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good wind. When the arch of it is reversed, i.e. be-|(as before observed) these may be thick from the proximate to the horizontal, they are long, and called, low instead of above, and the crest, or what ought construction of the chest.
though erroneously, oblique; for they are not so to be the crest, near the withers, is hollow and sunk- A lean shoulder is one having thin withers, cover- obliquely placed, under these circumstances, with en, the horse is said to have an ewe-neck, one of the ed with fine and genuine muscle; a loaded, or over- regard to the leg, as they are when properly congreatest natural deformities common to these parts. loaded shoulder, one with thick withers, clothed with structed. Perhaps, no part of the horse exhibits Under these circumstances it is usual for a dealer to coarse and flabby muscles; and the thickness of the the wisdom of nature more, in regard to the adapsay, that the neck is put on the wrong side upwards; wither, as was said before, depends on the obliquity tation of it, in point of structure, to the purpose for but, in reality, it appears to arise from the junction of the shoulder-blades, and the proximity of their su- which the animal was designed, than this
: in the of it with the chest being too low down. perior borders to the dorsal spines. That horses have racer, for
example, the pasterns are lengthy, and inOf all the points of a horse, the shoulder, for a been fast runners on the turf with bad shoulders, is cline to right angles with the legs, whereby more hackney, or a hunter, is of the utmost consequence; no proof that they would not have galloped better weight is imposed upon the hinder parts of the without a good shoulder, no horse can ride well: he and quicker with good ones; and, we must recollect, fetlock and hoof, in which situations are placed may be a good harness horse, or he may race well; that, in a racer, the hind quarters are of primary im- pieces of mechanism, which, by their elasticity, serve but it is physically impossible for him to carry his portance, the fore quarters only of secondary consi- as so many springs in diminishing the effects of conrider with ease and pleasure on the road: these are deration: but, on the road, we know that bad-shoul cussion so requisite in this animal, which was inno speculative opinions, but facts, grounded on the dered horses are never pleasant nor safe hackneys; tended to perform swift and sudden movements: but experience of all men who know a horse when they see they step short, are puddling walkers, roll about in in the cart-horse, whose action is slow and powerful, one, and the result of our own every-day observa- their trot, and are exceeding likely to go to prayers. the pasterns are short and nearly upright, so that tions; so much does the action of the fore extremi- The fore-leg should descend in a straight line from most of the weight is thrown upon the main bones ties depend on the structure of this part. And now, the bottom of the shoulder, i. e. in a lateral view; of the foot, and thereby his springs, which have less what is it that constitutes a good shoulder, and how but when seen in front, it ought to incline gently in- play that those of the Arabian or thorough-bred, are we to know a good from a bad one? In order to wards: if the elbow projects directly backwards, and are not so much acted upon; consequently less prorender our answers to these questions intelligible, it the toe points with precision forwards, we may rest vision is made against concussion, for strength, and will be necessary for us to deviate a little, and say satisfied that the horse is not twisted in his fore legs. not elasticity, is sought for in the construction of this something on the internal mechanism of the part.-- Turning the toe in or out in standing is apt to be powerful animal. Horses with very oblique pasThe scapula, or shoulder blades, are attached to the accompanied with distortion, or deformity of the terns are more likely to break down, and, for this ribs by many powerful muscles, which move them, limb; this circumstance, therefore, is seldom seen reason, they ought never to be shod with thin-heeled during the action of the animal, round their own without materially lessening the value of an animal: shoes; on the other hand, if they are very short and axis, or, at least, in a very similar way; and though of the two faults, turning them out is the greater, for upright in these joints, they are seldom or ever surethey can only revolve through the small segment of the pointing inwards is seldom carried to the ex- footed, and will soon become stilty and groggy from a circle, that segment is greater in proportion as treme. A good arm is broad and thick, long, when work. they are more obliquely placed against the sides of compared to the leg, and marked exteriorly by mus- The hoof next engages our notice, and this is a the chest; hence it will be seen, that what is called cular prominences; the elbow cannot project too far part of which we should be more than commonly an oblique shoulder is most advantageous for motion. back, and the plumper the muscle is immediately above scrupulous and nice in our inspection: “No foot, no Again, the best-shouldered horses have, generally, it, the greater we may conclude to be the animal's horse,” is a trite but very true adage, and one that is THIN withers; but this is not indispensably necessa- powers.
not kept sufficiently in view by the purchasers of ry to the formation of a good shoulder, for we know The knees ought to be large; broad in front, and horses, or they would not have so frequently to losome, and good judges, who are of a contrary opin- distinctly marked with several bony knobs; lateral ment their hard fate in having gone to market for a ion: we must confess, however, for our own part, thickness is, also, of much importance. When the screw. First, we should look to the size of the hoof; that we prefer fine withers. The thickness of the radius, (the bone of the arm,) instead of descending a small foot is not only objectionable in itself, even withers will depend on the conformation of the chest in a straight line, is directed backwards, so that the though it be a natural formation, but is often a chaand the obliquity of the scapulæ, and not so much knee appears to recede from it, the horse is said to racteristic of disease; but a small and upright foot is as some persons, high in veterinary repute, have sup- be calf-kneed, a term that well conveys the idea we a morbid structure, and is scarcely ever seen in any posed, on the length of the dorsal spines.* Now, if, in have of this formation: it is always objectionable for one but a dancing-master, or light-timbered tit. viewing the fore parts of a horse, we find he rises the saddle, but not for the collar. The leg should White hoofs are to be eyed with suspicion; they are upon the withers, (and we must take care that this fall in exactly perpendicular from the carcass, and really weaker, and more liable to disease, than dark be not an illusion, produced by placing his fore legs be short when compared with the arm, the converse or black ones; and if a horse has one white and the upon rising ground, and that no traces of his blade- of this being indicative of weakness; and of suffi- other dark-coloured, and he is lame, in nine cases bone can be seen under the skin, but all appears cient breadth to' enable a purchaser, even at a dis- out of ten, it is the white foot that is affected. So smooth and level, we may conclude that the shoulder tance, to distinguish the tendons and bone, with per- much with regard to the exterior of the foot before is oblique; though a more direct proof is furnished fect clearness, in their relative situations; for, if he it is taken up. Other considerations now engross our us by carrying the eye from the summit of the with- cannot do this, there is reason for suspecting that he attention. Is it contracted? i. e. is its circularity deers to the extremity of the point of the shoulders. It is gummy, the effect of hard work or premature use, stroyed by narrowness at the heels? A good hoof is it is upright, or nearly so, unless it be in a thorough- and never a natural defect. Should the legs be circular in the tread, or nearly so, measuring as much bred horse, (such a shoulder is only fit for the col- round and straight below, they are called stilty, and from side to side as from toe to heel; but we frelar,) we shall perceive an irregularity under the skin, are never firm and good. But the best and only cor- quently find those that are morbid measuring as just below the withers, by passing our hand over the rect way to judge of legs, is to pass the hand down much from toe to heel as twice the lateral diameter. part; and find, on grasping the part, that it is thick them; if they measure much round, and the sinews On the other hand, the wall of the hoof, which and clumsy, because we are actually at the time feel firm, hard, and distinct, like well-braced cords, should, at all times, be perfectly smooth and free grasping the blade-bone as well as wither-bone; though and if the intervening spaces between bone and from ridges, (the contrary indicating disease,) may
sinew be clean,-free from gum, we may pronounce be very oblique, in which case, it is not only circular, *Bones of the withers. It is contended, on another that they are good.
but spreads out, even to a morbid degree, in the side, that the situation of the scapulæ has nothing to do with the thickness of the shoulder, but that it is wholly sions, proportionate with other parts; no joint, in marshy situations, are most subject to have this kind
The fetlock, as a joint, should be of large dimen-tread. Large heavy horses, such as are bred in low owing to the length of the spinous processes of the dorsal fact, is too large,
providing its bony prominences be of foot, in which parts of the country, it is preferred vertebre. To establish this opinion must be proved two ,
distinctly seen with the naked eye, and its ligaments by many people, who contend that their hunters deparatively so, 'in all thick-shouldered horses, and long in perceptible under our fingers. 1 need not, there-rive advantages from it. As the strong and upright thin-shouldered ones; and, 2dly, that the converse of this fore, further enforce this truth in speaking of these foot is likely to become contracted, so is this subject never happens. To one who has dissected shoulders, these organs. Knuckling over in the fetlocks is a sign of to a disease called fleshy soles; indeed, in the former, are certainly home-thrusts; such, at least, as we could not original mal-formation, such as uprightness in the the sole is concave; but in the latter, it is flat, on parry; though we know that the dimensions of these pasterns, or else is the result of hard work; and the which account the two require different modes of bones may and do, like those of most others, vary in dif- tottering affection of the limb, accompanying this shoeing. ferent horses. But they also vary in their degrees of in- state, is caused by local debility and excessive irriclination; and may not this circumstance alone, in some tability in the nervous system. The pasterñs always chest, belly and loins. So far as regards the consti
The body, or carcass, may be subdivided into the measure, affect the construction of it! At all events, we deserve much of our attention; when good, their tution of the horse, his stamina, or his bottom, no part and thick shoulders; others, with wide chests have thick length is proportionate with that of other parts, and is of more consequence than the chest; but, like shoulders, but with nurrow chests thin, unless the scapulæ they incline, with much obliquily, downwards and that of many other parts, no particular construction be upright. Now, if they who differ with us, mean to as- forwards to the foot: should they approach the per- of it is the best for all kinds of horses. That of the sert
that all this arises solely from the length of the dor- pendicular, they are almost always short, and are cart-horse should be circular, broad in the bosom, and sal spines, we can only say, credat judæus appella. said to be straight or upright; but when they ap- large in the girth; that of the thorough-bred, more circumscribed, but not flat-sided, very deep,
and, carry great weight. These horses are wide in the hips, please us, our next consideration is his soundness; also, extensive in the girth: so that the two differ though their hips are but indistinctly marked, in con- for, though the horse-dealer may declare that he is more in width than in depth. Had the racer posses- sequence of being enveloped by large, coarse, Aabby as sound as a bell, we are to take the phrase as one sed a broad circular chest, his shoulders must have muscles. People are too apt to regard wide hips as having various meanings, and not be deterred from been thick, and his fore legs far apart, and no horse an objectionable point, from their giving to the horse examining him, and narrowly too, on that account. so made can gallop well or fast, though many such that appearance called ragged hips, which, indeed, Sight, wind, and limb, must be the uppermost objects are ridden as hackneys, they are apt to have a roll- are not only ugly, but denote bad conformation, or inquiry; for nine hundre d horses out of a thousand ing gait, and an awkward mode of going altogether, though, of themselves, they denote good make; for are defective in one of these particulars. First, perceptible, at all times, to the connoisseur in horse- the fact is, that ragged hips are produced by a bad then, examine his eyes, and do this before he comes flesh; but we must be careful, even in choosing racers, loin, and a lank, fiat, and weak quarter. Were these out of the stable. Having placed him so that the not to run into the other extreme; for, if both legs parts well formed, we should pronounce the hips to light may fall upon the eyes but in one direction, come out of one hole, or he be flat-sided, he cannot be of the best description. The small quarter is one see that they are of the same size, and equally full; endure much fatigue, is very probably a bad feeder, that is often seen in a horse of this form: though the that the haws are not prominent, and that one does and certainly predisposed to disease of the chest
. A general contour of it may be regular and uniform, it not project more than the other, that the eyes are full and prominent bosom is a fine point; and the ribs is altogether disproportionately small when compared perfectly clear and transparent; and that the pupils, should stand out with sufficient curve to afford space with the carcass: if it grows narrow towards the or apples of the eyes, are exactly alike in size as well enough within: for which reason, some, as we be- hinder part, the animal is often said to be goose- as colour. A sunken eye, or one over which the fore remarked, prefer a thickish shoulder, if it be an rumped. But, of all other structures, the blood-like lids are partly closed, -a projecting haw,-an oblique one; and another advantage accompanying quarter is the best adapted for speed: in it, the tail opaque, or semi-opaque, front,*a pupil dilated, or such conformation is, that we have something between is set on high up, and the hips are high and promi- a white or clouded one,-are so many omens of our legs when mounted, a property, certainly, that nent, but not ragged; so that many of our best racers disease, for which we should reject the prad as a every horse ought to possess. As to the belly, its are higher behind than before, the spaces between cupid, or, what is often worse, a blinker; who will shape will depend much on that of the chest and them and the points of the quarters great, as are shy at all he meets with, and break your neck the Joins. A narrow-carcassed horse can never do much also those between the latter parts and the stifles; first posert you ride him at. Having satisfied your work, readily loses his condition, and with difficulty the haunches want the plumpness and roundness of self in regard to his peepers, have him pulled out, recovers it, being, very commonly, but a queer feed- the full quarter; but, so far from being either lank and next proceed to examine his pipes. If good and er. We should have something to kick against, and or thin, are striped with bold and prominent muscles, sound, on being nipped in the gullet, he will utter unless he carries his dinner with him, his bread-basket which, being free from the adipose and cellular sub- such a sound as cannot fail to strike the ear as the cannot be said to be of the best description.
stance that constitutes the flabbiness of those of the emission of a good pair of bellows; but if his lungs The back should be perfectly straight; a hollow full quarter, are so distinct, even through the skin, are touched, and he is a piper, (that is, broken-windback is a sign of want of strength; but it is often that we can distinguish where one ends and another ed, or having no wind at all, he will give vent to a extremely pleasant to the rider. a roach-back, the re-begins. The stifles should project boldly forwards, dry husky, short, cough. Should a horse be susverse of a hollow back, is by no means handsome, and have a perceptible irregularity of surface. The pected of bad wind, however, the purchaser cannot though some argue that horses having such are thighs are good, when long, thick and muscular; the do better than direct his attention to the flanks, stronger. one objection to it is, that it is apt to chafe little hillocks, or rotundities, upon them, mark the which, under such circumstances, will work either from the saddle. The loins are a point that we course of muscles, and always denote great power; much quicker than ordinarily, or heave deeply, and should always be nice about A hollow back and a the nearer the angles which they form with the with great irregularity; they will be considerably narrow loin are generally indicative of natural weak- parts above and below approach to right angles, the longer in contracting themselves, in order to squeeze ness; but the latter is far more exceptionable than more force the muscles can exert; ergo, the more the wind out||, than in falling to let it in, which they the former a horse so formed can seldom carry powerful the horse, The hock, of all other parts, do, if he is a piper, quite suddenly. But, though much weight, soon knocks up, and often proves a is in the racer of the utmost importance; it should not a piper, he may be a whistler, or, what is worse, bad feeder. his constant hollowness in the flank, and be broad, flat, and of large dimensions. The pro- a roarer: the first may be known by the peculiar his lank appearance altogether, after a day's hunt pulsion of the machine is effected chiefly by those wheezing he is addicted to when put to sudden or ing, demonstrate how incapable he is of bearing the muscles that are attached to the point of the hock; long continued exertion; the latter, by blowing his exertions required of him.
so that the more projecting this is, the greater the horn clamorously under similar circumstances; and The tail, in regard to the manner in which it is force they can exert, simply on the principle of the either may be made to display itself, by the purset on, is not to be overlooked: a horse that carries lever: as a man with a long oar can row with more chaser giving him a snart cut, or even feigning to two good ends, (of which the head forms one, and facility and effect than he who uses the short one, or to do so, with his bit of ash. the tail the other, always looks grand,—is a perfect scull, so can a horse with broad projecting hocks get Thirdly, and lastly, as to the limbs. If, in passing gentleman in his appearance. Above all others, the over the ground with comparative ease to himself, and our hand down his legs, we find any unnatural procharger should possess this point in perfection, to pleasure to his rider. The advantages the half- tuberance, or puffiness, or if, in feeling first one leg coincide with the grandeur of his carriage in the os- bred horse with good hocks possesses as a hunter, and then the other, we discover any difference betentatious parade of a field day. Hinc bellator equus are of no less moment than those a good hock con- tween them, disease more or less is present: he may campo sese ardius infert
. The tail, in most horses, fers upon the racer: his great propelling powers not be lame, but he is not clean upon his legs. Splents, should form, when elevated, a straight line, or near-will enable him to clear his raspers* with so much windgalls, and ringbones, may be present without ocly so, with the back a gentle declivity of the croup, grace that the rider will find it a difficult matter to casioning lameness, but they are all unnatural
, are however, from the summit of the rump, denotes the pound him, and empowers him to make such play in considered blemishes, and are all to be regarded with blood-like quarter, and adds much grace to this part the mud as will soon sew up his lank-thighed and a suspicious eye, as either denoting past hard work, in the thorough-bred: should this line decline very straight-hocked competitors. The point of the hock or betokening future evils. On the same principle, much, the horse is said to be droop-arsed, and the cannot stand out too much; indeed, the greater its a horse may have a spavin, and be only stiff from it quarters lose much of their beauty as well as their dimensions, altogether, the better, provided it be at storting, or he may have a curb, or a thoroughnatural power. Nothing is so ugly, in a full quar- not gummy, or that its various bony projections and pin, and be perfectly sound; but these are still bletered horse, as to see the tail, set on low down, issu- sinewy parts be distinctly seen or felt. If the hock mishes, and as such detract from the intrinsic value ing abruptly
from the rump as if a broomstick had is narrow, its point round, and not well defined, it of the animal. In explaining the advantages rebeen stuck in the place. The dealers, who indiscrimi is said to be straight, and, from being very liable to sulting from good conformation, we are naturally led nately fig all, often spoil the sale of a horse of this curbs, is often called a curby-hock: should its point to make remarks en passant, on the disadvantages description by curling the tail uproards with a dose of be directed inwards, and the toes turned outwards, from bad; in pursuance whereof, I have shown ginger. Some horses carry a good tail naturally, the horse is cow-hocked, or cat-hammed. As this is a why such a structure is bad, a question that necessariothers by means of art, having undergone the ope-part very liable to defect, as well as to original mal-|ly entails upon us the mention of the disorders origiration called
nicking. Gingery or peppery backneys formation, the nicest examination is required to de- nating therein, i. e. the diseases to which such parts, seldom require nicking; indeed, hackneys are often tect all that may prove disadvantageous or injurious in consequence of being mal-formed, are predisposed. called, from this circumstance, cock-tails, in contra- to its function, the proper performance of which is distinction to thorough-breds, who seldom, or never, of so much importance, that the propulsion of the
INOPES. carry any but a drooping tail, better known by the whole machine depends chiefly upon it. name of blood-tail; a cocked-tail would be incompatible with a blood-quarter; hence it is that blood-horses should never be fogged, or nicked. Having selected a horse whose make and shape * Transparent cornea.
A blind one. The quarters may be full, small, or fine and blood
| So called from planting all but the nonpareils. like. Full quarters are such as are possessed by cart- * Rasper, a high and dangerous leap.
|| Expiration. horses, large machine-horses, and hackneys able to Surrounded by inaccessible raspers.
REMARKS ON THE PURCHASE OF A HORSE.
countrymen to credit his assertions, and in inducinther country. The same gentleman who thus early AGRICULTURE.
others to make trial of the sulphate of lime, was at desired to cultivate that artificial grass, in the spring first limited and very discouraging. He neverthe- of 1785, sowed eighty pounds of clover seed on
less continued his labours, and by publishing and thirty-five acres of green wheat, an account of the EXTRACTS FROM AGRICULTURAL AD
otherwise enforcing the facts he possessed on this success of which he sent to this society in 1787. In DRESSES
subject, had the happiness to witness the triumph of the same communication he submits the following Extract from an address delivered before the Phi- his doctrines, over the combined forces of ignorance, views for the improvement of farming. “Breaking ladelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture, at its prejudice, and ridicule. What have been the con-up land is perfectly understood by all our farmers, annual meeting, on the 18th January, 1825, by
sequences flowing from the use of this fertilizing I may say to an extreme degree, which ought to be
principle,and how much it has contribuied to the solid counteracted hy obtaining the art of laying down ROBERTS VAUX.
wealth of Pennsylvania, and of many other states in land with artificial grass seed, otherwise the arable Introduction of Gypsum and Red Clover, and their im- this union, is far beyond the reach of computation. land in the old counties of Pennsylvania will in a portant bearing on the agricultural prosperity of The history of human concerns will furnish few very few years become of little value. Laying down modern Pennsylvania.
such instances as the one we are now contemplat- lands properly being an object of importance on the
ing. That an individual should begin a system in- great scale of agriculture, it is incumbent upon you The use of lime and gypsum, as fertilizers of the tended to revive an exhausted soil, by the applica- to impress the necessity there is, that this art should ground, the introduction of clover, and the rotation tion of a manure which at the time was not known not only be understood, but practised, by all farof crops, constitute the happy causes which gave the to exist on this continent, the theatre of his experi- mers, rich or poor, let their soil be clay, loam, or first grand impulse to the agricultural prosperity of ments; that he should succeed in establishing the any mixture whatever. The earth, like the animal modern Pennsylvania.
principle for which he contended; that he should body, is capable of supporting a certain degree of Nothing, perhaps, requires more perseverance afterwards set on foot the inquiry, where this won- labour, and like it, requires proportionable nutrithan the effort to overcome the injudicious habits of derful agent could be found, so as to place it within ment, rest, and cleanliness; but withhold from the men in connexion with the chief secular pursuit of the reach of the American Farmer, at a price which land those necessary reliefs, and like a starved, their lives. This remark has heretofore applied with he could afford to give for it; that gypsum should over-worked, and neglected slave, it will be worn peculiar force to the husbandmen of Pennsylvania, be discovered in exhaustless quantities in this he-out, and instead of making profit to the owner and and the individual who here entered the lists in this misphere, that thousands of tons of it should be an- benefit to the state, it will impoverish the one, and fearful conflict with prejudice, must be allowed to nually brought, and spread over hundreds of thou- disgrace the other.” He then proceeds to recomhave possessed no inconsiderable share of moral sands of acres in Pennsylvania, restoring the land, mend that the legislature should allow a bounty on courage, united with comprehensive patriotism and and bringing forth abundance, are the astonishing clover seed, and adds, “I leave the society
to press benevolence.
results, and the high reward which this constant this measure, for it is deserving of its notice, and The merit of introducing gypsum to the notice of friend to the interests and prosperity of our hus- the full countenance of every legislator
: I will boldthe farmers of the United States, belongs, with va- bandmen, has lived to know and to enjoy. Whilst ly assert, it will prove of more benefit to agriculrious other important suggestions, to my venerable our president was thus earnestly engaged in bestow-ture and stock in the present state of our country, friend, who has so long, so disinterestedly, and so ing incalculable benefits on our state and country, than any thing that can be done. Reduce the price ably presided over this institution;—a gentleman he was by no means unmindful of other interesting of clover seed, and instead of bare fields, daily whose distinguished services need not my voice
to and important improvements in rural economy. His washing away, you will see them covered with enlarge the plenteous reward of gratitude and res- ancient patrimonial estates in the vicinity of Phila- grass and cattle.** Sentiments, such as these, were pect which crown the evening of his useful day. delphia, then under his immediate direction, fur- no doubt regarded as visionary and extravagant by He well knows that I would not offend him by adu- nished practical evidence of the sincerity and utili- the great majority of farmers at that time on the lation; but as an inducement to every mind desir- ty of his doctrines concerning agriculture. It was active stage of life, yet this practical instructor has ous to put forth its energies in the good work
in upon those farms that the first examples were shown lived to witness the accuracy of his opinions, and which he has ever taken the deepest interest, I feel of the use of lime and gypsum, of the value of sever-the fulfilment of his prediction, to an extent far bebound to exhibit the surprising results which well al new grasses, of trench and fall ploughing, of deep yond what he may have anticipated. directed and untiring efforts may accomplish. Like culture, &c. and there also were cultivated upon a
(Further extracts in our next.) the early patron of husbandry and rural affairs in large scale, many of the roots since generally and England, our Fitzherbert found leisure amidst the profitably adopted. Upon his inclosures were to be duties of a profession which gave him eminence at seen some of the finest breeds of horses, cattle and PROCEEDINGS OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIthe bar, and subsequently distinction on the bench, sheep, then known in the state. I have heard him
ETIES. to make and to give to the public his judicious ex- say with what mortification he beheld, during the periments in agriculture.
revolutionary war, eleven out of fourteen superior Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture. In the year 1770, he first became acquainted with blooded colts shot down for their hides, by a party gypsum. A small quantity of which was then sent of British marauders, after in vain attempting to
Stated meeting, March 15, 1825—Dr. Mease, from Germany to a merchant of this city, with some rescue them from such wanton destruction.
Vice President, in the chair; the following commuinformation of its value as a manure, then but re
His household, too, was a pattern for the imita- nications were read: cently and accidentally discovered. It was said con- tion of farmers in the manufacture of linen and
1. The answer of Gen. Lafayette to the address of cerning it, that a labourer who had been employed woollen fabrics, far beyond the demand for domes- the Society, presented to him by Mr. Breck, reprein mixing stucco mortar, passed and repassed from tic purposes; displaying an attention to a branch of sentative in Congress from Philadelphia county, his work to his cottage, across a sterile field. The business, now too much neglected by the generality and a member of the Society, with his certificate of succeeding season his path threw up a luxuriant crop of our rural fellow citizens, at an expense, I fear, of
honorary membership of the Society. of grass, which he attributed to the plaister that fell habits of simplicity, which were proverbial in for
2. A letter to the Chairman from Benjamin Harfrom his clothes, and was thus induced to make an mer days.
rison, of Berkeley, Charles-City county, Virginia, experiment near his dwelling, with the remainder of
About the time that gypsum was first brought, a
dated Jan. 21, 1825, in reply to a letter addressed the article in his possession. The effects astonished small quantity of red clover seed also reached Penn to him, respecting the cure which it was understood every beholder, and the cottager received a reward sylvania, and was sown in gardens, and on pasture
he had effected of that fatal disease, the Bloody from his landlord for divulging the secret. Our pre- lots in the neighbourhood of this city: In the year berries. The medicine was used upon the sugges
Murrain in cattle, by a drench of the infusion of cedar sident, aware of these facts, began his experiments 1773, a practical farmer,* then beginning to imwith a single bushel of gypsum, obtained from a prove his estate at Flatland Ford,
in the county of tion of Mr. Jones, of Gloucester, Virginia
. A quart maker of stucco ornaments in Philadelphia, and af- Montgomery, unable to procure, on this side of the
of the infusion, containing about half a pint of the terwards pursued and extended them in proportion Atlantic, a sufficient quantity of this seed for his berries, was given at a time, and in nearly every to his means. Not long after, about twenty tons of
purpose, obtained from England a cask of it, which, case, the good effects were almost instantaneous; à this valuable material came as ballast in a ship from owing to some injury sustained on the voyage, was
considerable discharge from the bladder and bowels London to this port, without the least knowledge of found unfit for use. This disappointment was the followed, and in five or ten minutes time, the aniits worth by the captain who brought it, which stock more to be lamented, because his projected experi
mal began to eat. In nineteen cases out of twenty, formed the foundation of the vast improvements to ment would have been the first in that vicinity, per- a perfect cure was effected. In many cases the
So rapid our husbandry, subsequently resulting from its gen-haps in the state, with clover upon a large scale. drench was repeated four or five times
. eral use. Having altogether satisfied himself of the This failure, moreover, prevented an increase and was the progress of the disease, that cattle were fertilizing effects of plaister of Paris, Judge Peters distribution of the seed until after the war then exdisseminated the knowledge he had acquired through isting between the American colonies and the mo
* Ten thousand bushels of clover seed have, within a many parts of Pennsylvania, and the then neigh
few months past, been exported from Philadelphia to bouring provinces; but his sucoess in persuading his
* James Vaux.
Europe, chiefly to England.
found dead in the fields without the owners having of Memoirs of the Philadelphia Ag. Soc.) viz." The William C. Bradley, D. Azro, A. Buck, Samuel any apprehensions of their being sick. As a pre- loss of hoofs in cattle, and mortification of the feet Crafts, Henry Olin, William A. Palmer,and Horatio ventive, Mr. William Winge, of James River, in- in the human subject. The remedies which Dr. Seymour, of Vermont. formed Mr. Ilarrison of the use of a mixture of clay, Arnell found effectual, were stimulating applications Stephen Van Rensselaer, and Moses Hayden, of salt, (in the common proportion for stock,) tar and to the feet, such as, 1st, poultices of soap, rye flour, New York. powdered brimstone. For fifty head, one gallon of and salt; 2d, a wash of beef brine, applied several James De Wolf, and Job Dursee, of Rhode Island. tar, and half a pound of brimstone, per week, were times a day, and rubbing the feet with an ointment James Lanman, of Connecticut. employed. These ingredients were put in a trough made of the plant bitter-sweet. These applications Samuel Breck, and Samuel D. Ingham, of Pennto which the cattle had free access. The disease it enabled the part to throw off the disease. Of the sylvania. appears is endemic,* in Virginia, particularly in cattle thus treated, only one lost its hoofs. An ob- James Monroe, and James Barbour, of Virginia. the districts bordering on tide water, and is highly vious preventive is to avoid the use of hay affected John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. contagious. The farmers of the United States will with ergot
. Early cutting of the grass should be at- Wm. Cranch, and Wm. Wirt, of the District of have good reason to thank Mr. Harrison for the tended to.
Columbia, communication of an effectual cure for a disease
By the provisions of the constitution, the president which has destroyed thousands of cattle in the Unit
of the society may belong to any state, the vice-preed States. In 1819 it prevailed with great mortali
REPORT OF THE SEASON
sidents to be one from each of the six New England ty in Chester county. Some papers on the subject
states. The seat of the society to be in Boston, with will appear in the fifth volume of Memoirs of the AT STEPHENSTOWN, RENSELLAER COUNTY, N. YORK. branches in the other New England capitals
. First Society, now in press by Abm. Small. 3. A letter to the Chairman from Dr. Kercheval, of To the Editor,
March 25, 1825. election to be in June.
The duties of the society to beto find out the Bardstown, Kentucky, in reply to one requesting some explanation and further account of a fatal memoranda of things that have taken place aná in order to ascertain the degree of perfection to
I take the liberty of sending you the following best breeds of sheep which now exist in the country, disease that prevailed among horses, and horned been seen in this quarter of the country the present which sheep have already been brought in the U. cattle in that vicinity, and described by Dr. Kerche
The reason of my sending it for insertion States——to procure, so far as their means may enable val in the Medical Recorder of Philadelphia," vol in your paper is, that a comparison of seasons is them, from other countries, specimens of their best was a swelling, sometimes originating in the throat, is, that I hope your paper may outlive the fleeting thrive and become productive in the eastern states 4 p. 445. The external symptom of the disease, useful to the agriculturist, and a further inducement breeds, in order to ascertain how far the breeds now but generally at the breast, extending along the
memory of the present age, and at a future day a sides to the flanks, and uniting across the loins.These swellings were soft and elastic, and after death if similar occurrences happen. comparison may take place, and we shall then know to disperse the different breeds over New England,
in order to ascertain what food and pasturage is best were found to contain grumous blood, and coagulated lymph. The blood was in some instances so indeed there has been no winter. "On the 12th oi reports, essays, and otherwise, to excite a spirit for
The spring in this quarter is remarkably open, adapted to the different breeds-and, generally, by dissolved as to transude the skin. The progress of March, 1825, blue jays, chippen birds, blue birds, the improvement of sheep and wool in every part of the disease was very rapid. Cattle brought to the fold in the morning apparently well
, died before a swallow were seen; in fact, all the feathered songs: his own proper hand,” and becoming subject to asrobbins, sparrows, meadow larks, and now and then
Every person subscribing to the constitution “with noon: and many that were feeding in the evening, ters” had made their appearance as is usual at a were found dead in the morning. A serious peculi- much later period of the season; in the same week, sessments, to be a member. It is hoped, that to the arity of the disease was, the communication of the numberless grasshoppers were seen in droves, as in above list, there will be large additions of our yeovirus or morbid matter generated in the body of the animal to those persons who tlayed the animals that and the frogs, as in warm weather, were peeping in result, both to the agricultural and manufacturing
autumn; the striped snakes were crawling as usual, manry; and we are confident much good will be the had died of it." From a small and circumscribed vesicle, containing a dark and turbid fluid, a malig, and repairing their fences, and even the night bird every direction; the farmers were ploughing fields
interests of New England from the association. nant and destroying ulcer was formed, which ended who screeches to us in May, is now amongst us
[There is, perhaps, no branch of agricultural rein a mortification of the part, and was accompanied high in the air at evening.
source more shamefully neglected in the middle and by chills and fever, severe pains in the joints, and
I have conversed with one of the oldest of the southern states, than their capacity to extend and imalong the course of the spine, and prostration of the inhabitants of the town, and also one amongst the prove their flocks of sheep. Whilst a Connecticut vital powers. Delirium and death followed. No first settlers, he is a person of observation and good farmer will keep a flock of 300 on a farm of one animal. In the human subject, stimulating applica- winter and spring in his life; persons of a younger mental faculties, he tells me he never knew such a
third, or one hali as many acres, deriving from it a
net profit of $600, besides its natural increase, a Mations, consisting of carbonate of potasli, and solutions of sal ammoniac in vinegar, to the parts affect- age, but of experience, say the same; in fact, the ryland farmer on 600 acres, believes that he cannot ed, after removing the dead flesh, and bark inter- hard as they would be several weeks later in com. killed by dogs! Then why not discard your law ma
sustain fifty! Some assign one excuse, some another: frost has left the ground, and the roads settled as
some say, that every few years they are liable to be nally, were successfully applied and given. 4. A paper on the hoof disease of horned cattle, is in the interior, and far from the seaboard. mon seasons. It is to be borne in mind that this
kers, who are wanting in intelligence and energy to by the Chairman. This disease was shown by facts communicated by the late Joseph Cooper, of N. Jer
One thing more—As I profess to have a genuine remedy the evil, by subjecting the owner of any dog
that is proved to have killed a sheep, to three or four, sey, by William Rush, an extensive grazier, late of knowledge of fruit trees, got by practical experience Philadelphia, and others, to proceed from the use, ing my ideas together, to send you for publication. Wenter into associations to get good rams in every neigh
and some considerable reading, I have been throw- or, if necessary, ten fold damages? Let the farmers by the stock, of hay made of the poa viridis, green or
bourhood, and to discard every member of the legis spear grass, growing on meadows which were de
E. F. B.
lature who comes home from Annapolis without havprived of their accustomed supply of water, in con
ing done something to protect their sheep and the gen sequence of which the seeds of the grass became
neral interests of agriculture. Let them bring the proaffected with ergot, similar to that which appears in
ceedings of those who set up for law makers to the rye. The disease appeared to great extent in Orange IMPROVEMENT OF WOOL. test of practical utility, rather than to names and county, New York, in the years 1818 and 1820, and has been described by Dr. Arnell, of that county.
A PLAN of an association has been formed, to be
shadows, without meaning or substance. Does a
in Maryland for the once dignified and Dr. A. mentions the prevalence of the disease, also, called “The New England Society for the IM- important office of lawgiver, the question is too in Blooming Grove,
New York; the very place in PROVEMENT OF Wool,” the constitution of which seldom enforced,—is he familiar with the political which Mr. Rush had seen the disease during the already bears the signatures of
John Quincy Adams, Samuel C. Allen, William gislation of his own as respects all the great inte
economy of other states? or the defects in the lethe produce of bog meadow soil. The same effects Bainbridge, Francis Baylies, Joshua Clapp, B. W. rests of society? does he know what agriculture followed the use of the diseased hay by the cattle, Crowninshield, David Cummings, Samuel Dana, suffers for the want of good laws, or how it is opas were observed to take place in France in persons
James H. Duncan, Henry W. Dwight, James Lloyd, pressed by bad ones? Sad, and we fear too true who ate bread made from the flour of rye, which E. H. Mills, Jonas Sibley, Wm. Sturges, and Daniel as is this picture, there is no hope of improvement, was affected with ergot [for particulars, see 3d vol. Webster, of Massachusetts.
unless means be taken to enlighten the rising geneIchabod Bartlett, Samuel Bell, Matthew Harvey, rations. We firmly believe that by some wholesome
John F. Parrott, and Thomas Whipple, jr. of New- legislative provisions, and the donation of ever $50 Endemic diseases are those that exist in a country Hampshire. from causes connected with it, as the fever and ague Wm. Burleigh, Ebenezer Herrick, John Holmes, productions and moral power of the agricultural
per annum to each county, an augmentation of the in marshy districts.
Enoch Lincoln, and Stephen Thatcher, of Maine. Tcommunity would speedily ensue, that would repay
the amount bestowed a thousand fold.—But our pre- Whilst some of our most wealthy citizens refuse not far from me. They were certainly under eleven sent purpose was to show by publishing the above, to give more than five dollars, others go as far as two months old, and yet with this weight they were by from a Boston paper, that even in Massachusetts, dollars, and others refuse to give a single one, to no means too fat for my family use, for which purwhere wool is already an article of primary impor-promote agricultural improvements in Maryland, pose they were cured. They would stand thus in ae tance with farmers, and where sheep are better pro- here we have the example of an officer in a foreign count current: tected, their value (as a leading object of attention) service, acting under the refined and generous im
DR. is so well understood as to have occasioned an as- pulse of attachment to his native spot, making offer- First cost and charge,
$17 53 3-4 sociation of some of the most distinguished men of ings of the most substantial kind, in whatever he can Labour, paid by the large quantity of the nation, for the "improvement of wool.” Even understand to be most conducive to the welfare of manure made by them,
00 00 the President of the United States has thought it those to whom he is bound by the ties of youthful Profit,
24 85 1-4 worthy of him to patronise it, while, we dare say, associations—ties so universal, so congenial to all some village or old field politician, in Maryland, virtuous hearts, as naturally to raise the indignant
$42 39 if applied to, would call it a sheepish proposition! question,
At the last meeting of the Board of Trustees, at “Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, Eutaw, before the above notice appeared, a com- Who never to himself hath said,
Net pork, 892 lbs. at 4 1-2 cts. $40 14 mittee was appointed, at the instance of J. S. Skin- This is my own, my native land!
Lard from entrails, 25 lbs. which I sold ner, to consider and report their opinions and views Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
at 9 cents,
2 25 on the following points:
As home his footsteps he hath turned, 1. On the capabilities of this state to rear, profitaFrom wandering on a foreign strand?
$42 39 bly, a much greater number of sheep—what are the If such there breathe, go, mark him well, impediments to the augmentation of our flocks, and For him, no Minstrel raptures swell;
AGRICULTURAL REPORTS. how can these impediments be best removed?
High though his titles, proud his name,
Nero-Brunswick, N. J.— There is every appear2. What breeds might be most advantageously Boundless his wealth, as wish can claim; reared?--And,
ance of a fine crop of fruit-particularly apples.
Despite those titles, power, and pelf, 3. What measures, if any, can be taken by the
The wretch concentered all in self, Maryland Agricultural Society, to show the profit Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
LITERATURE. which might arise to the agriculturists of the state And, doubly dying, shall go down from this source, if improved to its practicable ex- To the vile dust, from whence he sprung, tent?] Unwept, unhonored, and unsung!”]
MARYLAND LAW INSTITUTE.
[The moral as well as the physical sciences deserve BREED OF HORSES.
a portion of our attention, and though the latter At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Weight-keep-and net profit of three. fall more particularly within the scope of our design, Massachusetts Agricultural Society, held the 22d inst.
yet we have great pleasure, on fit occasions, to call
Near Georgetown, D. C. March 27, 1824. the cordial thanks of the board were voted to Admi
the attention of our readers to the progress of the ral Sir Isaac COFFIN, of the British navy, for a Stud
The following is at your service, to use as you former, and the means devised in our country, for Horse and Mare, of the Yorkshire Cleveland Bays, please--I make no comment.
their acquisition. The importance of the enterprise
Having sometimes seen notices of hogs being in which Mr. Hoffman is now engaged, cannot be the most highly approved breed in England, for the coach and for the road, and which were ready to be
raised to pretty large weights at early ages, I offer made too generally known. In addition to his pubpresented by him, and to be placed at the direction to you the result of my feeding three during the last lic lectures, as Professor of Law in the University of the Society in Liverpool. They are expected to
of Maryland, he has established an institution for arrive in this city in June, when notice will be given small pigs, which I ascertained
were not more than union. In a circular letter addressed by Mr. Hoff
About the 10th of March, 1824, I purchased three the reception of students of law from all parts of the where they will be placed.-(Boston paper. five to six weeks old—however, they were so small man to students, he has fully explained his views.
that all three were fetched home in a bag on the Would our limits permit it, we should be glad to [The members of the Massachusetts Agricultural
shoulder of my labourer-they were kept loose in an insert the whole letter. We must be content, howSociety, who are, without any exaggeration, amongst enclosed barn yard until the month of June, when I the most substantial and enlightened citizens of this
ever, with the following extract.) country, will know how to appreciate the value of had a good pen made, with a boarded floor, and well
“Presuming it highly probable that a course of sheltered. They were killed on the 15th December public lectures, particularly one of such vast extent the present above mentioned. For our own part, we cannot register it, without paying the tribute of our There united weights were last, and weighed on the 17th:
as that in which I am engaged, would require vari. feeble praise to one whose munificence and lionora. Besides lard from the entrails
892 lbs. ous auxiliaries to insure its eventual success, I open
25 ble recollections of his native spot, we have so often
ed an establishment which I denominated the Maryhad occasion to admire.
land Law Institute. Too little regard, we think, has
Total By Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin the state of Massa
917 lbs. been paid in all countries to the comforts and con
Or, average weight, at, say, 11 months, 302 1-3 lbs. venience of those engaged in the toils of a long and chusetts has been presented, within our notice, of
each. improved domestic animals which must have cost
arduous course of study: Students of law, in comseveral thousand dollars!! The value of the meliora- Their cost and mode of feeding as under; viz. mon with those of divinity and medicine, cannot tion thus to be wrought upon their native stocks, it First cost,
be too strongly invited to constancy in their pursuits, would be difficult to estimate. We remember, at the Up to July they had only the slop and
and this can hardly be expected, unless their studies moment, donations by him of a stallion, of the race waste of the house (a small family;)
are directed, their doubts relieved, and the locus stuof the London brewer's dray horse; a bull of the im- from that time to the last week in
diorum be in itself inviting. When the numerous proved short horns breed, and a pair of the celebrat- October, they had in addition, the
days and nights, perhaps of many years, are to be ed Hereford cattle; and, now, a pair of the York- fallen apples and peaches, on which
spent in intellectual toils, it is fit that some attention shire Cleveland bays, male and female—This is the they seemed to thrive very fast, and
be paid even to physical comfort. With this design stock which we have long been anxious to see in- also corn, 9 bushels, cost,
3 47 1-2 the establishment has been opened in a spacious troduced into Maryland. It will be remembered, that And some rye meal, 16 1-4 bushels,
and commodious building in South, near Market the late Rob't Patterson, seeing in England the great which being fusty, cost me only, 3 31 1-4 street, in this city, the apartments of which have been value of this blood, in their coach horse, bought a fine This was mixed and fermented with
handsomely fitted up, and arranged in every respect colt on the spot, for which he gave 100 guineas the slop of the house. From the last
for the accommodation of students. The advantages that horse has since been sold into Washington of October to the 15th Dec. they
of this institution are, in brief, a course of methodicounty, for $1500—still we are without the breed, had 3 1-2 barrels of corn, at $2, 7 00 cal study adapted to the student's progress, and their because no farmer who has the means, has had the
separate views in regard to the place in which they despirit to import a mare, though there is every reason
$17 53 3-4 sign to practice their profession; colloquial examinato believe that her first stone colt would more than
tions; union of practical with theoretical knowledge; pay all expenses.*
There was nothing particular in the breed of these oral and written discussions of legal subjects; frequent
pigs, as they were bought fortuitously of a farmer presentation of questiones vexatæ, and resort to an ex*M:Ir. Lewis, a worthy citizen, near Baltimore, has a
tensive library in every department of legal science prodigiously fine young horse,' by Exile, (Mr. Patter- mares this season. This colt could not Be had for $1000, and general knowledge.” son's imported horse,) out of an Eagle blood mare. He yet are gentlemen afraid to import a mare that would
[The above extract sufficiently explains the generis very large, of fine figure, and will be let to a few cost, in foal, in England, about 60 guineas!
al objects of the institution. Mr. Hoffman lectures