« НазадПродовжити »
class to which he belongs. The place from which a the superintendent, will have charge of the second No cadet shall go beyond the walls of West Point, cadet is appointed is to be considered as his place part of the course of practical military instructio. or such other limits as may be prescribed. of residence, and will not be altered unless directions He will also have charge of, and be accountable fo, Any cadet who shall insult a sentinel by words or to that effect be given by the war department. Care the ordnance and ordnance stores furnished for the gesture, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severemust be taken that the names of the cadets are cor- use of the military academy.
ly punished. rectly given, and inscribed at length on the rolls. The sword-master will teach the exercises of the Any cadet who shall answer for another at any Instruction.
sword, at such times and under such regulations sroll-call, or who shall engage any other cadet to anthe superintendent may prescribe.
swer for him, shall be dismissed the service or otherFor instruction in mathematics, the 3d and 4th
Each professor and instructor at the head of a st-wise less severely punished. classes shall be separately divided into convenient parate department, shall be the judge of the prope No cadet shall visit any other room, or be absent sections, which sections shall be counted off from mode of conveying instruction in his own depart from his own, during the hours of study, or between the mathematical merit-roll of each class respective- ment, and held responsible for the correctness tattoo and reveille, without permission from the proly, in such manner that the 1st section shall consist that mode.
per authority. of the first cadets on that roll; the 2d of those next Each instructor having immediate charge of 1 On Sundays, except during the hours of divine in order, and so on. The 1st section, thus formed, class, or section of a class, for instruction, shall kees service, at which all the members of the academic shall be under the immediate tuition of the profes- daily notes of their progress and relative merit; anl staff and cadets must be present, every cadet will sor, and each of the others, of an assistant professor at the end of each week, shall report thereon to the attend to reading or study at his own room. No apof mathematics. superintendent
plication for leave of absence shall be made on that The instruction in each particular branch of the An abstract of the weekly class reports, exhibi- day. course of mathematics will be proportioned to the ing the names of those who have been chiefly mer- Any cadet who shall behave indecently or irrevecapacity of the different sections; the more profound torious, as also of those who have been least so, n rently while attending divine service, or shall use and difficult investigations of the course, generally, the respective sections, shall be made out by the any profane oath or execration, or profane the Sabbeing reserved for the higher sections. For instruction in the French language, the two department. superintendent, and forwarded weekly to the wa bath, shall be dismissed or otherwise less severely
punished, according to the nature of his offence. lower classes will be divided into sections, accord
Discipline. ing to the French merit-roll, in like manner as in
The cadets are not only required to abstain from
all vicious, immoral, or irregular conduct, but they mathematics, each section to consist of not more The professors, teachers, and cadets of the Mii- are enjoined, on every occasion, to conduct themthan twenty pupils. The sections of the 3d class tary Academy, being a part of the Corps of Engi- selves with the propriety and decorum of gentlemen. will be instructed one hour every other day, and neers, are by law subject to the rules and articles of Any cadet who shall be guilty of conduct unbecomthose of the 4th class one hour daily. The teacher war.
ing an officer and a gentleman, shall be dismissed of drawing will daily give instruction to the 2d and The cadets, not being commissioned officers, may the service. 3d classes in the elements of drawing.
be tried by a regimental or garrison court martid; No cadet shall send or accept a challenge to fight, For instruction in natural philosophy, the 2d class but a cadet so tried, may appeal, in the manner pre-(with deadly weapons,) nor be the bearer of such a will be divided into convenient sections at the com- scribed by the rules and articles of war.
challenge, written or verbal; nor in any way, directmencement of that class, according to the roll of No cadet shall, in any case, be sentenced to suferly or indirectly, countenance or promote a duel; nor mathematical merit; the first section so formed to corporal punishment; nor kept in close confinement upbraid another for declining to fight; on pain of be under the immediate instruction of the professor, for a longer period than twelve days, nor be dismis- being dismissed the service of the United States. and each of the others, of an assistant professor.ed the service, without the sanction of the Presidest Every cadet who is knowing to a challenge to The instruction in natural philosophy, as in mathe of the United States.
fight having been, or about to be, sent or accepted matics, will be proportioned to the capacity of the As obedience and subordination are essential to by any other cadet, shall without delay, give infordifferent sections.
the purposes of this institution, any cadet who shall mation thereof to the superintendent. The 1st class for instruction in engineering will disobey a command of the superintendent-of any No cadet shall use any reproachful or provoking be divided according to the roll of general merit in- professor, teacher, instructor, or other superior offi- speeches or gestures to another, on pain of being to sections, the first of which to be under the imme- cer; or behave himself in a refractory or disrespect- confined, and of asking pardon of the party offended diate tuition of the professors, and each of the others, ful manner, shall be dismissed, or otherwise less se- in presence of his commanding officer. of an assistant professor. The instruction of each verely punished, according to the nature and degree Any cadet who shall, by any means whatever, trawill be proportioned to its capacity, and the princi- of his offence.
duce or defame another, shall be dismissed or otherples of engineering shall, as far as practicable, be No cadet shall drink, nor shall bring or cause to wise les severely punished, according to the nature demonstrated by actual operations on the ground. be brought, into either barracks or camp, nor shall of his offence.
The professors of mathematics, natural philoso- have in his room or otherwise in his possession, wine, Any cadet who shall strike, or in any manner offer phy, and engineering, in order to ascertain the pro-porter, or other spirituous or intoxicating liquor; violence to another, shall be punished in like manficiency of the sections entrusted immediately to nor shall go to any inn, public house, or place where ner. their assistants, and the manner in which their duty any of those liquors are sold, without permission Any cadet who shall beat, or otherwise maltreat has been performed, shall occasionally, and in rota- from the superintendent, on pain of being dismissed any citizen, shall besides being amenable to the tion, when there are more than two sections, instruct the service of the United States.
laws, be otherwise punished according to the nature the sections entrusted to the assistants, the periods No cadet shall play at cards, or any other game of his offence. for which will be fixed by the academic board, and of chance, nor bring or cause to be brought, into No cadet shall sign any certificate or statement reported to the war department; and the assistant either barracks or camp, nor shall have in his room, relative to personal altercations between members professor, when the professor has his section under or otherwise in his possession, the cards or other of the academy or army, or to any transactions of a instruction, shall take charge of the section usually materials used in these games, on pain of being dis- private or personal nature, without permission from under the instruction of the latter. Lectures on missed the service of the United States.
the superintendent. such portions of the studies as are most suitable to No cadet shall in any way use tobacco, nor bring. All cadets who shall combine, or agree together, them, may, with the assent of the superintendent, be it or cause it to be brought into either barracks or to hold no friendly or social intercourse with another, substituted in lieu of the usual mode of instruction. camp, nor have it in his room, or otherwise in his and any cadet who shall endeavour to persuade The 1st class will be taught, entire or in two or possession.
others to enter into such combination or agreement, more sections, (according to circumstances,) the No cadet shall cook or prepare food in either bar- shall be dismissed the service, or otherwise severely course of geography, history, and ethics.
racks or camp, nor give an entertainment there or punished. Three lectures will be delivered to the 2d class, elsewhere, without permission.
All combinations, under any pretext whatever, each week, on the first part of the course of chemis- No cadet shall be allowed to keep a waiter, horse, are strictly prohibited. Any cadet who, in concert try, and the same number to the first class on the or dog.
with others, shall adopt any measure, under presecond part of the course of chemistry, and on mi- Any cadet who shall wantonly damage any quar- tence of procuring a redress of grievances, or sigu neralogy
ters or their appurtenances, shall, besides making any paper, or enter into any written or verbal agreeThe cadets shall be organized into companies by good such damages, be otherwise punished accord- ment, with a view to violate or evade any regulation the superintendent, for the purpose of military in- ing to the nature of his offence.
of the academy, or to do any act contrary to the struction.
Any cadet who shall lose, damage, destroy, sell, rules of good order and subordination, or who shall The instructor of tactics, under the direction of or otherwise dispose of, his arms, accoutrements, endeavour to persuade others to do the same, shall the superintendent, will have charge of the infantry books, instruments, or any other public property in be dismissed the service. drills and instruction, and also of the police and dis- bis possession, shall
, besides paying for the same, be If any cadet shall consider himself wronged by cipline of the cadets.
otherwise punished aceording to the nature of his another, or by an officer, he is to complain thereof The instructor of artillery, under the direction of offence.
to the superintendent, who is hereby required to ex
amine into the said complaint, and to take the pro-rally of a bluish or grey cast, but, when cut, inter- naturally abounded, was twenty-four tons elever per measures for redressing the wrong complained ially of a fresh greenish colour.
hundred weight and three-quarters per acre, which of. Should the complaining
party be refused redress, Saintsoin requires a clean soil; the seeds should is upwards of one-third more than is generally yieldhe may appeal to the war department, through the ie fresh, and sown towards the close of February, ed by lucerne.* superintendent of the academy, whose duty it shall or early in March. The quantity varies from four. 8. Burnet, (Poterium sanguisorba.) - This vegeta be to forward the appeal to the secretary of war, eight bushels per acre, broad-cast, according to ble is chiefly used for early sheep-feeding, though it for his examination and order on the same. the nature of the land; though four bushels are, in may also be cultivated with great advantage for
All publications relative to the military academy, general, fully sufficient in the drill-culture three soiling cattle. It is very hardy, being little affected or to transactions at the military academy, are strict- lushels are enough. Saintfoin, indeed, is some- by droughts in summer, or by severe frosts in the ly prohibited. Any professor, assistant professor, imes sown with barley, as with clover, in the pro-winter, and will even vegetate in that season. If it teacher, academic officer, or cadet, therefore, who portion of from one to three bushels per acre, with be reserved for the purpose of making hay, though shall be at all concerned in writing or publishing he addition of five pounds of trefoil, which last is its produce is in general abundant, it ought to be any article of such character, in any newspaper or said to check the growth of weeds till the saintsoin cut early, otherwise it will become coarse. In the pamphlet, or in writing or publishing any handbill, las taken deep root. During the first year, no cat- culture of this plant, it is of great importance to shall be dismissed the service, or otherwise severely de ought to be allowed to graze on it, as their feet have good seed, for which purpose a proper spot punished.
vill injure it, nor should it be fed down by sheep should be selected; and as the seeds shed when ripe, No cadet shall apply for, or receive, money from he succeeding summer, as they are apt to bite the they ought to be cut in the morning while they are his parents, or from any person whomsoever, with cops of the roots, the growth of which would be moist with the dew, and thrashed out on the same, out permission from the secretary of war, on recom- immediately checked. In the following summer, a or on the following day. Those who wish to save mendation of the superintendent any infraction or crop of hay máy be made, and the after-math fed the seed should, according to Rocque, who first inviolation of which will be considered a positive dis-cown with cattle of any description, excepting sheep, troduced the culture of burnet, feed the grass till obedience of orders, and punished accordingly. for the reason above assigned. At the end of seven May, otherwise it will be too rank and lodge. Bur
The strictest attention to study and all other du- cr eight years, the soil should be manured with net flourishes best on dry soils, and may be sown in ties, will be required. Every cadet therefore, who cung-or, if it be sandy, with marl.
April, May, June, July, and August; for sheep passhall absent himself from duty of any kind, and fail In case the first season for mowing prove wet, tures it should be broad-cast, or sown with the hand; to render a satisfactory excuse in writing, for such the saintsoin ought to be left for seed; it should, for other purposes, it may be advantageously drill absence, shall be reprimanded, put upon extra duty, however, on no account be cut before it is in full ed. During the first year, it will require to be kept or confined, according to the circumstances of the boom, as the quality of the hay would thus be mate- very clear from weeds, which may be effected by case; and any cadet who shall be habitually negli- rally injured--but if cut and given to cattle in a harrowing-for, being a strong, tap-rooted plant, gent of his studies or other duties, shall be dismissed green state, it would produce a second crop in the the teeth of the harrow will not injure the roots: the service.
same year. This plant is chiefly consumed in the and, in the second year, it will become sufficiently The professors, assistant professors, and teachers, form of hay; but, whether thus used, or employed strong to choke all other grasses. will be held accountable for the regular and orderly in soiling. it is from its great succulence equally 9. Cichory, (Cichorium intybus,) also called comconduct of their respective classes or sections while valuable for feeding cattle, and especially horses, mon wild succory, is a vegetable, the value of under their immediate instruction.
which are asserted to be materially strengthened which, for feeding cattle, has only been known It shall be the duty of every professor, teacher, by it, without the aid of oats. It ought, however, within a few years
. On blowing sands, or weak assistant professor, or acting assistant professor, as to be remarked, that saintfoin, though it increases and poor soils, Mr. Young thinks it superior to well as of every officer stationed at West Point, the quantity, does not, in the opinion of some far- any other plant; and he observes, that if it be who is knowing to any violation of the academic mers, improve the quality of milk in cows; while by sown with a portion of burnet and cock's-foot grass, rules and regulations, or to any crime, irregularity, others it is asserted, not only to make the cream it will form a layer for six or seven years, far neglect, or other improper conduct, of which a cadet rcher, but also to give the butter a better colour exceeding those made with trefoil, rye-grass, and has been guilty, to report the same without delay to and more delicate flavour.
white clover: The best seed is undoubtedly that the superintendent
Swampy soils are by no means congenial to this which is obtained by the farmer from the plants All immoralities, disorders, misbehaviour, or neg- plant; but as there are numerous dry, stony wastes themselves; and, as they produce seeds in great lect, of which cadets may be guilty, to the prejudice on which it will grow, it certainly deserves to be abundance, it may be easily collected by band: but of good order and military discipline, though not more generally introduced into culture, especially the mode of sowing varies according to the intenherein expressly mentioned, are to be punished ac- as it will produce, on the worst lands, at least one tion for which it is raised. Thus, for feeding cattle cording to the nature and degree of the ofience. ton of hay, together with a considerable after-math. it is usually sown in conjunction with oats, or other
The superintendent will cause a registry to be 7. Bush-vetch, (Vicia sepium.)—This vegetable spring corn, at the season the latter is usually dekept of all delinquencies and punishments which grows in woods, hedges, pastures, and meadows, posited in the ground; but for soiling it is sown may take place at the academy; and, at the end of and flowers in May and June. It does not attain alone, from the second or third week in March till every month, will report to the war department the any great degree of height, seldom rising to four the close of summer, the earlier the better, on acnames of those cadets who, during the month, have feet; but, as it possesses the valuable property of count of the hardy nature of this herbaceous pebeen most distinguished for correct deportment; also speedy growth after being cut, it promises to be a rennial
. In general, the seed is broad-cast, though the names of those who have been guilty of offen- useful plant for pastures. It shoots earlier in the Mr. Young thinks it best to be drilled alone on poor ces, specifying the number of offences committed by spring than any other eaten by cattle, vegetates late land, in rows, about nine inches, on better soil at each, and of those who have been punished during in autumn, and retains its verdure throughout the twelve inches, asunder, after the soil has been duly the same period, specifying in each case the nature winter. The culture of the bush-vetch was recom- pulverized; when sown, it only requires to be once and degree of the offence and punishment. mended by Dr. Anderson,* so long ago as in 1774, lightly harrowed; but, if drilled, will be greatly im
All necessary regulations for interior police and though it has not been much practised since that proved by an occasional scarifying.t discipline, not inconsistent with the foregoing, will time, principally from the difficulty experienced in Cichory is extremely luxuriant, far exceeding be established by the superintendent, (to be report- collecting the seeds; as the pods burst and scatter the produce of burnet, lucerne, or saintfoin, and ed to the secretary of war,) and will be duly observ- them about, and the seeds are frequently devoured therefore will admit of being often cut for soiling ed and obeyed accordingly.
by the larvæ of a species of catelabus.t" From ex- during the summer. For the first year, one or two [We have omitted, for some more convenient op. periments that have been made in regard to the cuttings or mowings will be sufficient, which may, portunity, the regulations of the academy under culture of the bush-vetch, it is certainly worthy of in subsequent seasons, be repeated three or (Mr. the heads of promotion, furloughs, accounts, and trial A small spot of garden ground was sown with Young says,) four times, beginning in April or May, uniform.)
the seeds of this plant in drills, and Dr. Withering and cutting every second month till October. states that it was cut five times in the second year, This plant, also, may be made into hay, which,
when it produced at the rate of twenty-four tons though coarse, is said to afford considerable nouAGRICULTURE.
per acre of green food, which would be nearly four rishment—but its chief use is for soiling cattle dur
tons and a half when dried. From an experiment ing the summer months, and it is likewise excellent ARTIFICIAL GRASSES, OR GREEN CROPS. likewise recorded by Mr. Swayne, the produce of for sheep-feeding, receiving less injury from hard From the Complete Grazier.
the hay, in part of a field wherein the bush-vetch stocking than many other vegetables. The culture (Concluded from p. 164, American Farmer.)
of cichory has been carried on to a considerable
“Essays on Agriculture," vol. ii. 6. Saintfoin (Hedysarum onybrychis,) vegetates, + Withering's Botanical Arrangement of British *"Letters and Papers of the Bath and West of Engwith uncommon luxuriance, on dry, chalky soils, Plants,” vol. iii.
land Society," vol. iii. where it flowers in June and July. The best seed "Letters and Papers of the Bath and West of Eng
Farmer's Calendar. has a bright husk, the kernel being plump, exter- land Society," vol. ill.
I“Annáls of Agriculture,” vol. XI.
extent by the late Duke of Bedford, and by Messrs. their diseases are less complicated, they are, of serene day. The contrary events announce a change Martin, Wakefield, and A. Young, sen'r, of whose course, more easily to be relieved: yet, among tle of weather, which may be more clearly known by interesting experiments we regret that our limits various phenomena in the history of man, it is not the clouds gathering and lowering; by the sky, afwill not allow a detail.* Its culture has, we are in the least singular, that the treatment of sick catte ter serene weather, becoming undulated as it were formed by an intelligent American agriculturist, has hitherto been confined chiefly to the most illit- with small clouds. During winter, if the clouds been strenuously recommended to the notice of far-rate and ignorant peasant-men equally unacquairt-l appear not unlike fleeces, i. e., thick and close in the mers in the western hemisphere, though we have ed with comparative anatomy, and with the relatie middle, and very white at the edges, the surroundnot yet heard with what degree of success, or to powers of medicine. Hence many thousands of va- ing sky being remarkably blue, they indicate hail what extent it has been practised.
luable beasts have necessarily perished for want of or snow, or cold, chilling showers of rain. Further, 10. Spurrey (Spurgula arvensis.) — The common, that assistance which attentive observation, aided where the clouds appear moving in two opposite or corn spurrey, is an indigenous vegetable, four-by sedulous inquiries, might have remedied, if not currents, and the lower current is wafted rapidly ishing in corn fields and sandy situations, where it altogether prevented, by an unremitting regard o before the wind, it is a certain sign of rain; and, if flowers from July to September
. Its culture has cleanliness in every department connected with the they occur during summer, or generally in hot weahitherto been but little, if at all, practised in this rearing of cattle.
ther, they announce thunder-storms. If the rays of country—though, from the avidity with which it is With animals, as with the human frame, the vi-l the sun break through the clouds, and are visibly eaten, it deserves to be more generally known, being riations of the atmosphere have a material inflı-, dazzling in the air, the latter is loaded with vapours peculiarly calculated to fatten sheep, as also to ence on health; hence, though the limits of the that will speedily descend in showers of rain. T'hunincrease the milk of cows. Further, spurrey con- present work confine our discussions to the chief der is mostly preceded by hot, and followed by cold tinues green till a late period in autumn, and often distempers affecting cattle in general, we trust it and drizzling, or showery weather. Frequent variathroughout the winter, on which account it has long will not be altogether useless to premise a few hint, tions of the wind to the different points of the combeen cultivated in Flanders; we have, therefore, founded on experience, relative to the ascertain- pass evince the speedy approach of rain, particubeen induced to recommend it to a fair trial by prac-ment of the different changes of the weather-larly if it whistle or howl in its course through the tical agriculturists.
more particularly, as an occasional reference to atmosphere. The west wind is usually damp, on 11. Tares, (Vicia.)—There are two varieties of these remarks may afford the farmer some guide in account of the vast quantity of vapour it collects in the common tare, (V. sativa,) called the spring and directing the diversified operations of the field. its progress over the Atlantic ocean; the south wind, winter tares; the former of which is less hardy than Among the various phenomena which attentive which blows from the torrid zone, is the warmest the latter. The spring tare is usually sown about the observers have found to indicate approaching chang- of the four—as the north wind is the coldest, while end of March, or early in April; and the winter tare es in the atmosphere, the following may be selected the east wind is the most dry; but if rain fall during in September, (the earlier the better,) in the pro- as affording the most certain signs.
the prevalence of an easterly wind, it may be exportion of from eight to ten pecks per acre, broad- I. By animals. 1. Previous to rain and wind, or pected to continue, with little intermission, for fourcast: for the drill culture, half that quantity will be stormy weather, neat cattle and sheep seem more and-twenty hours. sufficient. Both these varieties are of very essen-than usually desirous of feeding in their pastures, IV. From the seasons.-1. A moist autumn, foltial service in soiling cattle of every description, and to leave them with reluctance. A similar lowed by a mild winter, is usually succeeded by a especially the winter tare, which comes into use change is announced by the uneasiness of swine, dry and cold spring, in consequence of which vegejust as the turnip crops fail, and affords a succulent which grunt loudly, and retire to their sties; by tation is materially retarded:' such a spring occurfood to ewes and lambs. Tares are rarely made geese and ducks washing themselves repeatedly, and red in 1741. 2. Should the summer he unusually into hay, on account of the great loss they are lia- with little intermission, flying anxiously backwards cold and wet, the ensuing winter may be expected ble to sustain from wet, as well as on account of and forwards, by swallows flying low and skimming to be extremely cold; for the heat, or warmth of the the more than usual care requisite in making them along the surface of the water, twittering with more ground will be dissipated, or carried off, in conseinto hay. In Gloucestershire, the winter tare is loudness than usual; and bypoultry rolling much in quence of such unusual evaporation. 3. Very wet cultivated as pasturage for horses, and is eaten off dust and sand, or gravel
. Wet and windy weather summers are mostly attended with an increased so early as to admit of turnips being raised the is likewise indicated, by dogs becoming drowsy quantity of seed on the dog-rose and white-thorn came year. They produce abundance of seed, and stupid, and exhibiting an evident reluctance for bushes, so that the uncommon fruitfulness of these which the farmer will do well to collect, and keep food, except grass, (particularly the species deno- shrabs may be regarded as a certain indication of separately, from the great resemblance which the minated dog's-grass, or couch-grass;) and by cats an intensely cold winter. 4. A severe winter is seeds of the two varieties bear, so that they are losing their vivacity, and remaining within doors. uniformly predicted by cranes and other birds of liable to be often mixed.
Continued rain is announced by pigeons returning passage migrating early in autumn-for these creaThere are a few other species of tare or veteh slowly to their cotes; a change from cloudy or un- tures never take their flight southwards until the worthy of the agricultor's attention, viz:
settled to greater wet, by flies stinging and swarm- cold season has commenced in the northern regions. 1. The Strangle Vetch, or Tare, (V. lathyroides,) ing more than usual; and a sudden variation, ac- 5. Should frequent showers fall in September, it which abounds in chalky and sandy soils. "Its cul- companied with a storm, by, wild ducks, plovers, seldom rains in May; and the reverse. So there ture has lately been strenuously recommended by bustards, and other aquatic birds, withdrawing to usually falls less rain in April than in October, in ur. Amos; it affords a tender and agreeable food the sea-coast, or to the marshes.
the proportion of one to two-in March than in Noto sheep.
The contrary circumstances evince the longer or vember, in the proportion of seven to twelve.2. The Tufted Vetch (V. cracca,) attains a consi- shorter continuance of fine weather; to which may 6. On the contrary, should the wind blow from the vlerable height, and produces abundance of leaves. be added, that bees flying abroad, and labouring south-west, during either summer or autumn, and This sort, which flowers in July and August, as well with that industry which has become proverbial- the air be uncommonly cold for those seasons, a as the wood vetch, (V. sylvatica, which rises from crows croaking in the morning--the robin, or red-profuse fall of rain may be speedily expected. two to four feet high,) is said to restore weak or breast, singing early from the more elevated branch- 7. A kind of crisis takes place in the atmosphere starved cattle to their strength more speedily than es of trees-and gnats flying in a columnar form, after great storms, rains, or similar violent commoany other vegetable hitherto discovered. within the rays of the setting sun, are all indications of the clouds, so that they are for some months 8. The Broad-leaved Vetchling, or Everlasting tions of fine or serene weather.
attended with a regular succession either of bad or Ture, (Lathyrus latifolius,) has hitherto been raised II. From the appearance of the earth. Thus moist of fair weather. Lastly, a cold and rough autumn in gardens, chiefly for the sake of the fine flowers. stones and dry soil prognosticate rain; a continued prognosticates an intense winter, as the latter seaIt often attains to the height of ten or twelve feet, fall of which may be expected, if the ground seem son, when rainy, is mostly succeeded by an unproand produces abundance of foliage. It is eaten nearly dry, and the roads almost, if not wholly, free ductive year. inost cagerly by cattle, and was several years since from mud: as the contrary occurrences announce, For the preceding remarks, we are chiefly inrecommended to the attention of farmers by Dr. that the evaporation of humidity has ceased, and, debted to an interesting tract, (which in fact every Anderson, as promising to afford a large crop of consequently, that fine weather is approaching. farmer should possess, entitled “The Farmer's and bay; though it appears hitherto to have met with III. From the atmosphere. If in the evening a Gardener's Directory, containing the most approvbut little notice, in an economical point of view. white mist be spread over a meadow, contiguous to ed rules and directions for foretelling the changes
a river, it will be evaporated by the sun's rays on which take place in the weather, &c." We shall DISEASES OF CATTLE.
the following morning, and is an indication of fine conclude these hints respecting the atmosphere, And signs of approaching changes in the weather.
weather throughout the day; so in the morning, if with the following rules laid down by Mr. Kirwan, The brute creation are, in general, liable few
a mist, which is impending over low lands, draw from observations which had been made in Eng
off towards those which are more elevated, it an- land, from A. D. 1677 to 1789, during a period of er maladies or complaints than mankind; and, as
nounces a fine day. The gradual diminution of 112 years. See “Annals of Agriculture,” vols. xv., xvii., xx., clouds, till they can no longer be seen in the air, 1. When no storm bas either preceded or followxxviii., where numerous valuable accounts of the cul- is a sign of fine weather, so likewise does the con- ed the vernal equinox, the ensuing summer is in ture and applications of this plaut are given.
tinuance of abundant dew upon the grass after a general dry, or at least so five times out of six.
2. If a storm happen
on wooden screw, should be at least fifty feet half that the two cross-ties, will be, by that of the bale: the the 19th, 20th, or 21st day of May, the succeeding distance is sufficient for the other, or iron screw. head of the end timbers should rise at least twelve summer will also be dry four times in five. A dry The longer the screw, the more conveniently the inches above the upper cross-tie. The tenons should summer will likewise follow, if a storm arise in any cotton can be placed in the chest, as it admits the pass as far through the foundation timber. point of the compass on the 25th, 26th, or 27th days chest to be so much the higher; eight feet depth of It is easy to comprehend the application of water of March.
chest will contain sufficient cotton to make a com- power to the cotton screws, by supposing the sketch 3. Should there be a storm either at south-west, mon bale, five feet long. The space between the to be stripped of all its parts, except the screw and or west-south-west, on any day from the 19th to the upper and lower cross-trees, may be nine feet six packing-chest; lay these horizontally, so that the 21st of March, the ensuing summer will be wet five inches; between the two end timbers five feet: the bale, when packed, will stand on one cnd: one gudtimes out of six.
doors should not be less than two feet six inches geon of the water wheel shaft is cast with a “coup In England, if the springs and winters be dry, high. From the top of the doors to the bottom of ling," a cast iron sleeve receives this, at one end, they are generally cold; but if moist or humid, they the follower, when the screw is raised, should be and the head of the screw, at the other; put the are usually warm; whereas, dry summers and au- not less than five feet six inches, and should be en-water wheel in motion, and the screw turns accordtumns are mostly hot; as, on the contrary, moist closed on each side with two inch plank, strongly ingly: the water is conducted to the water wheel by summers are cold. Thus, if the moisture or dryness spiked to the two end timbers. The follower may similar gates at both sides the screw, therefore, of a particular season be ascertained, an idea may be ten inches thick, and the width and length of "packs” when one gate is hoisted, and unpacks be formed with tolerable precision respecting its the chest, allowing half an inch play at each end when the other. A wheel, eighteen feet diameter, temperature, and the farmer, by attending to the and side. One bottom cross-tie, twelve inches by and buckets five feet long, with four feet live water, various indications of the weather, will be enabled twenty inches; one upper cross-tie, in which is will pack a bale in four minutes. The bottom of to provide accordingly for the exigencies of his cat- formed or placed the female screw, twenty inches the wheel should be at least twelve inches above tle stock.
(Complete Grazier. square. Two end timbers, twelve inches by twenty the sheeting, to prevent the "back lash;” the arms
inches. One lever, twelve inches by eighteen inch- should be fastened to the shaft of the water wheel ON PACKING COTTON,
es; six braces, eight by ten inches, two in front and by cast iron flanges, such as are used for the same
two behind, in addition to the two in the sketch. purpose on board of steam boats. As practised in South Carolina—with an Engraving. The compasses fourteen by six inches at top, and The manner of hanging the doors and securing SIR, South Carolina, July 31, 1825.
six inches square at the bottom ends, to either of them, together with several other minute arrange The request of Mr. Francis H. Smith, contained ber, twelve by twenty inches, and twenty feet long; which the horse is attached. One foundation tim-ments, are not stated, believing it unnecessary.
If the above shall be of any service to you, or in No. 18 of the 7th vol. of the American Farmer, The length of the end timbers and compasses will your correspondent, it will be very gratifying to accompanied by your's, asking for information re- be adjusted to the length of the screw; as that off
A COTTON PLANTER. lative to the construction of machinery for packing cotton, has induced me to endeavour to furnish it.
Front Vieu of a Cotton Screir. There are a great variety of fixtures for packing cotton. The simplest, and, in my opinion, the best, is such as I shall endeavour to explain by a sketch of the front view of a “cotton screw," and a statement of the number of pieces of timber, and their dimensions, which, when put together, form the necessary machinery for packing cotton in square bales. The screws are made of wood, or of cast or wrought iron. I consider those of iron greatly preferable to those made of wood. We now resort to two modes of propelling them; i. e., animal and water power. The last is infinitely best for
中的 those who have that power at command. When animal power is applied, the screw works perpendicularly; when water power is used, horizontally. In this last mode, the screw receives only a circular motion; the packing chest, which moves on four wheels, being drawn against the follower. In the other, the screw not only is turned round, but also descends and forces the cotton to the bottom of the chest, by the follower, which is attached by a bolt to the screws. Wooden screws are necessarily erected out of doors, and exposed to the weather, because of the unavoidable length of the lever; so, indeed, are most of the iron ones, but not necessarily. The most common size of the wooden screw is fourteen inches diameter; the iron ones six inches. The first will wear out in packing about a PROCEEDINGS OF AGRICULTURAL SO from a few French Worms, which had been given to thousand bales, if, indeed, it does not rot before;
him about a year ago. He was requested to furnish the latter can pack almost any number, with proper (Communicated for the American Farmer.) an account of his labours, with specimens of the care. I have one, carried by water power, that has
At a stated meeting of the Philadelphia Society: mit to the Society his letter, and the specimens.
Silkwhich was accordingly done, and I now subpacked more than seven thousand bales, and is uninjured: but an advantage, almost equally decisive,
for promoting Agriculture, held on Tuesday last, results from the convenience with which they may with the Resolutions adopted on the occasion.
This lad is a child of very respectable parents, be erected in a house twenty feet square. I have
Resolved, That the Society highly approves of the
much interested with the intelligence, and thrifty never known persimmon tried; do not doubt it attention and industry of William M. Carteret, in
turn of the boy, who devotes hours between school would answer admirably, if it could be completely
to a useful purpose, which most others of his age secured from the weather; when exposed, it becomes the cultivation of Silk Worms, and that a premium would waste in rambling about the streets. Whe
of five dollars be awarded to him. tender almost immediately. Post, turkey, and black
ther the Society could bestow some encouragement oak were, for a time, exclusively used; each did
July 22, 1825.
upon him, is worthy of consideration. A vote apwell; now, common pitch pine is preferred by
probating his conduct, and perhaps adding a small many. The thread of the screw is three inches at
Arch-Street, 7th mo. 8th, 1825.
reward in money may be proper. Such evidences the base, (the lower angle more acute than the up- TO THE PHILADELPHIA Society FOR PROMOTING of respect for merit, especially in young persons, exper,) and one and a half inch deep. A hole, bored
hibited even in this humble manner, are calculated lengthwise through the screw, prevents cracks. I learned a few days since, that a boy in South- to promote the best interests of a community whose The sketch is intended to represent a wooden screw. wark was engaged in the cultivation of Silk Worms, welfare consists in the industry and virtues of its All the parts are precisely alike, for one of iron, and upon making him a visit found him busily occu- members,
I am, very respectfully, except the compasses, the span of which, for a pied with them, having largely increased his stock/
(August 26, 1825.
Philadelphia, June 29, 1825. for the evil, the information will be very accepta clude, is to be attributed to its being new, and not To Mr. ROBERTS Vaux,
having contracted to the usual size when properly Dear sir, yours truly,
dried. From the success of this article, being sown Dear Sir,-You requested me to inform you where
H. S. TURNER. in the spring, I am led to believe, that in all probaI obtain the Silk Worms; Joseph Ord brought them from France, and nineteen of them were given to [An eminent physician, to whom we showed the bility, it has been brought from the southern part of me about the middle of last June, by his cousin above, says there is no doubt but the solution Asia; and also, that this season of the year is the Benjamin Karrick. I was then twelve years old. I given is correct as to the cause of the death but i most proper time to commit it to the earth. fed them on white mulberry leaves for about two would be desirable, if there be any thing peculia. In relation to the "Cuba” tobacco seed, I am not weeks, when I found that they wanted to spin. I or uncommon in the fly, to have a sight of it, tha: as yet prepared to say any thing of an interesting then carefully put them in papers for the spinning it might be characterized by some competent en nature, more, than that I have about two hundred of their Silk; and in the space of ten days after they tomologist.]
very fine plants that I shall be able to cut in about
two weeks; some of which I shall take great pleahad begun to spin, I wound them off and put away the pods in boxes. In eight or ten days after, they
sure in presenting you with, as soon as I shall have came out of the pods into a white miller, male and WHITE FLINT AND LAWLER WHEAT. it in a proper state to make use of. Mr. D. J. Poole, female; they then lay their eggs, which are very
one of my neighbours, is about housing, perhaps small, and they amount to above an hundred each; Having lately observed in the American Farmer, I cannot conceive, that any sight could have been
among the best tobacco, at this time in the county. the eggs which they had lain I carefully rolled up an assertion or supposition, that the above kinds are more gratifying than that of viewing about nine acres in paper and put them away, until April, when I one and the same wheat, and having raised the
of this article, prior to its having been cut. was examining the eggs I found a small black spot Lawler for several years, and the white flint the last
With sentiments of consideration, at one end, and in four days after I found small season, it has afforded me an opportunity of judging
I am, dear sir, black worms, which I removed upon other papers. correctly; and, I am of opinion, that there are no two
Yours, &c. I then gave them young sallad for about eight days; sorts of wheat which differ more in appearance than
WILLIAM ZOLLICKOFFER, M. D. I then fed them upon white mulberry leaves until the above. The white flint produces more stalks they began to spin. They have now increased to from each grain, and each stalk is much larger and about two thousand Worms. I lost many in April, stronger; the blades are very broad and stand up, but in a wet spell, which amounted to about five hun- the blades of the Lawler are long and slender, and
CHANGE OF WHEAT TO CHEAT. dred. I gave a great many away, and four hundred hang down-generally of a paler green than other
Geauga county, July 22, 1825. are now spinning their Silk. One hour in the after- wheat, and the bottom blades die very early; but SIR, I have thought fit to communicate the folnoon I take in learning my lessons, and the rest of the former is a very dark green to the bottom until lowing fact on the possibility of changing the chamy leisure hours I am busy in winding off my Silk. the wheat is of a considerable height, and ripens as racter of plants, elucidating a subject sometime since Each Worm spins from 3 to 5 hundred yards of pure early as the red chaffed bearded, whilst the latter contested in the Farmer. It could be proved by a Silk, besides tow; it takes about six hours wind ripens very late. And from last year's experience, dozen witnesses in any court. The wheat crop failoff a set of 25 in number. I now send you speci- I am decidedly of opinion, that the former is the ed here in 1822; that we imported seed from Jersey, mens of the Silk, &c.
best wheat I have sown; and have no doubt it pos under the denomination of "Early Turkey," which Yours, &c.
sesses the qualities ascribed to it of resisting the fly, turned out to be very late, and bearded. Last fall Mr. WILLIAM MORGAN CARTERET. as my crop was not the least affected, whilst my other Marshall sowed a lot on sandy silicious soil, which No. 399, South Front-Street.
sorts by the side of it, and sown at the same time was did well until February, when he pastured thirty or very much injured. It is a fact that the stalk is so forty sheep on it. When it headed the last of June,
lid two joints from the bottom, and part of the third its character was almost entirely changed to “cheat.” FLIES ON HORSES.
The grain was white and heavy, and produced a There was not a wheat stalk in one hundred of the very good crop.
cheat. At sowing, there might have been this proSir, Wheatland, August 8th, 1825.
LEVI HARTLEY. portion of cheat to the true crop. With my best A circumstance recently occurred here of so sin
wishes I remain.
VERITAS. gular and extraordinary a nature, that I am induced
P. S. The bearded wheat did well at harvest in '23; to communicate it to you. I had two very fine
WHEAT FROM ASIA.
since has been degenerating, and in many places brood mares, with Gracchus' foals by their sides,
Middleburg, Md. 2d August, 1825. the straw fell this harvest, and the seed so shrivelled which, in consequence of the high value I attached
Sir, I am happy in having an opportunity of and light it was not worth cutting. to them, were admitted within my lawn, where they communicating to you, the success that resulted from had become excessively fat. During a period of in- the wheat that you were kind enough to present to tensely hot weather the latter part of June, these me, that you represented as having been brought ON THE SELECTION OF SEED WHEAT, mares were assailed by a swarm of flies, and har- from Asia. The article under consideration, I dis- The following communication from Thos. Knight, rassed to such a degree that I found it necessary to tributed in small quantities among several of the most Esq. (in the Hereford Journal,) will doubtless prove remove them to a distant pasture, where I imagin- attentive and observing agriculturists in this neigh- highly interesting at the present moment to agried they would be less exposed to so dreadful an an- bourhood; all the reports of which coincide in every culturists:-“A good deal of the strong wheat soil noyance. They, however, became extremely ill--- respect. The wheat was consigned to the earth, of Herefordshire remains unsown, and must be sown one died, and it has been with the greatest difficul- early this spring. It flourished well
, and appeared in the end of this month, or in the next, and it is ty, and the most unremitting care and attention, to be equally prolific with the different varieties of important to select seed corn of early habits. I tried that the life of the other has been till now preserv- this article that is so successfully cultivated in this the experiment of selecting seed wheat from a warm ed. She is still in a state of great debility and consi- country. The average length of the heads did not gravelly soil in a warm part of the country, and derable disease. From the simultaneousness of the exceed three inches, and the circumference of which other seed wheat of the same variety (the common attack, the novelty and identity of the symptoms, I was about an inch and a half. The grain was much red straw,) from a cold white clayey soil, in a very was at first induced to ascribe the phenomenon to larger, which circumstance, I am disposed to con- cold part of the country. Both were sown at the poison, and under this impression I caused the deceased animal to be dissected. The intestines were
same time, and upon contiguous ridges, when the found to be in a perfectly sound and healthy state,
* Perhaps the white flint was sown in richer and bet- crop which sprang from the seed corn which had but the flesh, particularly about the neck, back and ter ground than the other. Wheat on rich or manured grown upon a warm gravelly soil ripened a fortnight sides, was in a state of putrefaction--and I am now ed by the fly, than that which is sown on land of infe- seed must be obvious. I have stated facts the
land, it is well known, is always less liable to be destroy- before the other. The advantages of selecting such thoroughly convinced, that the venomous stings of rior quality, or land not manured. The writer of the transactions of the Horticultural Society show that these pestilent insects, aided, perhaps, by the extra- above is, we understand, a respectable citizen, who re- fruits, such as the apple and pear, and perennial ordinary, obesity of the animals and the violent sides on and cultivates the farm of Mr. Robert Sin-plants, acquire in hot climates habits of ripening heat of the weather, producing inflammation and clair.. He is likely, we should suppose, as well as late, whilst cultivated natural plants acquire the gangrene, were the sole causes of the extraordina- Mr. Sinclair himself, who often visits
his farm, to have power of ripening early, by having, through succesry incident above described. We have been annoy- taken very particular notice of the facts stated, yet his sive generations, had iheir period of maturity, acceed in a most distressing and unusual manner this testimony is diametrically opposed to the observations summer, especially during the hottest part of it, by And hence may verify our remark in the last
, from the warmest soils in England; having sound
many of the most respectable farmers in the state. Vlerated. The Scotch farmers purchase seed barley these odious pests. I have resorted to bruised wal- that different soils may produce different results. The that the crop, which springs from this will ripen upon nut leaves and train oil, to repel them from my solidity of the stalk is curious-we should be glad to their cold hills, nearly three weeks earlier than those horses, but with little eifect. If you, or any of your have some for exhibition.
varieties which have adapted their habits to their correspondents, can suggest a better preventive
Ed. Am. Farm. late and cold climates."