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ed of. His observations on the Pea fy, too, will be sufficient opportunity of investigating the cause: the found amusing, as well as of practical usefulness.] grafts may have been set on suckers, which are un- INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

There are causes of decline in the Peach tree, able to sustain a healthy tree, and therefore the other than that of the issect; and a principal one is, worm may only be the consequence of the decline.

RAIL ROADS. the not stirring of the ground. I apprehend that If, however, the stocks are seedlings, then, the disthe disease called “yellois" is often thus occasion-sease is probably occasioned by the worm. I have Sir.-In the Richmond Enquirer of the 12th and ed. My peach orchard was evidently in a declining no doubt but there are many individuals who are 19th Dec. 1818, there will be found two papers, enstate; the ground had not been ploughed for three well acquainted with this interesting subject, and titled “VIRGINIA —her resources and ability to secure years, and had become quite covered with grass: in by publishing their views, they would render the the western trade to Richmond and Petersburg;" the spring of 1822, I had it well broken up, and community an essential benefit. I respectsully in- The object was to be obtained by a sedulous atkept clean during the summer. The trees soon as- vite their attention.

tention to an improvement of her highways. sumed a healthy appearance, and furnished a plen- Pear tree. It is a fact that this tree, too, has un- I have long been of opinion, that, as auxiliary to tiful supply of fine fruit; last year I again ploughed fortunately been, in a great measure, propagated this improvement, Iron Railways could be highly the ground, and the whole orchard is now in the most from suckers; and therefore its failure may be ac- useful. flourishing condition, and I believe there will be no counted for: as soon as disease is observed, the As a proof of this, I refer to your journal of 28th difficulty in keeping it in that state.

whole of the shoot connected therewith, should be April, 25th August, and 29th Sept. 1820. I could I would further observe, that although there are lopped off. I am, not at present, prepared to say also refer to the Richinond Enquirer of the 25th many of our most delicious peaches which ought to much on this head, but the subject being an inte-June, 1819. be continued by budding or grafting, yet, there are resting one, I would recommend it to the considera- I think these references would prove that I have several excellent kinds that are natural fruit, which tion of the members of the society.

clearly anticipated public opinion; for the people ot can readily be propagated by planting the seed, and [See observations of Evan Thomas, in last Ame- Pittsburg thus argue: therefore should be particularly attended to; be- rican Farmer.]

“That by means of RAILWAYS, which can be combecause in the event of a decline, it is only to cut Pea-fly, (Bruchus pisi.)—This insect is known to pleted at one third of the expense and in one third of down the tree at the surface of the ground, when a infest the peas of our country, and although it is not the time requisite for CANALS, Pennsylvania will be new shoot will arise from the root, which will bear supposed to have done any material injury, yet, the able successfully to compete with New-York. That fruit the second year of its growth.

inquiring mind, awake to every species of know-by this simple and easy means of communication, Morello Cherry. I consider this the most useful ledge, must feel an interest in the investigation of its Pennsylvania will become the carrier for the trade of species of the cherry; but it has become scarce, and history; especially as some very erroneous state- the western waters. That the plan proposed, if at all in consequence of the failure of the tree, its cultiva-ments respecting it have gone forth; besides, I do eligible, is better adapted than that of canals, to their tion in this district of our country is almost abandon- think that every lover of peas would rejoice in get-general resources, and the general economy of their ed. The decline has been supposed to be occasion- ting rid of so unwelcome a visitor.

habits. That it will have the incalculable advantage of ed by the depredation of a worm working in the The winged insect need not be described, as eve- retaining in their present employment, the immense outer branches, and producing the excrescences ry person who has cultivated peas, is acquainted with number of our meritorious citizens who now derive which are there observed; but on a close examina- it: it continues in that state until the peas are suffi- their subsistence from our peculiar system of inland tion, I found that these excrescences were formed ciently grown to receive the deposite and support navigation. That it is better adapted than the other about a month before the worm could be seen, and the larva. The eggs which are oblong and of a yel- to their manners and views, and will have a tendenthen it commences its operations on the outside and low or amber colour, are then lain singly, and scat-cy, from the quantity of Iron it will require, to give proceeds inwards; so that it is evidently a conse- tered along on the outside of the pod in an irregular new life and vigor to their extensive establishments of quence, and not the cause, of disease. This disco- manner, in number, sometimes less, but often more that article.very led me to believe, that the excrescences were a than there are peas within the pod; so that fre- It is superfluous to state that numerous applicamere exudation of the sap in the tender branches, quently two worms are found in the same pea. The tions are to be made during the present session of occasioned by a bark-bound staie of the trunk; and little maggot scarcely discernable, except through a the British Parliament, for acts of incorporation on I was induced to try a remedy which had been men- microscope, is of a whitish colour, at first its head is this subject. tioned to me, (without any accompanying reason,) black, but afterwards becomes brown: it perforates In the Richmond Enquirer of the 11th inst. I find to wit to score the bark in a perpendicular direc- the pod immediately under the egg-shell, and pass- a letter addressed to Mr. Barbour, the new secretary tion along the trunk, and I found several decisive ing through, enters the pea and penetrates to the of war, and on its analysis, discover the following to advantages attending the operation; but great care very centre, and in some instances destroys the germ: be its contents: must be taken to perform the work, at a season, the entrance of the worm can be detected by a dark “From Richmond to Ohio, where a canal would when the incision will be completely closed before a speck on the outside of the pea. The very early commence, is 450 miles. lodgment of insects can be made, or the tree will be peas are not so much infested, at least when in an The fall in the Ohio between the Kanawha and in great danger of being destroyed; the more safe eatable state the worm is very small; and sometimes the Sciota, is one inch way will be to cut through the outer peel, so as to the very late kinds will escape, and therefore it has The mouth of the Kanawha is 250 miles below leave the inner bark untouched. But from a further been recommended to plant later than usual, in or- Pittsburg. attention to this valuable tree, I am of opinion that der to avoid the insect; but it has too much sagaci- The fall between these two points is 275 feet. its failure is, in a great measure, owing to the cir- ty to be thus defeated; for as soon as the practice The inference is, that the navigation of the Ohio cunstance of its being generally propagated by becomes general, the deposite would be delayed to above the mouth of the Kanawha, for steam, is imsuckers; and is such be the fact, we should find a meet it. The most effectual remedy is, to destroy practicable for a part of the year. very easy remedy in raising new trees from seeds. the insect; which can be done without much trou- The Chesapeake and Ohio canal is 350 miles.

Plum tree. This tree is attacked by a disease si- ble: when the seed peas are sufficiently dry, put The country both sides of the Ohio below the Kamilar to that of the Morello, as already described; them into a bottle and cork them up until the time nawha, is 250 miles nearer to Richmond than Washbut as far as my observation extends, it is confined to of planting, then prepare a vessel of water, into ington. the natural fruit-bearing kinds, and these being which pour the peas immediately from the bottle, as A larger portion of country would be benefited mostly propagated from suckers, whilst those of the soon as uncorked, immersing the mouth of the bot-by this canal than can be by that of the Chesanurseries, raised from seeds, are exempt,-it would tle in the water, so that none of the flies can escape; peake and Ohio. seem that the cause of disease must be in the manner the flies will soon leave the peas and rise to the surof propagation; and I know of no better way of re- face of the water and cannot extricate themselves In the valley of the Kanawha the ground for 94 moving it, than by cutting down the trees and rais- after being once wet, but care must be taken to kill miles is peculiarly favourable. ing new ones from the root. But even these proba-them. Very respectfully, yours,

A tunnel may be made at the White Sulphur bly cannot be preserved many years in a healthy


Springs. state; and therefore we should lose no time in plant

The James and Kanawha would require 750 feet ing seed to supply their place. I would advise the

of lockage less than the Chesapeake and Ohio. selection of the best seeds, and trees thus raised,

Sharon, April 10, 1824. should be suffered to come to a bearing state before P. S. On planting my peas this spring I have dis- The Erie canal of New-York cannot compete any change of kind is made, and then, graft or bud covered that many of the flies do not leave the peas with the proposed canal. only such as are of inferior quality; as according on being inmersed in cold water, and that after re- The Richmond market would be the cheapest, to my limitted experience, trees in a natural state maining therein thirty-six hours and afterwards bu- shortest and most convenient. are the most lasting.

ried in the soil, they made their escape, but that I am informed, indeed I have seen sonie instances, such as were thrown into boiling water, the insect Distances—if the canal, from the mouth of the of the grafted trees being diseased in the trunk, and contained within were instantly destroyed without Sciota to Lake Erie was completed, and that a mera worm is found in the diseased part, but I have not had' injuring the vegetating principle.

J. W.

chant, half-way between the Ohio and the Lake,

per mile.

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wanted to send his produce to an Eastern market, P. S.–The Pittsburg memorial states, that $8,000 3d. Steam diffuses heat equally throughout an the distances would be

a mile would complete a rail-way, and the transpor-apartment,-every side and every part being as warm Miles.

Miles. tation of goods on the same would be cheaper from as every other side and part; and the people in a
To the Lake, . . . 150 To Sciota, . . 150

Pittsburg to Philadelphia, than it can be afforded to room, are not (as with fires) frozen on one side,
Buffalo, 250 Kanawha;.. 80 New-York from any navigable point on the Ohio. whilst they are scorched on the other.
Albany, . 350 Richmond, 450 South Carolina, March 18th, 1825.

4th. Steam, as diffused in metallic enclosures, cre-
New-York,. . 150 Difference,

ates neither dirt, dust, nor noxious odour.

5th. Steam is free from the dangers, which attend
Miles, .900
Miles, . 900

common fires: for no house can be set on fire by the It has an advantage in its southern position,

From a late English paper.

heat of steam; and there is no hazard of the dreadand consequently longer exemption from frost.

The public are likely soon to be furnished with a ful accidents which arise from the clothes of females

locomotive carriage for general purposes. A company and children taking fire. Advantages of the country S. W. of Bottetourt, is actually forming, the subscriptions to which are 6th. Steam warms not merely the room into which Virginia.

nearly full, for the purpose of contracting to run the it is conveyed, but all the adjoining rooms; and is The waters of the Kanawha, (here called New mail coaches and other carriages by means of this made to act in a cylinder at the bottom of a wellRiver) interlocking Holstein and Clinch so as to ren- engine, supplied with portable gas. T'he great weight staircase, or in the hall of a house, it will increase der it probable a canal is practicable.

of steam engines, with the requisite supply of coal the temperature of the whole house.
It would unite the vallies of the James and the and water, has hitherto prevented their successful 7th. Steam, by causing the heated air to ascend,
Kanawha; and of the Kanawha with those of the application to locomotive carriages. This formida- promotes the ventilation of a room, and the renew-

ble obstacle is altogether removed by Mr. Brown's al of the air, by means of an orifice and pipe in the
Richmond would become the great emporium of invention, as we understand that a six-horse-power upper part of that room.
the commerce these canals would unite.
engine will certainly not weigh ten cwt. and the por-

sth. Steam renders chimneys and fire-places unSalt, coal, alum, copperas, gypsum, marble, iron, table reservoirs requisite to supply the engine with necessary; and will, therefore, diminish the expense copper, lead, &c. are found in inexhaustible quanti-gas for an hour and a half for fifteen miles, will not of building houses. ties; and the counties of Bottetourt, Rockbridge, weigh one cwt. more. It is expected that a carriage

9th. Steam will heat several small houses from a Wythe, Washington and Kanawha, could supply will be completely ready to start in four months, common boiler at a joint expense. the whole union with these essential articles. when it is intended to be dispatched to York and

10th. Steam will warm the largest as well as the “A Virginian” will permit me to ask him why a back, at the rate of ten miles per hour; the expen- smallest apartments, and parts remote from the boilrail-road would not do as well as a canal? If he will ses are estimated at less than one half the mileage of er, as highly as those near; that is to say, would refer to the various British publications on the sub- a four-horse post coach.

warm the Cathedral of St. Paul's, and every remote ject, I think we shall not differ in opinion.

corner of it, as completely as the smallest cabin, But it is to be considered whether a combined

11th. Steam renders kitchens and fires unneceseffort on the part of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland


sary under the roof of a dwelling; as it can be conand Virginia, would not render the achievement of

veyed from any out-building to a cooking apparatus. the task, both easy, cheap, and expeditious.

12th. It puts an end to the use and employment of Could not the road be made to come in one line

the wretched climbing-boy. In a word, the introto a given point, and then branch so as to bring the EXTRACTS FROM THE NOTE BOOK OF A is likely, not only to change the entire economy of

duction of steam for generating and diffusing heat, produce to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington? But where, then, is the Richmond scheme?


our houses, but to promote comfort, health, cleanliHere will be a difficulty. However, there is room

ness, and security, beyond all former anticipations for all the improvements, and in that which em

A steam apparatus has been recently erected at of art or genius. braces the commerce from the S. W. of Virginia St. Pancras workhouse, where a boiler of sixty galwill be found an immense source of wealth. While lons heats a stone bath of four hundred gallons, sethe Potomac, or lest wing, on the one side, brings veral times in the course of a day; for bathing sick will make five pounds of butter. A pint of milk, wine

One hundred pounds or wine pints of rich milk down the produce of the Ohio to its ports—the persons, boiling blankets, beds, &c. From the same James, or right wing, will wast down that of the boiler, is also boiled one eighty gallon copper for measure, weighs a pound, and five pints heer meaClinch and the Holstein. All the populous and con- washing; one eighty-five gallon ditto for cooking; England, they speak' in common parlance, and in suming part of North Carolina, would feel an inte and one thirty-six gallon for the same purpose; all their Cattle-Show reports, of the pounds of milk that rest in this portion.

performed by one bushel of coals per day. SimiTo obtain a knowledge of the favourableness, or lar work is done at St. Andrew's workhouse, with

a cow will yield. unfavourableness of the ground, is indispensable to three pecks of coals per day. a correct opinion of the actual state of things; but, At Cheltenham, the late Mr. Thompson not only In New-England are measured in strength and to me, there appears little doubt, but that Ohio would heated his baths with steam, but also the air of the value, by their girth. A good judge will guess prefer either of these routes to her way by Lake Erie dressing-rooms.

within two inches. Seven feet girth is considered a io an already (and likely to be more so,) glutted At Mr. Ramshaw's, Fetter-lane, a steam appara- good Ox, and a pair of them will do all the work of market.

tus has been introduced for copper-plate printing, a common farm. As to the facilities afforded by rail-ways, it is more which supersedes the use of twelve noxious charcoal

DECOMPOSITION OF MILK BY ACIDS. than probable that our amiable and patriotic repre-fires.* Steam has also been applied to the warming sentative at St. James, will give us some knowledge of hot-houses.

To a pint of new Milk, in a glass goblet, add half of them on his return--the London papers have In the application of steam to the boiling of liquids, a dram of diluted Sulphuric Acid: an immediate said they were objects of his attention.

as at Whitbread's brewery, London, by means of a change will take place in the whole fluid; by the But a measure is now before the Pennsylvania le-worm conveyed through the midst of the liquors, descent of a white flocculent and abundant precipigislature; namely, the formation of a board of works, five or six hundred barrels of wort are boiled in half tate, some parts of which coagulate in masses. This which will, in all probability, give us some insight the usual time, and two chaldrons of coals are saved precipitate is what is termed the curd; and the suinto its merits on an extended scale; and, especially in one day. Steam has also been introduced into pernatant fluid is the whey. aided, as it is said the board will be, by the patriotic many other breweries. No other copper is requisite

Observation. Here the acid combines with the waefforts of some public spirited gentlemen at Phila- besides the steam-boiler; the wort and liquors being ter of the milk, consequently the albumen, gelatine, delphia, who have (or are about to do so,) despatch-boiled in wooden vats. It is likewise used for the and oil, are precipitated. A very ready and elegant ed the ingenious Mr. Strickland to England, on a purposes of distillation.

mode of procuring curds, and also a very pleasant voyage of scientific discovery.

The following is a summary of the advantages

acidulous whey, is by using a solution of the crystalI may be wrong, but I think the recent result of which will result from substituting steam in place of lized citric acid ; taking care not to add too much. the Presidential election strongly urges some step of culinary fires, for the heating of houses, &c. this kised. It will unite the southern and the western

1st. Steam saves balf the quantity, and threestates; for, no one can deny the possibility of the fourths of the cost of coals or other fuel.

QUERIES OF CORRESPONDENTS, Chesapeake and the James, with their numerous 2d. Şteam can be made to create any degree of

TO WHICH IT IS HOPED OTHERS WILL MAKE ANSWER. ramifications, being able to vie with the Hudson-- temperature required. to say nothing about incorporating Pennsylvania

Will some of your numerous and obliging correswith the Delaware in the scheme. She is fully alive

For this meritorious attention to the health of his work-pondents who can speak from personal experience to the necessity for the most active exertions.

men, the Society of Arts presented Mr. Ramshaw with the answer the following queries.
I am, &c.
AMPHICON. Isis gold medal,

Is any power gained by working machinery with




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horses on an inclined plane instead of drawing by We might justly dilate on the

very many topics, tion amongst the farmers of Maryland, $100-yet Levers ?

tending to illustrate the growing prospects of the Mr. Watson has a good notion of what he is about. Can horses be thus applied to any extent or is the country, but our limits constrain us to withhold fur- Mr. W. says, that in Connecticut, the calculation method necessarily limited to the use of a few and to ther observations,

is to winter ten sheep on one ton of hay—for a cow. what number?

That such is the actual state of the country, we from a ton to a ton and a half-that the best merino What is the most preferable diameter of the plane? hold to be irrefragably demonstrated; by the rapid flocks give about $2 per head clear profit, besides

How many revolutions should it perform in a mi- progress and consumption of our manufactures, the the increase—that they average in the dirt from 4 1-? nute ?

increased and increasing value of our exports and to 5 lbs. per head—that their good pasture lands will What angle should the shaft form with a line per- imports; the abundance of employment for the work- carry five sheep to the acre. Mr. Watson has made pendicular to the centre of the plane ?

ing classes; the flourishing state of the revenue; the a rapid excursion from Rockhall through Chester Do the horses operate by their weight only or by high price of the funds; the low rate of interest, and town in Kent county, Centreville in Queen Inne's. draft also ?

-the remunerating prices now cheerfully paid for to Easton in Talbot, taking the estate of colonel T. Can oxen be used instead of horses ? every species of agricultural production.

Emory in his way—admires much the appearance Has machinery thus put in operation been appli

of the country, thinks it would yield good crops of ed to threshing or grinding grain, and with what

barley, and insists that were he on that land and effect?


in that climate, nothing should induce him to forbear Whilst I am propounding queries I will also ask Relating chiefly to Agriculture---taken from late

English pa sion of horses.

the use of oxen, (New England oxen) to the excluwhat is the proper quantity of unslacked lime to be

pers received at the office of the American Farmer. applied to an acre of land intended to be put in Indian Corn ? A sow and eleven pigs fetched the sum of ninety

3012 March In what manner and at what season should it be two pounds! in Highworth market, on the 1st of this

Dr. S. McCulloh_visited last summer, the new applied ?

month. They belonged to Mr. W. Smith, of that Is there any difference between lime burned from town, and were purchased by Mr. Thomas Matthews, Chiswich. He there saw their over-flowing well. stone and that from shells ?

of the Swan Inn. (What was the age of the pigs, obtained by boring, the stream as thick as his arm.

S. March 18th, 1825. and were they the offspring of the sow?]

of fine drinking water; it was turned to the great[The queries on lime, are some of them anticipa- the spring, while the leaves are hardly unfolded. It small lakes and the irrigation of the garden. To the

Dandelion. This plant makes a pleasant salad in both of ornament and utility—in the formation of

est advantage over their grounds, for the purposes ted in this number. It is generally known that stone is much used by the French, who eat it with bread question as to the surrounding country, he says it is lime is much stronger than that of shells; the com- and butter. It may be blanched by culture. mon calculation is about 60 of stone lime to 100 of

level as the lands on the Eastern Shore of Maryshell lime; 100 bushels of shells will, when burnt,

land, as far as the eye can reach—no over-hanging, yield 60 of lime.]

Parsley. If after having bruised some sprigs of or neighboring higher grounds.
Parsley in your hands, you attempt to rinse glasses,

they will snap or suddenly break.

AGRICULTURAL REPORTS.-State of crops.--IlinWhooping-cough.A plaster of gum galbanum,

applied to the chest, cures this complaint. Medical chester, Va. 16th March, 1825.-My crop of wheat is [On the present condition of England, as regards Adviser.

more promising than I ever had at this season. It is her agriculture, commerce and manufactures and

particularly the case with a field of forty acres, on on the effect of the removal of some old restrictions A gentleman of Henley-on-Thames offered a far- which grew a heavy crop of oats that was ploughed on trade, a late English agricultural journal, (Flem- mer when at that market, a dinner and a bottle of

under in August ing's Express,) which is conducted with much abili- wine, if he would bring him a grain of wheat on the ty, after speaking more in detail, concludes an arti- following market-day, and double the quantity each

Tobacco—There have been scarcely sales enough cle with the following remarks:]

week until that day twelvemonth. This was acced- of this article since our last, to serve as an index to At no period of our history has the general acti-ed to for the moment; but the following statement the state of the market; which, however, on the vity of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, will, perhaps, satisfy those who have never entered whole, appears to open favourably, for tobacco of both foreign and domestic, been such as is now felt into any similar calculations; of the impossibility of inferior and middling qualities. These descriptions throughout the kingdom. In every country of Eu- fulfilling such an engagement Amount of the num- may be quoted at twenty per cent. advance on the rope, and in the United States of America, great ber of grains,


prices at which they were selling at this time last improvement in manufactures, and the arts, and Number of bushels,

12,509,998,964 year, while bright tobacco is as much below what it commerce, must be admitted to have taken place- Number of quarters,

1,563,749,870 then was, such as then would have brought $30 per yet are trade and commerce in every branch im- Number of loads,

312,749,974 hundred, would probably now bring not more than proving, and extending in this country. India, from whence scarcely a century ago we derived every

On Wednesday, was slaughtered by Mr. Lowden,

Three hogsheads of W. Smith's, of Calvert counyard of fabrics made from cotton, now seeks in the of Norwich, a real Norfolk four-year-old home-bred, ty, opposite to Nottingham, sold this week for $12 looms of England, that perfection and variety, of and grazed by Mr. Gooch, of Honingham—the car

round. which the cotton manufacture is susceptible. case weighing 113 stone [1582 pounds), fat 14 stone

There have been 113 hogsheads inspected within restrained in this country by impolitic restrictions, smallest bone ever

seen, and of the best quality. mostly packed in too high order. In silk, the manufacture of which has been so long 4 lbs. It is allowed to carry most meat upon the the week generally in rather damp condition

especially that from Ohio, where tobacco is indeed the ingenuity of our artizans is now called into ac- Two remarkably fine home-breds, of Mr. Culley's, tivity by the impulse of capital, which under the of Drayton, and a heifer of Mr. Coleman, of Hellesregulations that confined the manufacture to London, were exhibited on Saturday se’nnight, on the

Wool-washed on the sheep's back-sells at an ad don, would never have been applied to that object. Hill

, at Norwich; and sold to be sťaughtered. vance on the prices here quoted of 20 per cent. For this we are indebted to the liberal reformation begun by ministers, in our commercial code. Preju

THE MARYLAND ASSOCIATION FOR THE IMPROVEdice has unfortunately so far interposed as to prevent the extension of the system in many desirable

THE FARMER. MENT OF THE BREED OF HORSES, at a meeting held on instances.

Wednesday, unanimously elected J. S. SKINNER, a Such, for example, is the disinclination of the

Vice-President of the Association, in place of the late

BALTIMORE, Friday, APRIL 1, 1825. linen manufacturers of this country, to the ware

General Harper. On motion of Mr. Skinner, the Sohousing of German linens in Great Britain, for ex

ciety resolved to offer purses for horses owned only, portation only, that the minister conceded this point,

and bonafide, by persons residing within the State of and foreigners are still driven to the continent to Of conversations in the office of the American Farmer, Maryland and the District of Columbia, north of the

Potomac. make up an assorted cargo. In wool, prejudice has

29th March. succumbed to sound policy and common sense. The Mr. H. Watson, of Connecticut, on a visit to Maexportation of sheep's wool, so long prohibited by ryland to purchase Jackasses and Jennets, bought A few of our Patrons have forgotten to withdraw statutes, most arbitrary in their enactments, is now $600 worth on the Eastern Shore of Maryland; he their subscription from the American Farmer, until permitted by law, and last week presented the novel gave $300 for the very fine Jack of Dr. Gordon's, after they had received the first number of the 7th instance of a shipment of coarse wool for America, which took the La Fayette prize at the last Cattle vol.-In all such cases, they are requested to send being the first legal exportation of our native fleece, Show at the Maryland tavern. This fine imported back the numbers received, as not one more is prinduring a period of two centuries.

animal would not have there brought, at public auc- ted than will be wanting.





per. from







7 17 15 22



16 12 12






4 50


35 90 85 37 50

95 90

[blocks in formation]

The Index to the last vol. of the American Far- and subsequently the remainder of the parcel (600 hhds) will be sent to subscribers along with the title at 58s; besides which 200 hhds. New-York, Seed have

PRICES CURRENT. page, early in next week.

been purchased at 60s. The orders from Ireland are
extremely limited.


from Wanted to purchase, one or two thorough bred stal

Letters from Marseilles inform, that “the French lions of large size. Inquire of the Editor of the Ame- government have lately imposed an additional duty on BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 8 50 9

the importation of Wool, in consequence of which, and BACON, and Hams, . Ib. rican Farmer. of the increased demand for woollen fabrics, fine wools COFFEE, W.I. Green,

20 had risen 30 per cent in the month of January.”

do. Common,

16 181 SEED, GRAIN, PEAS, BOOKS, &c. &c.

COTTON, Louisiana, &c.

24 Deposited since last notice with the Editor of the American


Georgia Upland, .

Farmer, for the use of his subscribers.


33 ITALIAN SAVOY CABBAGE SEED, sent by Elkanah Wat-| I will sell at public sale, at Upper Marlboro' on the An advance of 1 cent

each number to No. 18, son,Esq. originally sent in by the American Consul at Na- first Monday in April, if fair, if not, the next fair day,

12 13 14 ples, they have been tried by the Shakers at Lebanon, my lands, adjoining the Woodyard and the Millwood CANDLES, Mould,



10 and reported to be a new and valuable variety. The Estate, containing 10024 acres, more or less. The soil

10 parcel received, was not more than of an ounce, and is of first quality, adapted to corn, wheat, and tobacco CHEESE, of the best kind, and susceptible of improvement, where FEATHERS, Live, . .

33 they have been distributed. GOURD SEED-From

gourds three feet long resemb- necessary by the aid of clover and plaster, no land more FISH, Herrings Sus. new bbl. none ling the Club with which Hercules struck off the heads so. There is the greatest abundance of wood and tim- Shad, trimmed, new,

bush of the Lernean Hydra. The seed and gourd from Mr. her for the supply of this estate, and much to spare; FLAXSEED, Rough, Rowe of Boston. low grounds for meadow in abundance, and a great deal Cleaned,

cask Yellow Corn, Early and beautiful, two small ears, already cleared and in rich growth of natural grass. FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 50 4 62 from Demerara, by John Law, Esq. There are three large tobacco houses, two of them with Fine,

4 25 Peas, the black or tory pea of North Carolina; a bar- sheds and with wheel prizes annexed thereto. The Susquehanna, superfi. houses for servants are many, and most of them lately FLAX,

Ib. rel from Gen. Calvin Jones of that state.

11 LAST REPORT OF THE CANAL COMMISSIONERs to the Le-erected, they are common but comfortable.

GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 lb 5 gislature of New-York; from Gen. Van Ransellear. One third of the purchase money must be paid at the GRAIN, Indian Corn, bush Tracts, put forth by the Pennsylvania Society for In- time of sale and the balance in one and two years with Wheat, White, new,.

Notes well endorsed, do. Red, do. ternal Improvement, from that indefatigable advocate interest from the day of sale of American Independence, Mathew Carey, Esq.

payable at the Planter's Bank of Prince George's county, Rye, John Bull, a cutting satire on the lying journals of must be given for the last two payments. The title is Barley, English Travellers in America; from the author. indisputable, and will be made through Mr. Benjamin

Clover Seed,

3 00 350 3 75 4 00 Address, to the Agricultural Society of Philadelphia, Oden; and should any person be disposed to purchase Ruta Baga Seed, at their annual meeting in January last; from the en- at private sale, before the first Monday in April, they

Oats, lightened and benevolent author, Robert Vaux, Esq.

are referred to him, who is authorized to sell for me, Peas, Black Eyed, Two Speeches, delivered before the convention at either at private or public sale. Those lands lay with- Beans, White,

Ib. Utica, for the nonination of a Governor, by C. G. in twelve miles of the City of Washington, and four of HOGS' LARD,


25 Haines Esq. on the character and public services of Upper Marlboro' the capital of the county, and twenty- LIME, that eminent benefactor of science, and of his country,

four of Annapolis, the capital of the state ; and on the LEATHER, Soal, best, Ib.
De Witt Clinton.
above estate are 200 acres of clover in fine growth, 50

Eastern Tan,
or 60 bushels of wheat, 30 or 40 in rye, and 20 or 30 in MOLASSES, Havana,

oats. There are large Orchards of the finest keeping MEAL, Cor, kiln dried, bbl. 2 37

and Cider Apples, and Peaches and Nectarines of the NAILS, 8a20d.

first quality. There are several Springs of the purest NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl.

and coldest water with a full running stream through Pitch,. From a Liverpool Price Current, of Feb. 19. the centre of the land, on which it is supposed a profit

Turpentine, Soft,

2 50 'The demand for Cotton since our last has been exable Mill might be erected. The growth of the Timber OIL, Whale, common,



Linseed, tremely animated, and speculators as well as the trade is, of yellow and white poplar, black walnut, hickory,

PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl have bought freely at the following advance, viz: Per- white and black oak; and all of the largest size, &c.


do. Prime, .

10 50 11 nams, 3.4 a ld; Maranhams, į a 3-4; Boweds, NewOrleans, Alabamas and Tennessees, i a 3-4d; Sea-Isl

April 1, 1825.

PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75

bush 33 ands, 1 a 1d, and Egyptian }d per 15. In East India

RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3
Cotton no alteration. The public sales of Demerara AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.
yesterday went off with spirit at high prices, and hold-

SOAP, Baltimore White, Ib.
Persons wanting Implements

do. Brown, ers of all uescriptions are sanguine of further improve

of Husbandry will find it their WHISKEY, Ist proof, ment. The total sales amount to 37,738 packages.


20 23 Ashes.--The demand for Pots has materially improv

interest to call at CHARLES PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr

65 ed, and about 1100 bbls. Montreals have been taken

B. PALMERS, No. 41 Light APPLE BRANDY, Ist pr chiefly by speculators at 33s 3d a 33s 9d. and 34s is now

street, 7 doors from Pratt 'st. SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50


Brown, generally required; 160 bbls. States Pots sold as 39 a 39s

8 50 9 60 and no more offer under 40s. In Pearls the business

ing Screen Wheat Fans, with


Loaf, iron backs, wings and axle;


24 15 is more limited; but prices are steady-100 bbls States

25 sold at 39s.

also, the Pennsylvania Wheat Fan, Corn Shellers, &c. Lump, Quercitron Bark in fair demand; 55 lihds. and 60 bls. Pennsylvania Bar Share ploughs, from one to four SPICES, Cloves, Philadelphia, brought 13s 6d a 14s, and a few casks ve- horse; New York wrought iron Stand Posts, one to four Ginger, Ground,

Mace, . horse; Connecticut or Yankee Plough, No. 1, 2 and 3; ry inserior, ils 6d. Tobacco.-Since last week, about 2000 hhds have double mouldboard Ploughs; Self-sharping do.; left Nutmegs,

1 40 1 501 1 70 1 75

Pepper, . changed hands at an advance of jd. a {d. per lb. on all hand or German do.

Harrows, Cultivators, Hoes, Sieves, &c.

SALT, St. Ubes, sorts.

bush The speculative demand for Turpentine has continued LP All repairs done immediately.

Turk's Island,
Persons disposed to purchase will please call and

Ground Alum,

50 and nearly 4000 bbls. have been sold at lls. 7d a 12s.

SHOT, all sizes, 6d. which establishes a further advance in this article. examine for themselves. Nothing done in Tar of any description, but prices Castings for Plough Manufacturers will be furnished WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 00 4 00

do. L.M.

1 75 2 steady. low, if timely notice be given.

do. March 25 The Grain market is dull, and Wheat at a decline of


110 1 15 Lisbon,

1 30 2d a 3d per bushel.

Sherry, American Flour goes off in small parcels at 24s. a 26s.

1 10 1 15 1.501 75 CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.

Claret, in bond.

doz. 3 For American Clover-seed there has been a partial in- Stone Lime, on burning and use as a manure-On the WOOL, Merino, fúll bla Ib.

Port, first quality,

gal. 2

2 501

40 45 quiry, but the transactions are limited, in consequence importance of Industry and Economy, and on the ma


unwashed of holders asking prices, which the dealers are unwil- nagement of land--- Agricultural Society of the Valley Common, Country,

crossed, ·

but free of

20 30 ling to give, and only 40 casks sold at 62s. for middling, Agricola and bis Teeswater Steer-On the diseases of

Skinners' or Pulled,


301 and 69s. for good.

various Fruit Trees-Rail Roads—Gas Engine Carriage Flar-seed was quite neglected until the middle of the -Extracts from the note-book of a Desultory Reader Printed every Friday, at $4 per annum, for JOHN S. week, when a smali parcel of New-York Sowing Seed --Queries of Correspondents-Miscellaneous Items--- SKINNER, Editor, by JOHN D. Toy, corner of St. was disposed of at 55s; but a speculator has since come Editorial and other Notices---Commercial Record---Ad- Paul and Market streets, where every description of into market, and taken 600 hhds. Philadelphia at 51s. vertisements---Prices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

1 75

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No. 3_VOL. 7.

17 way in which he can possibly carry it to advantage, Poll

is at the extremity of a short and upright neck. Like the weight of a pair of steelyards, if it is supported by a long and horizontal neck, its burden becomes enormously augmented, so that the weight transmitted to the fore extremities (for those parts support the head and neck as well as half the carcass) is much increased, and, from the natural preponderance of it

before, is very likely to prove the cause of the horse's Back

falling down, more especially if the rider is heavy, every trip or miss-step he may chance to make. În addition to all this, a lawyer (or big-headed horse) is apt to have a hard mouth, or rather, we say, no

mouth, so that we are always apprehensive of his Point of the Shoulder being heavy in hand, and unpleasant to ride. It is

proper, however, to state, before we proceed further,

lest we incur censure for these remarks, that the forBreast, or Bosom

mation of the neck, and the mode in which the head

is set on, and how he carries it, will have much to do Thigh, or Gaskin,

with the head being objectionable from its size, and with his being light or heavy in hand; for we have

known many big-headed horses ride well, and be as safe Point of the Hock,

and as light in hand as any others. Next to size, its Jilom 07:block

shape becomes a consideration: every feature should give animation to the countenance; let the forehead

be broad and flat; the eye staring, and full of fire; the Cannon,

ears thin, fine, and often erect; the nostrils, circular, dilated, and reddened within; the lips, soft, thin, and

hairless; the jowl extended, and the cheeks well markFetlock,


ed.. Large Pastern Coronit

Large Pastern

"Fire from his eyes, clouds from his nostrils, flow." Small Pastern

Small Pastern Hoof


This, at least, is what we would have it in the tho

rough bred, and as a general rule, the nearer that TERMS COMMONLY MADE USE OF TO DENOTE THE EXTERNAL PARTS OF THE HORSE.

of any other description of horse approaches to it,

the better the family he springs from, and the more PRIZE ESSAY,

those terms, a plate is annexed, having references to sanguine we may be in our prognostic of his abili

the parts themselves in the figure of a horse. It re-ties. That such a horse looks like a sticker, or is a Which obtained, in England, the reward of five pounds. quires some experience, but more attentive observa- perfect gentleman about his nob, are no uncommon nor Essay on the External Formation or Structure of the tion, to be what, in modern horse-phraseology, is call- very unmeaning expressions in the mouths of sportsHorse, and on the Disorders originating therein.

ed a good judge; i. e. (if we were asked to define a men and copers. But his head may be very long, or

good judge,) to know, at once, by a cast of the eye. it may be very short, though we do not know that Plerique omnes faciunt adoles-centuli Ut animum ad aliquod studium adjungant, aut ad equos to suit: is he cut out for a hackney, or is he calculated sore, if the countenance is something like what we

whether the nag, as soon as he is pulled out, is likelsither is particularly objectionable, except as an eye Alere, aut canes ad venandum, aut ad Philosophos.


for harness? Does he look like a hunter, or has he any have just described, unless he be a Yorkshireman, and

good looks about him? Does he show any blood, or is then, certainly, we should not fall in love with such a I PURPOSE, in the following pages, first, to give a he all over a mongrel? In fine, is he the sort of a thing big canister. The race ought to be perfectly straight, succinct, but, I trust, useful and explicit description you want, or won't he do until he meets with a green see plate,) and the muzzle, in the blood horse, square, of the exterior conformation—the make and shape of horn? These, and various other important considera- and such as will go into a pint pot; a Roman nose that valuable animal the horse; discriminating the ori- tions we hope to unravel the nature of in the course one in which the race is curved) is by no means ginally-well-formed tit from the cross-shaped, and of this inquiry, offering such remarks, from time to desirable, though his napper be but of ordinary dilikely-to-become-diseased brute, and the nag that can time, as may prove of practical service to the young mensions, it is seen, more commonly, however, in a go with safety and pleasantry on the road, or carry and inexperienced horseman. At first sight of a horse. big head, which it, in a side view, makes appear not sixteen stone across a heavy country, from the imbe- a judge takes a general survey of him, and if he ob- only much larger, but exceedingly ugly: this may be cil: and weakly-constitutioned spider; and, lastly, to serve any apparent disproportion or deformity, his said to constitute a plain Yorkshire head. Withal, the show by what ready and certain modes we may de- attention is at once fixed to that particular point.- head, to render it handsome, should be well set on; tect unsoundness in the purchase of a prad, and Every horse, for example, that is tolerably well form its junction with the neck should form a sort of curve, when we are to pronounce that he is perfectly sound. ed, should exhibit due proportions of limb and car- so as to leave ample space in the throat for a large

The Horse, in the estimation of a sportsman, cass; in fact, nine out of ten have as much carcass as and prominent gullet, by which we may judge him stands pre-eminent above other quadrupeds, as man is equal to the area of the space occupied by the legs (to be a good-winded horse. does above every other animal: not only do match in ordinary standing; but should his legs be extraor- The neck now demands our attention; if good, the less beauty and strength of form, combined with un- dinarily long, or his carcass disproportionately small, crest will form an arch of agreeable curve from the rivalled speed, distinguish him; but the extensive he is said to have too much day-light under him, and poll to the withers, utility he is of to us, and the share he takes in our di- that is certainly no mean objection. Should his head versions and perilous enterprises, serve to inspire us be very large, his neck of disproportionate length,

“With neck like a rainbow, erecting his crest.” with even a degree of affection for him. Every horse his fore legs stand under him, or his quarters be rag- It will be of proportionate length, and progressive is adapted to some particular purpose; for horses not ged and ugly, such glaring imperfections cannot fail increase in breadth, as it approaches the chest. A only differ in kind, but, like men, in utility, in tem- to attract our notice as soon as, or even before, the long neck, if it be straight, or but little curved, is obper, in stamina, &c. and the selection of them, in re- groom has set him on his legs. But we shall have oc-jectionable, for reasons we stated when speaking of gard to these particulars, constitutes one of the most casion to particularise these things in a detail of the a large head; a short one, however excellent it may arduous and nicest duties of the connoisseur: he must perfections and imperfections of the different parts be on the principle of the steelyards, is never handreadily acknowledge good or bad conformation,- entering into the composition of the animal. some, and seldom exists without rendering even a trace genealogy in the outline, and discover a je ne The exterior of the horse may be divided, for the good hackney piggish. That short necked horses are sais quoi about the tout ensemble that denotes good convenience of thus describing his several parts, in-better winded than others, because the air has less or bad instinctive and unalterable qualities. to head, neck, body, and legs: first, we shall deline distance to pass to and from the lungs, is an opinion

In describing the good and bad points of a horse, ate a good head. The nob should be small. A large to which we cannot subscribe. The neck should alit will be necessary to make use of many terms, de- head is not only a plain head, but a bad point, inas- so be thin, not thick and heavy, and rounded and noting different external parts, which, to all horsemen much as it really, under certain circumstances, de- straight along its lower margin; should the canal of will not require any explanation; least, however, the tracts from the powers of the horse; he has, in fact, the jugular vein be deep, and the windpipe full 2 nd reader be unacquainted with the meaning of some of more to carry,—it is a burden to him, and the only prominent below it, we may regard it as a sign of

3-VOL, 7.

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