet-scented vernal, but kept constant

the introduction of mules. This animal, except for ly upon the fox-tail. The writer of this, saw the field

160 the saddle and pleasure-carriage, will perform all when the grasses were in the highest state of perfec

Deduct for two pair sold, at $50 each, . 100 the service of the horse, at about one third of the tion; and hardly any thing could be more satisfactory. Equal quantities of the seeds of white clover, were

expense. But I am sure you must have a distaste sown with each of the grasses; but from the dwarf

Total cost for ten years,

60 for long essays, and will forbear enlarging on this nature of the sweet-scented vernal grass, the clover

Balance in favor of the oxen,

820 branch of economy at present. mixed with it had attained to greater luxuriance, than

Yours, that mixed with the meadow fox-tail."

$880

COLUMELLA.

EXPENSE OF HORSES.

EXPENSE OF OXEN.

five years,

.

American public to their merits, and the superior large district to convert grounds occupied by wood IMPROVED SHORT HORN CATTLE.

quality of Mr. Champion's stock was made known to the production of valuable crops, and lime and Remarks on the communication signed Agricola, in to the United States by my remarks on the cattle other manures will be transported by canals, to

procession that took place in March 1821, in Phila- points which they could never otherwise have reachNo. 52, vol. 6.

delphia. The pure stock of that eminent improver, ed. Canals will likewise greatly contribute to pro

is now in four states of the Union, and their descen- mote the policy of the state, in the subdivision of Philadelphia, April 2, 1825.

dants in several more, all of which will gradually property; and by giving additional means for sus

effect a revolution in our cattle which will add to taining a large population upon a small surface, TO THE EDITOR, the comfort and wealth of the country.

must create new towns, new manufactories and new The piece signed Agricola, in No. 52 of your 6th

JAMES MEASE. markets. Had not the canal of New York eclipsed vol., escaped my notice until this day. I cannot

almost all similar undertakings, a distinguished permit it to pass without a few remarks, as it is cal

place might be claimed for Pennsylvania, as a paculated to excite animosities and irritating discus- EXTRACTS FROM AGRICULTURAL AD-tron of inland navigation. The works on the Schuylsions, which, in a journal like yours, ought never to

DRESSES.

kill, now completed, extend one hundred and elever be permitted. Politicians will squabble, but culti

miles. Forty miles of the Union canal are nearly vators of the soil, and the friends to agriculture, (Continuation of extracts from the address of Roberts finished, and when the latter reaches its termination, ought to live in harmony with one another.

Vaux, Esq.)

the aggregate will not be much short of two hunThe object of the paper by Agricola is to prove,

dred miles. To encourage and promote in future that the zeal of the advocates of the “improved

Next in importance to the improvement of the the formation of canals, wherever the geological short horned cattle” is not founded in “cool and de- land by judicious modes of cropping, and the ap- features of the territory invite, or will admit

of such liberate judgment,” but in a love of “novelty;" and plication of restoratives suited to the various quali-improvement, is at once the duty and the interest of that the old stock is better than the new. To ties of the soil, are roads, bridges, canals, and the all who seek the permanent welfare of our agriculprove this, he refers in the first place, to some pas- rendering of streams navigable. The husbandman ture. In addition to the early. aids afforded to the sages from a writer in your 5th volume, which Agri- will toil in vain, if the

products of his labour cannot husbandry of the state, I ought not to omit the imcola says, would “induce a belief that the Teeswa- reach a market by a moderate expenditure of time

portant fact, that the selection and introduction of ters possess the quality of subsisting without food." and money. The necessity of facilitating the inter- valuable domestic animals was not disregarded, Too much, however, is made of the passage alluded course between the interior, remote parts, and the even when the minds of the early benefactors of to. No one can suppose that the writer literally sea board of Pennsylvania, was early perceived by agriculture were directed to the primary duty of inmeant what is attributed to him—but merely that many

of her enlightened citizens, who, in the procreasing the products of the land. Some excellent upon short allowance in winter, the improved short secution of their designs, had to contend with diffi- breeds of sheep, and swine, were brought from horns lived while other breeds suffered. That cat-culties similar to those which impeded the exertions abroad, many years ago, and great pains were taken tle which take on fat so readily as the improved to renovate her husbandry. Some improvements to spread them among our farmers. But the great short horns," would live better on scanty food had been made during the provincial age of Penn- importance of this subject has been but recently through the winter than common cattle, I can easily sylvania, by the removal of obstructions to the urged with effect upon their notice. Our useful felconceive, because it is a well known fact, that the ab- descending navigation of rivers;

but the first turn- low

citizen and associate, John Hare Powel, whose sorption of fat by a set of vessels called lymphatics, pike constructed on this side of the Atlantic, is that indefatigable labours deserve the highest commenin the bodies of all animals, takes place when food which was completed between Philadelphia and dation, has, at much expense, imported some indiis withheld, and as the short horns possess more Lancaster in 1794. Since that period, more than a viduals of the best families of cattle and sheep than an ordinary degree of it, they would be able thousand miles of artificial road have been made of known in Europe. His judicious and liberal de to endure privation of food with less injury than stone in various parts of the commonwealth. Bridg- sign is to prove, that all the beasts which adminiscommon cattle, which are deficient in this source of es of great magnitude and beauty have also been ter to our necessities, or conduce to our comforts, internal nourishment.

thrown across our principal rivers, at an expense of ought to be chosen and bred in reference to their 2d. Agricola attempts to show the inferiority of more than a million and a half of dollars, whilst respective qualities

. The horse, for the various the improved short horns” by comparing the weight the utility and cost of those of an inferior grade, in employments to which that noble and generous aniand quality of a seven year old steer fed by Mr. nearly all the counties of the state, cannot be readi-mal is so admirably fitted. The ox, whether for laLowry, and recently killed in Philadelphia, with ly estimated. It is now almost half a century since bour, or for the shambles. Sheep, whether most some cattle of Gen. Ridgely's breed, and killed at the noble design was formed of uniting the Dela- profitable for the fleece, or carcass. The cow, as the same time. He says the steer was of the “Tees- ware and Susquehanna rivers, by means of the adapted to the dairy, or otherwise more advantawater breed,” and gained a premium at the agricul- waters of the Schuylkill and Swatara. The failure geous, as circumstances and interest may dictate. tural exhibition near Philadelphia, in June 1822, for of so grand a scheme, with great pecuniary loss to To this laudable pursuit, combined with rural affairs his great merits: In answer, I reply, that the "Tees- those who engaged in it, vitally affected the inte generally, he has succeeded in awakening the attenwater” and improved short horns” are not synoni- rests of our agriculture; but the lock navigation ra- tion of a body of respectable and intelligent cultimous. The former was, indeed, the foundation from pidly progressing to completion on the same route, vators of their own farms, in various counties of the which the latter admirable stock was produced, and penetrating as it will to a remote interior point, state, who, constituting " The Agricultural Society upon which such great changes have been made by hitherto inaccessible by such modes of communica- of Pennsylvania,” will no doubt contribute largely judicious crosses, as to entitle it to the character of tion, promises to all our different interests results of to the general good. a new creation. The progress of improvement in the greatest magnitude. The difference between

The first volume of the Memoirs of that society, this breed, was detailed in my letter (written at transportation upon a good turnpike and upon a containing the observations and experience of prac your request,) of April 4, 1821. Upon reference, common road, is familiar to every one; but the dif- tical farmers and breeders of stock, will, I trust, be moreover, to the account of the exhibition in the ference is immense between even the best turnpike widely disseminated for the instruction and gratifiAmerican Farmer, vol. 4, p. 123, I find that the pre- and a canal. A single horse will draw, with ease, cation of their brethren throughout our country.mium of $10, was given to Mr. Lowry for having twenty-five tons, two miles and a half per hour upon And although, in some respects, the association produced the best steer between the ages of one the latter; but to move an equal weight upon the may be regarded as a rival of this institution, I am and five years. No mention is made of his breed. former, at the same rate, would require forty horses. confident the members of the parent establishment

, The steer having produced only "1302 lbs. of infe- What a vast saving must here be made in animals whom I now address, will never cease to contemrior beef, at the age of seven years, is therefore no and in provender, and a large part of this, too, for plate, with unaffected pleasure, the prosperity and argument against the superior merit of the short the benefit of the husbandman; because his stock usefulness of all its descendants, however numerous horns." I do not wish to make comparisons be- may be less, and his saleable produce greater, and they may become throughout the land. Associatween the genuine specimens of that breed, and he may be enabled to carry many new articles to tions of this kind have performed no small part in Gen. Ridgely's stock, which I have not seen, but market, by all the difference of consumption. Ca- bringing agriculture to its present improved state, which I am willing to believe are worthy of com-nals will also promote the use of oxen instead of and they deserve to be classed among the most effimendation. My sole object is, to correct the er- horses, to the acknowledged profit of the farmer.

cient means of future advancement to that dignified rors into which Agricola has fallen, by arguing from

The introduction of coal will constitute a new era occupation. To these beneficent ends, this society false premises, and to defend the character of a in Pennsylvania. It will enable the farmers of a has been devoted for forty years, in the course of breed of cattle, to which I have long been a steady

which it has sought information, and maintained an friend, although owning none of them. I believe i + See Archives of Useful Knowledge, vol. 1, p. 294; intercourse with similar institutions, and with indimay safely say, that I first called the attention of the ib. p. 358, Philadelphia, 1810; with a portrait of a fine viduals engaged in the promotion of improvements

bull of the improved breed. See also American Far- in the agriculture of Europe, whence it has derived mer, vol. 2, pp. 314, 406.

not only books of great utility, but implements of * American Farmer, vol. 3, No. 4.

| American Farmer, vol. 3, pp. 17, 29.

husbandry of various kinds, as well as grains, grass,

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