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CHAPTER IX.

THREE ORDERS.

CHAPTER VIII.

THREE ORDERS.

A. Most of the plants belonging to this class are the East and West Indies. Black pepper (which ern climates, and the excessive heat of the torrid natives of India, such as ginger, cardamons, arrow- belongs to the third order of this class) is a shrubby zone. root, and turmeric; but we have the hippuris, or plant, and grows spontaneously in the East Indies Q. Does it not constitute the principal food for mare's tail, which grows in our muddy pools and and in Cochin China. It is also cultivated at many all classes of the community in Britain? ditches, and, as it is easily procured, will serve for other places, but in no part of Europe.

A. Yes; and its abundance or scarcity regulates an example, of order 1.

Q. Is not white pepper a different species from in a great degree the welfare and prosperity of the R. Describe it. the black?

inhabitants. The whole annual consumption of A. The hippuris, or mare's tail, has neither calyx A. No: it was formerly thought so, but it is really grain in this island is said to amount to twenty-five nor corolla. A single pistil denotes its order, and nothing more than the ripe berries deprived of their million of quarters: and, in London alone, to more it has only one stamen, which grows upon the re- skin by steeping them for a time in water, and then than 1,162,100 quarters, of which by far the greatceptacle, terminated by an anther slightly divided, drying them in the sun.

est proportion is wheat. behind which is the pistil, with an awl-shaped stig; Q. Is Cayenne pepper produced from the same Q. Is not sugar the produce of a plant belonging ma, tapering to a point. The stem is straight and plant?

to this class? jointed, and the leaves grow round the joints; at A. No; Cayenne pepper is produced in the West A. Yes; the sugar-cane, (saccharum officinarum) the base of each leaf is a flower, and it is seen in Indies, from a plant called Capsicum Minimum. a plant much cultivated in the East and West Inbloom in the month of May.

dies, which has a jointed stem eight or nine feet “No velvet mantle, no embroider'd veil,

high, long and flat leaves of a greenish yellow Shields poor hippuris from the northern gale;

Class III.--Triandria (Three Stamens.) colour, and flowers in bunches. 'Midst the damp meadow, or the oozy bed,

Q. What methods are used to extract the sugar In lowly modesty she rears her head.

from the canes? Q. Describe some plant of this class belonging to

Q. How do you mean to illustrate the class Tri- A. When cut down, the leaves are thrown away, andria?

and the stems or canes are divided into pieces, each order 2. A. The water star-wort (containing two pistils)

A. By giving you an account of some of the vari- about a yard in length: they are then tied up in which takes its name from its upper leaves, making

ous grasses, which are comprised in it. Though it bundles, and conveyed to the mill, where they are a star-shaped appearance, is to be met with in may appear surprising, it is no less true, that every bruised between three upright wooden rollers coverditehes and standing water, and may be seen in bears a distinct tlower, perfect in all its parts; and from them is conducted into a large vessel, and the

single blade of these apparently insignificant plants ed with iron. The saccharine juice which flows blossom at any time between April and October.

only requires to be nicely viewed, to excite our value quantity of juice prepared by some of these milis is and admiration.

upwards of ten thousand gallons in a day. Class II.- Diandria. (Two Stamens.)

Q. Are there not many varieties of grasses? Q. What processes does it afterwards undergo?

A. Yes, there are upwards of three hundred spe- A. The juice is boiled in large caldrons, and afQ. With what examples can you furnish me in described: the leaves furnish pasturage for cattle; the bottom of the pan. After being again boiled,

cies. The general character of grasses may be thus terwards carefully drawn off, leaving the scum at class Diandria?

the smaller seeds are food for birds, and the larger with a certain mixture of lime, the juice is transA. The privet (ligustrum) being a shrub very com- for man; but some are preferred to others: as fescue, ferred into a large shallow wooden vessel, where, mon in our hedges and gardens, will serve to exem- for sheep; meaduw-grass, for cows; canary, for as it cools, it runs into a sort of crystallization, by plify this class.

small birus, oats and beans, for horses; rye, wheat, which it is separated from the molasses or treacle, Q. Give me an account of it. and barley, for man.

an impure part of the juice, incapable of being Ă. The privet bcars a white blossom, and gene

Q. Do they not furnish us with many valuable crystallized, but which is used for various useful rally flowers in June. It has a very small tubulated necessaries?

purposes. calyx of one leaf, its rim divided into four parts.

Q. Yes; our most important articles of food and
The blossom is also of one petal, and funnel-shaped, clothing are derived fron, them. Bread, meat, beer, ancients papyrus, belong to this class?

Q. Does not the celebrated plant called by tho with an expanded border, cut into four egg-shaped milk, butter, cheese, leather, and wool; and all the A. Yes; the plant papyrus* is of the rush kind, segments.

advantages produced from the use of cattle would and grows on the borders of the Nile, to the height Q. How is it known to belong to this class? be lost without them.

of ten or twelve feet. The stem is naked, having a A. By its having two stamens, which are placed

Q. How may corn and grasses be distinguished bushy head, and a few short leaves at the bottom. opposite to each other, and nearly as long as the from other plants?

Q. What part of this plant was converted into blossom. The seed bud is roundish, the pistil or

A. By their simple, straight, unbranched stalk, paper? style short, terminated by a thick, blunt, cloven hollow and jointed, commonly called a straw, with

A. The inner rind of the stem. It was principally stigma. The leaves grow in pairs, and are some-long, narrow, tapering leaves, placed at each knob manufactured at Alexandria, and the city derived times variegated with white or yellow stripes.

or joint of the stalk, and sheathing or enclosing it, great riches from its exportation. This kind of Q. Does not the privet bear berries?

as by way of support their ears or heads consist of paper was used in the days of Alexander the Great, A. Yes; the seed vessel is a black berry, con- a húsk, generally composed of two valves, which and continued in use till about the tenth century, taining but one cell, which encloses four seeds. form the calyx; within which is the blossom, being when paper made of cotton was introduced; and These berries are useful to the dyers, as they give also a husk of two valves.

such as we now use, made from linen, became coma durable green colour to silk or wool, by the addi

Q. How are the various grasses divided? mon in the fourteenth century. tion of alum.

A. Linnæus has arranged them into four divisions; Q. Does not the common jasmine (jasminum offi- the first three include those that are produced in cinale) belong to class Diandria? panicles, or loose branches, which are distinguished

Class IV.- Tetandria. (Four Stamens.) A. Yes; and as it is a most fragrant ornamental by the number of towers in each empalement; the shrub which we are well acquainted with, I will, if tirst having one flower; the second, two; and the Q. How are the flowers of the class Tetandria you please, describe it.

third, several. The fourth division consists of all characterized? Q. Do so.

those that grow in spikes or heads, such as wheat, A. They are characterized by having four staA. The common jasmine is a native of India, but

rye, barley, &c. kas long been cultivated in Europe. It is chiefly Q. Describe wheat.

Q. Give me some examples. raised against walls, and it is interesting, not only from the elegance of its foliage, but also from the ted in most civilized countries of the world, and is

A. Wheat, the chief support of man, is cultiva- A. Teasel, madder, ladies' bedstraw, and holly. number of beautiful white flowers with which it is supposed to have been originally introduced into

Q. What is teasel? adorned, which exhale a sweet odour, particularly Europe from Asia.* There is no grain so valuable ted in several parts of England, and used in the

A. Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) is a plant cultivaafter rain, and in the night.

as this; and it is wisely ordained by Providence, carding of woollen cloths. It is distinguished from “With fragrant scent in artless beauty's ease, that it is capable of sustaining the severity of north- other plants of the same tribe, by having its leaves In snowy folds that kiss the summer's breeze, Attractive fair, the lovely jasmine see Bow her fine head, and bend her supple knee;

* In Egypt corn grows spontaneously: Osiris, son of Sac'charine, a. sweet, having the taste of sugar. With piteous air she lifts th’imploring eye,

Jupiter and Niobe, and king of Egypt, is regarded as Crystalliza'tion, s. the process of congealing. Pleads her sad tale, and heaves the tender sigh."

the inventor of the art of agriculture, and his wife Isis
as the discoverer of the use of wheat and barley.

* From this word Papyrus, paper is derived; and from Q. What useful foreign spice belongs to this

the ancient custom of writing on the leaves of trees,

“Then the far country waves with golden corn; books are said to be composed of leaves. The word class?

The soil untill'd a ready harvest yields,

liber signifies the inner bark of a tree, on which the A. Pepper, there are upwards of sixty different With wheat and barley wave the golden fields." ancients wrote; and volumen was the manuscript rolled species of pepper, and they are nearly all natives of

HOMER's Opysser. up: thus are our words library and volume derived.

CHAPTER X.

THREE ORDERS.

mens,

TO CURE THE COLICK IN HORSES.

connected at the base; the flower scales hooked; la perpetual spring, one that flows after the manner spring in the direction thai they were pressed, and and the general calyx reflected or bent back. of other springs. On our Alleghanies, there are make unhandsome ends, which would be very obQ. What is holy?

many of them, and on the very highest one of all, jectionable. A. Holly (Ilex aquifolium) is a small evergreen there is one that has been flowing for upwards of I have to erect a cotton press the ensuing fall, tree, with shining irregular leaves, and white flow- two centuries, undiminished. On Scholey's moun and shall try, in place of the screw, two strong ers, which grow in clusters round the branches, and tain, there is that famous medicinal spring-it flows swords with cogs on the edge, to be run up and are succeeded by small red berries.

unimpaired by droughts. I saw it during the last down by means of a trundle-head for each sword. Q. What is the use of this plant?

summer of drought. I inquired, and searched care- on a shast having a tread-wheel on each end of it. Ă. As a fence, holly is very serviceable, and re- fully all around, but found no higher reservoir that it succeeds well, you shall have a more particu tains its beautiful green verdure through the severest could supply this flowing spring—and with such lar description of it. winters. The wood is very close grained, and is constancy and rapidity does it slow, that it has I also send you a few seed of the Cayenne pep used for many purposes. The leaves afford a grate-formed a lake about a mile or two below it. A re-per-which, with some difficulty, has been natuful food to sheep and deer in winter; and the berries servoir, to supply such a spring, must have lake Su- ralized to this climate, and probably will succeed yield a subsistence to numerous birds. We use perior tributary to it.

with you. It is called in Louisiana, the bird pepper branches of holly to decorate our houses and church- There is no doubt of the fact, that springs are and is infinitely more pungent than any of its kines at Christmas, to give an air of spring in the depth more frequently found on the top and sides of high dred. The lady who furnished the seed, sends a of winter.

hills and mountains, than in vallies or plains. We small sample of the pepper, prepared for the table; Q. Is not bird lime made of the bark of the holly? must ask for the cause of this. It will be learned and as her manner of doing it is much superior to

A. Yes; and for that purpose it is boiled about that no reservoirs exist on these hills and mountains, the process one of your correspondents furnished twelve hours; and, after standing for a fortnight, is but that the waters are propelled to the surface by some time ago, it may not be amiss to give it. Put mised over the fire with a third part of oil. The some central effort. Gas may be the agent of this the pods into a coarse paper bag, and hang it on adhesive quality of bird-lime, thus prepared, is very central power, for it must be a more permanent the breast of the kitchen chimney until perfectly remarkable, particularly to feathers and other dry thing than what is produced by gas that is extricat- dry. They will then be easily reduced to the nesubstances; for which reason it is used for the ing itself from beds of mineral. Gas will release cessary fineness in a covered iron mortar, and the smearing of twigs, to ensnare birds.

itself from confinement as quickly as is possible. beautiful red colour and genuine flavour be perfectIt will avail itself of the readiest fissures to get ly preserved. If you fear the seed will not vege

into open space. Mountains, from their structure, tate, since they were gathered last fall and the RURAL ECONOMY.

present the greatest number of those fissures--and second season will arrive before they can be planted,

water, that is gravitating, is often intersected by a you can obtain more in due time, if you desire ON BORING FOR WATER. stream of this gas, which, if of sufficient power,

them.

Yours, &c. will force up the water with it to the extent of

E. M. FORD. New Brunswick, N. J., June 21, 1825.

its strength. In boring, we must often intersect a P. S. We have had an unusually dry spring, and. Dear Sir,

stream of this kind, running perhaps horizontally, at present are suffering from drought. I cannot let Mr.: John Trimble's communication into the hole thus bored the gas and water rushes, pass without commenting on one or two points. and reaches the top; and, perhaps, if a tube be put He speaks of a log, or "gum,” as being necessary down several feet, well wedged, having a few feet

RECIPES. to the obtainment of water, or rather for the use of left above the surface, the water may reach the top the boring apparatus.

of the tube. I have several such instances on reAt the well on my farm, a piece of pine scantling cord, as well as some furnished by yourself. The 5 inches square and 4 feet long, bored one inch water that is thus propelled above the surface, may Dear Sir,

Tranquility, June 25, 1825. wider in diameter than the chisel, was all that I come from a river or brook even lower than the I observed, in looking over one of your papers of found necessary. A hole was dug as if for a fence surface of the ground whence it is brought by bor- April last, salts recommended as an infallible cure post-into this the bored pine was set; it was well ing. Whence come the burning springs, and the for the colick in horses. Although I have sometimes packed around with clay, and it kept its perpendi- warm springs, that are found on the tops of moun- found it efficacious in cases of colick, I have known cular position throughout the whole boring. One tains. To suppose that all springs must come from it to fuil frequently in producing a cure. My object foot of this pine tube was left above ground. The a higher source, (I mean, to confine myself to those in sending you the present communication, is to give machinery, which was a moveable frame, was set obtained by boring, and those on the tops of the you a remedy for this disease, which I have found immediately over this wooden tube, and the chisel highest moumtain,) one must infer that there is a re- much more certain than salts administered in any that was attached to the boring poles never injured servoir on the top of one of the very highest moun- quantity. This remedy is linseed oil, administered the tube to the last. When the well was thought tains in the world, where water is forever generat- in the quantity of from half a pint to a pint, in proto be sufficiently deep, the wooden tube was taken ing, and where it never freezes; and that there must portion to the violence of the symptoms. This mediout, and a copper tube is now in, to the depth of be a communication from this highest mountain to cine, as far as I have observed, and as far as I have from 80 to 100 feet. In a former letter, I spoke of all the others—and this is straining a hypothesis too heard from others, has never failed producing almost wooden tubes of cedar—but we found that they did far. It is much more natural and philosophical, to instantancous relief to the animal, under even the not suit our purpose. The copper tube is only 11 imagine, that the earth is intersected by streams of most violent fits of that disease. I will give you an ininch diameter. The trouble and expense of putting gas, and that the waters of saturation are propelled stance which came under my observation last sumdown one of those "gums," must be very great- from their gravitating principle by these streams of mer. a near neighbour of mine sent to me to prescribe and in the end they are useless; for the poles and gas; and that the greater the depth from which for a horse labouring under a fit of the colick, from chisel, during the act of boring, have play enough, these gases are sent, and the fuller the source of eating too much green food after working in very with an inch in the clear, and when all is done, and the waters that are propelled upwards again—the hot weather, I immediately endeavoured to procure the permanent tube is pressed into the well, there higher these waters will be ejected, and the more a dose of linseed oil at every house in the neighis no necessity for so large an opening as that with constant will they flow.

bourhood, without success-in the mean time I adin the gum.

The attention of the learned in hydrostatics and ministered almost every remedy which I could think There are several other matters in the letter from hydraulics, will soon be drawn to this interesting of; among the rest, one pound of salts. The disease Mr. Trimble, that I should like to discuss—but for subject, and you will have the pleasure of being baffled all my exertions and the animal died in the want of leisure I must let them pass, and only refer the first to introduce the new principle to the world. course of the night. A few days afterwards I was to his opinion respecting the probable source of It will be found, that "water may be obtained on sent for to see a horse belonging to the same neighthese “central springs.” He says, that he “is satis- those small flat bodies of land that are surrounded bour, who I think had a more violent attack than fied that the same laws govern the gravitation of wa- by the sea, which (according to Mr. Trimble's opin- the former, having a bottle of linseed oil by me at ter below as above the earth, and that the jet of a ion,) are not likely to afford fresh water at any con- the time, I gave him three gills immediately, and in stream depends on the height of its source.” I ob- venient depth.”

C. fifteen minutes he was perfectly relieved and began served to you formerly, that a reservoir on the top

to graze. The physicians in this section of the of a hill or mountain, was far different from a COTTON PRESS AND CAYENNE PEPPER. country are in the habit of giving this medicine to spring. I never heard of one that was not subject

their patients, for obstinate fits of colick, in doses of to a slight drought. A filled reservoir, is either the DEAR SIR, Maury county, Ten., June 9, 1825.

a large table spoonful to a strong healthy adult, and product of several successive showers, or else filled The cotton press described by Mr. Fields, would diminishing the quantity according to the size and by the constant generation of waters, such as those probably be more economical than the wooden age of the patient. on the Andes, where it rains perpetually. In colder screw now in general use, from its greater durabili-! You will very much oblige me, as well as many latitudes, for instance Mont Blanc, there can be no ty, and the ease with which a broken link might be others, if you can publish in the Farmer a recipe reservoirs—and get on that very mountain, there is repaired. I think, however, that the bales would for destroying and keeping the web-worm from bee

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hives. I am losing a fine parcel of hives by their
inroads, and know of no preventive.

PRICES CURRENT.
THE FARMAR.

WHOLESALE.
I am, sir, respectfully, A SUBSCRIBER.

ARTICLES.
BaltiMORE, FRIDAY, JULY 1, 1825.

to ESSENCE OF SOAP FOR SHAVING, OR WASHING HANDS.

BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 10

Ib.
For any delay or deficiency in answering the fa- BACON, and Hams, .
Take a pound and an half of fine white soap, in

161 thin slices, and add thereto two ounces of salt of yours of correspondents, during the last three weeks, COFFEE, W.I. Green,

do. Common,

161 tartar; mix them together, and put this mixture into the Editor begs to explain—That under an invitation one quart of spirits of wine, in a bottle which will with which he was honoured by the War Depart- COTTON, Louisiana, &c.

Georgia Upland,

22 hold double the quantity of the ingredients; tie a blad- ment, he repaired to West Point, to attend, as one der over the mouth of the bottle, and prick a pin of the board of visiters, the examination of the COTTON YARN, No. 19,

cent through the bladder, set it to digest in a gentle Cadets at the “Military Academy.” The examina

each pumber to No. 18. heat, and shake the contents from time to time, tions were commenced on the first Monday of June, CANDLES, Mould,

12

14 Dipt,

10 taking care to take out the pin at such times, to al- and were continued, without intermission, until

10 low passage for the air from within; when the soap Thursday afternoon of the 23d_commencing, dur-ICHEESE, is dissolved, filter the liquor through paper to free ing a good part of the time, at 5 A. M. and lasting un- FEATHERS, Live,

bbl. 2 18

2 25 it from impurities; then scent it with a little berga- til 7 P. M. They were very thorough, and in all re- FISH, Herrings, Sus.

Shad, trimmed, mot, or essence of lemon. It will have the appear-spects calculated to do honour to the Cadets and their

bush 1 ance of fine oil, and a small quantity will lather Instructors. An idea probably prevails, that this in- FLAXSEED, Rough,: with water, like soap, and is much superior in use, stitution, as its title imports, is exclusively of a milita- FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 50

Fine for washing or shaving. rycharacter, and that the studies pursued in it are on

Susquehanna, superfi. ly such as belong strictly to the profession of arms; FLAX,

Ib. but this impression is far from being correct From GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 lb) 5 PASTE, OR FOOD FOR SINGING BIRDS, SUPERIOR TO notes taken on the spot, we shall shew in subsequent GRAIN, Indian Corn,

bush papers, as we find room, the course and the nature Wheat, White, Well mix, or knead together, three pounds of or the instructions given; and an abstract of some do.. Red, split peas; grind or beat to four oné pound and a of the examinations which passed in our presence,

Buckwheat, half each of fine crumbs of bread and coarse sugar will prove to the community, by whom this great

Rye, --the fresh yolks of six raw eggs, and six ounces of national institution is supported, that it prepares

Barley,
Clover Seed,

3 25 3 50 3 75 unsalted butter, put about a third part of the mix- those who are instructed in it, to play, with emi

Ruta Baga Seed, . ture at a time in a frying pan, over a gentle fire, nent intelligence and effect, an active part on the Orchard Grass Seed, and continually stir it, till it be a little brown, but great theatre of practical civil life. For further Mangel Wurtzel Seed, by no means burnt; when the other two parts are remarks on the character of the institution, we have Timothy Seed, thus done, and all are become cold, add to the en- no leisure, nor room, at present; but the views Oats, tire quantity six ounces of mow seed, with six that will be hereafter presented, will be such as asso

Peas, Black Eyed,

95 1 pounds of good bruised hemp seed, separated from ciate well with the agricultural interests of the coun

Beans, White,

1 12 the husks; mix the whole well together, and it will try, and will, therefore, we hope, be received by our

HEMP, Russia, clean, .
HOGS' LARD, .

Ib. be found an excellent food for thrushes, red robins, readers as not incompatible with the main purposes LEATHER, Soal, best,

dult larks, linnets, canary birds, finches of the different of this journal.

Eastern Tan, . kinds, and most other singing birds, admirably pre- The visit to West Point was one of great plea- MOLASSES, Havana, gal.

50 serving them in song and feather.

sure and high intellectual interest. The only draw- MEAL, Corn, kiin dried, bbl. 2 31
back on the satisfaction it yielded, arose from the NAILS, Sa20d.

64 DOCTOR ANDERSON'S MODE OF KEEPING MILK AND consideration that it involved a temporary absence NAVAL STORES, Tar, whl. 1 62 from our official post; where it is our constant de

Pitch,

Turpentine, Soft, The pernicious method of keeping milk in leaden sire to afford, even to the most idle and envious, not

OIL, Whale, common,

gal.

27

But precauvessels, and salting butter in stone jars, begins to the slightest ground for complaint.

Linseed, gain ground in this country, as well as elsewhere, tions were taken, that the Post Office should not be PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl from an idea of cleanliness. The fact is, it is just one moment, day or night, without a ce-npetent per- do. Prime, .

10 5011 the reverse of cleanliness; for, in the hans of a son to give prompt and polite attention to every de- PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75 careful person, nothing can be more cleanly than mand; and we fearlessly challenge the specification POTATOES,

bush wooden dishes; but, under the management of a of failure to accomplish that, in a single instance. RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3 50 4

14 slattern, they discover the secret when stone dishes The illustrations we shall give of the examinations SOAP, Baltimore White, lh.

do.

Brown, do not. In return, these latter communicate to the of the Cadets, in regard to the materials and struc

231 butter and the milk which has been kept in them a ture of roads alone, will, we trust, show to the Past- WHISKEY, 1st proof,

82 1 1 25 poisonous quality, which inevitably proves destrue- master General, who knows how to mingle with APPLE BRANDY, 1st pr tive to the human constitution. To the prevalence strictness of discipline, liberal indulgence to those SUGARS, Havana'White, c.16.13 00 13 5014 of this practice, I have no doubt, (says the Doctor,) under his control, that our time was not past dis

do. Brown, we must attribute the frequencies of palsies, which paragingly to his department—to which properly be- Louisiana,

10 20 10 begin to prevail so much in this kingdom; for the longs, if to any, the constitutional power under con- Loaf, well known effect of the poison of lead is debility, gress to make, as well as to “establish” national Lump,

15 SPICES, Cloves, .

1 10 palsy,—death! “post roads."

Ginger, Ground,

Mace, Put four pounds of salt butter into a churn with

TOBACCO.-Eleven hogsheads Tobacco, made by Nutmegs, four quarts of new milk, and a small portion of ar- James Osborn, of Anne Arundel county, sold for $6 Pepper, notts." Churn them together, and in about an hour per hundred for the second, and $12 per hundred SALT, St. Ubes,

bush take out the butter, and treat it exactly as fresh for the crop. Three hhds. Ohio Tobacco sold for

Ground Alum, butter, by washing it in water and adding the cus- $17 per hundred round. All kinds of tobacco main-SHOT, all sizes, cwt. 9 25 tomary quantity of salt. This is a singular experi . tain their prices. Inspections for the last week in WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal

. ? 503 25 3 00 4 00 . Sicily,

I 10 1 15 ment. The butter gains about three ounces in each the three state warehouses, 498 hhds.

Lisbon, pound, and is in every respect equal to fresh butter.

Claret,

doz. 3 It would be greatly improved by the addition of

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.

Port, first quality,

gal. 2

2 50 two or three ounces of fine sugar, in powder. A On Improving the Native Breed of New England WOOL, Mering, full bl’a Ib.

40

un washed common earthen churn answers the same purpose Cattle, by Col. T. Pickering, No. 4-Essay on Sheep,

do. crossed,

but free of as a wooden one, and may be purchased at any by G. W. P. Custis, Esq., No. 6—Extracts from Pro

Common, Country, ceedings of the Washington Agricultural Society, Ten. pot shop.

tags.

Skinpers' or Pulled,
-Extract from Address of Wm. M. Barton, Esq. deli-

vered at a meeting of the Agricultural Society of the Mix with a quantity of fresh rice, cream, half its Valley, Va.—Culture of Cotton-Millet-Agricultural Printed every Friday, at $5 per annum, for JOHN S. weight of white sugar in powder, stir the whole Prospects—Pinnock's Catechism of Botany, continued SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Toy, corner of St. well together, and preserve it in bottles well corked. On Boring for Water-Cotton Press and Cayenne Pep- Paul and Market streets, where every description of

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed. in this state it is ready to mix with tea or coffee. 'per-Recipes—Editorial—Prices Current.

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No. 16-Vol. 7.

121

AMERICAN FARMER-BALTIMORE, JULY S, 1925.

Lot 4-Strawberry, speckled red and white, two Lot 15— Cinnamon, dark red, nine years old, by AGRICULTURE.

years old, by Conqueror, a son of Warrior,* her Prince, dam Chestnut, lot 1 in sale 1819, by Bly

dam a well bred cow, purchased of Mr. R. Colling's Comet, prandam Cherry, by the late Ar. Foljambe's CHAMPION'S CATTLE SALE IN ENGLAND. herdsman; bulled on the 10th Oct., 1824, by Sym-bull, bred from his favourite cow Cherry, great Blyth, near Bavotry, 25th April, 1525. metry-331., Mr. Dolley.

grandam Old Chance; bulled on the sth February, MY DEAR SIR,

Lot 5-Laura, dark red and white star, two years 1825, by Speculation—301., Mr. Norman, I have now much pleasure in sending you a cata- old, by Blaize, her dam Louisa, by Mr. Mason's Lot 16-Wildair, dark red and white spots, seren logue of my sale, with the names of the purchasers Charles, grandam Lily, by Mr. R. Colling's son of years old, exact pedigree unknown-bred by 3r and prices. The company was highly respectable Favourite, great grandam by the same bull, great Smith, of Togston, an eminent breeder, near Ala and inost numerous—more than 400 were present. great grandam by Mr. Chapman's bull, of Dimsdale, wick, in Northumberland; bulled on the 27th Aug., Mr. Fortescue and Mr. Norman were from Ireland; great great great grandam by Mr. R. Grimston's bull; 1824, by Aid-de-camp_351., Mr. l'ortescue. they bought nine lots of females. Mr. Fortescue is bulled on the 9th December, 1824, by Speculation- Lot 17—Bright Eyes, white and red spots, seven the gentleman to whom I sold Brigade Major, about 451., Mr. Fortescue.

years old, by a son of the late Mr. Munday's bull, two years ago, for 150 guineas. About a week be- Lot 6—Mearlow Maid, dark roan, two years old, out of his own dam, which was also the dam of the fore my sale, Mr. Fortescue gained three premiums by a son of Warrior, sold to America, and there White Ox, by Prince, shown at Lincoln in 1815, and for bulls, at the agricultural meeting held in Dublin. named Chanpion, (see Herd Book Appendix, page of the late Mr. Ingall's roan bull, by Blyth Comet: My cows and heifers sold at a great price, consider- 580,) her dam by a son of Crispin; bulled on the bulled on the 28th Feb., 1825, by Speculation and ing that many of them were not of my best blood, 14th November, 1824, by Speculation—401., Mr. Challenger–281., Mr. Rudley. and several of them had been so recently bulled as Dolley.

Lot 18Rachel, dark red and white, seven years not to be considered safe in calf. You will find, by Lot 7Peach, roan and white, two years old, by old, by Dr. Syntax, a son of Mr. Mason's Charles, reference to the catalogue, the best bred ones do Plastic, a well-bred son of Warrior, her dam was from Blyth Comct's dam, Magdalene, her dam bred not always command the best prices. For instance, twin sister to lot 18, and by Doctor Syntax, (Herd by the late Mr. Hall, of Lingodell; bulled on the lot 14. sold for 461. without any pedigree—and lot 11, Book, p. 582,) grandam bred by the late Mr. Hall, 25th Norember, 1824, by Speculation-561., Dir. with a very good pedigree, sold only for 231., being of Lingodell; bulled on the 12th Jan. 1825, by Spe- Bolden. just half the price. This proves, unless a person culation—541., Mr. Slater.

Lot 19—Dolly, white and red spots, nine years has good judgment in selecting the animals he wants Lot 8—Innocence, white, three years old, by War old, by Mr. C. Colling's Wellington, dam Daisy; to breed from, that he may very soon get wrong if rior, her dam by Mr. Mason's Charles, grandam by bulled on the 25th Feb., 1825, by Speculation–351. he attends to pedigree only—but when it is com- Mr. C. Colling's Comet, great grandam by Mr. R. Mr. Fortescue. bined with good shapes and superior qualities, it Colling's son of Favourite, great great grandam by Lot 20-Coates' Tulip, dark red and white, six makes the animal of much greater value. My bulls the same bull, great great great grandam by Mr. years old, by Biyth Comet, dam Tulip, (bred by Mr. did not sell well, in proportion to my cows—but, Chapman's bull, of Dinsdale, great great great George Coates,) by Driffield, grandam Young Hart, with the exception of Symmetry and Quality, the great grandam by Mr. R. Grimston's bull; bulled on by Haughton, great grandam Hart, by a bull of others were not superior. Old Don Cossack had the 13th Jan., 1825, by Challenger-571., Mr. Dur-Nr. Cornforth's, of Barforth, near Darlington; bullbeen an excellent stock getter, but at his age I could ham.

ed on the 22d Feb., 1825, by Speculation--401, Mr. not expect a greater price-and Quality, I have no Lot 9Ruby, dark red with white spots, three Fortescue. doubt, would have sold for double the price, had he years old, by Warrior, dam Primrose, (Herd Book, The 20 cows and heifers sold for 8711. 10s.--avenot unfortunately got lamed. I have some promis- 509,) by Mr. Mason's Charles, grandam by Blyth raging 431. 11s. 6d. ing young bulls coming forward-one, own brother Comet, great grandam by Prince, great great gran

BULLS, SOLD WITHOUT RESERVE: to Symmetry, very good, and he is a dark red and dam by Mr. George Coates' Patriot; bulled on the white. With every good wish and kind regara, ?| 20th March, 1825, by Quality—521. 10s., Mr. Nor- Lot 2i-Challenger, dark red, calved on the ed subscribe, my dear sir, your faithful friend,

of January, 1823; bis sire Conqueror, (ilerd book, CHAS. CHAMPION. Lot 10—Columbine, dark red and white, three page 581,) bis dam by Prince, grandam by Blyth J. S. SEINNER, Esq.

years old, by Warrior, her dam Kate, by Mr. Job- Comet, great grandam Cherry, by the late Mr. FolEIGHTA ANNUAL SALE

ling's Wellington, (683,) now Mr. Wetherell's Rock- jambe's bull, great great grandain Old ChanceOf Improved Short Horned Stock, the property of Mr. ingham, grandam Cathlene, (bred by Mr. Colling, 531., Mr. Gibson. Champion, of Blyth, Nottinghamshire, or Thurs- and sold at his sale for 160 guineas,) by Washing- Lot 22-Symmetry, white, calved on the 24th of day, 7th April, 1825.

ton, and she was bred from the daughter of the dam July, 1823; his sire Aid-de-camp,* (page 579,) his Lot 1-Speckle , road and white, two years old, of Phænix; bulled on the 20th Nov., 1824, by Spe- dam Lavinia, by Mr. Mason's Charles, (page 595,) culation—701., Mr. Slater.

grandam Latona, by Mr. C. Colling's Comet, great by Speculation,* (see Coates' Herd Book Appendix,

Lot 11-Friel, yellow and white, three years old, grandam Lily, by Mr. R. Colling's son of Favourite, p. 584,) her dam No. 14, grandam a great milker, and the dam of the yearling heifer shown at Sir C. by Mr. T Bate's Ketton 3d, (No. 349,) dam Mari- great great grandam by the same bull, great great Morgan's cattle show, in Wales, in December 1823; gold, (bred by Mr. Gibson,) by Mr. Colling's Midas, great grandam by Mr. Chapman's bull, of Dimsdale, bulled on the 12th October, 1824, by Quality-sold grandam by Harlequin, (No. 289,) great grandam great great great great grandam by Mr. R. Grimfor 35l. to Mr. Durham.

bred by Mr. Gibson; bulled on the 15th Feb., 1825, ston's bull--881., Mr. Powel. Lot 2Dapple, red and white, tvo years old, by by Speculation—231., Mr. J. Wright.

Lot 23—Sportsman, roan and white with red Blaize,t (No. 76 in Herd Book,) her dam was bred

Lot 12Dainty, light red, three years old, by a neck, calved on the 12th of April, 1823; his sire by Mr. Smith, of Togston, an emirent breeder, near son of Mr. Anthony Wailes Duke, dam Dairy Maid, Blaize, (No. 76 in Herd Book,) his dam Landlady, Alnwick, in Northumberland; billed on the 29th by Leopold, (No. 370,) grandam by Sir Harry, a by Mr. Joblyn's Wellington, now Mr. Wetherell's

son of Mr. R. Colling's Phenomenon, great grandam Rockingham, and she was bred from Wellington's Nov. 1824, by Speculation—271. Mr. Fortescue. Lot 3–Miranda, roan and white. two years old, by Mr. Anthony Wailes

’ Duke of Wellington, (No. dam, grandam by Mr. C. Colling's Phenomenon, by Blaize, her dam Mira, by Mr. Mason's Charles 23.1,) great great grandam by Surly; bulled on the great grandam by Colonel

, great great grandam by (127) grandam, Mr. Arbuthnot's Maria, (bred by 16th Nov., 1824, by Speculation–501., Mr. For- a son of Hubback_451., Mr. Martin. Mr. R. Colling,) by George, great grandam by Mi

Lot 24-Quality, red with some white spots,

Lot 13Henrietta, dark red, three years old, by calved on the 14th of April, 1823; his sire Aid-dedas, great great grandam by Punch; bulled on the 18th December. *1824, by Speculation—75l., Mr. Harold, (No. 291,) dam by Mr. Mason's Charles, camp, his dam Moss Rose, by Mr. Mason's Charles, Slater.

grandam by Mr. C. Colling's Windsor; bulled on grandam Cora, by Blyth Comet, great grandam Old

the 17th March, 1825, by Speculation—401. Mr. Chance_451., Mr. Warriner. Speculation, by Warrior, his dam Lavinia, by Mr. Fortescue.

Lot 25-Don Cossack, red and some white, eight Mason's Charles, grandam Latona, by Mr. C. Colling's Lot 14-Susan, spotted red and white, four years years old; his sire by Mr. Mason's Charles, his dam Comet, &c. same as lot 22.

old, pedigree unknown. This cow is the dam of Blaize, by Blyth Comet, his dam, Mr. Geo. Coates, lot 1, and also of a heifer calf, which was shown at cow Crimson, by Patriot, grandam by Driffield, great the sale; bulled on the 24th March, 1825, by Spe-Charles, grandam Miss Colling, who has gained six

Aid-de-camp, by Warrior, his dam Miss Mason, by grandam by Mr. Christopher Holmes' bull.

culation and Favourite-461., Mr. Durham. premiums or sweepstakes,) by Prince, great grandam Charles, (for the use of which bull the late Colonel Mellish and Mr. Champion paid Mr. Mason 450 guineas

Magdalene, by Comet, great great grandam by Wash

ington. for two years,) his sire Pope, his dam Cora, by Child *Warrior, by Mr. R. Colling's Wellington, (the son ton, his grandam Marcia, (for which cow Mr. Mason of Comet, dam Wildair,) dam Young Diana, by George, neas premium, as the best yearling bull shown at the

Aid-de-camp won 30 guineas sweepstakes and 10 guirefused 100 guineas ) by Simon or the White Bull, great grandam Diana, by Favourite, great grandam Wildair, Doncaster Agricultural Meeting in 1821; and also a silgrandam Gaudy, by Favourite, great great grandam by. by Favourite, great great grandam by Ben, great great ver cup, value 30 pounds, as the best bull of any age, Bolingbroke, great great great grandam by Foljambe, great grandam by Hubback. great great great great given by the Board of Agriculire, at their last shor great great great great grandam by Hubback. grandam by the sire of Hubback.

in London, April 1822. 16--VOL. 7.

man.

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Cherry, sold at sale 1819, by the late Mr. Foljambe's that the cows are superior for the quality of their as well for the home as for distant markets. There bull, bred from his favourite cow Cherry, grandam milk, and for the quantity they are as good as any is no doubt but our climate and soil are adapted to Old Chance-441., Mr. Hartshorn.

breed of cattle we are acquainted with; and we many kinds of vine, from which valuable wines may Total amount of sales, 11461. 10s.

have never seen any oxen equal them for symmetry be made. This is a subject of great interest, and Mr. Champion is quite sure, if he had offered of shape, for sprightliness, for docility and tractabili- one to which I would particularly call the attention double the number of cows and heisers, they would ty in learning to work, and for their ability to endure of my brother members. A country capable of have been as readily sold.

heat and fatigue. We find this breed to be more affording so great a variety of articles, and distin

hardy and easier kept than any cattle we ever saw; guished by such peculiarities of situation and surAs a proof of the early maturity and quick rc- they fatten easy. We have disposed of several hun-face, seems in an especial manner to invite investiturn of profit of my breeds, I have sold five fat dred of mixed,

and a few suli bloods, since we have sation, and to call for the concentration, hy means steers and a heifer, (which were exhibited at my

had this bull—have sold all we ever offered for sale, of a society of this kind, of the knowledge and exsale,) to Mr. John Hatfield, a respectable butcher and have disposed of them short of one year old- perience possessed by individuals as to the kind of of Southwell

, at $31. 108. ($148.74,) each. They and the call for them has greatly increased within productions, and the cultivation and rotation of are computed to weigh 74 stones each, of 14 lbs. (or the last eight months.

crops which would conduce most to the prosperity 1,036 nett weight,) and their average age is only

Mr. Coke does, indeed, "deserve the everlasting and happiness of the community. two years and three months. Such a price, and gratitude of the people," not only “of Maryland," In our general management much labour and exsuch a weight, at such an early age, speaks more but of the United States generally, for the

valuable pense might be saved, and larger and more certain for their superior ripeness and quality, than all I can present of this breed of cattle to Messrs. Patterson crops obtained by the introduction of a better syssay: it is what we, in this country, say proof posi- and Caton, and we can with pleasure anticipate the tem of cultivation. My limited experience will not tive. My heifer, Miss Points, was universally ad-time when the pastures of New England shall justify, nor will the occasion authorize, my giving mired. I have no doubt, had I been inclined to abound with the North Devons. We have already many detailed illustrations of this fact.I will con have offered her by auction, she would have sold supplied orders for stock from Holkham, from Mas-:tent myself for the present in very briefly noticing for considerabiy more than 100 guineas. I have sachusetts, Vermont, Ohio, South Carolina, and a a few obvious defects, which may be easily rehad a painting of Miss Points, hy the best cattle ar-considerable number for the state of New York. medied. tist we have, a Mr. Weaver; and he has also paint- We saw last week, in Albany, the stock of Mr Van We should plough and prepare our lands better ed one for Mr. Fortescue, as a specimen of a short Renssalear-- his short horns are the best I have ever previous to the planting of Indian corn, and our crops

would be better, with much less after cultivation; horn. Mr. Weaver's charge is twelve pounds. I seen of the breed. most sincerely wish you could have been here at

We likewise annex you three samples of Saxon especially if the single horse barrow and other spemy sale; I am sure you would have been most high- wool, cut from two rams and one cwe, we purchased cies of cultivators” were to be used, which have ly gratified, and my pleasure would have been uns at the sale in Boston, on the 15th July last. We, in lately been advantageously substituted for the plough bounded. Pray, let me hear from you very soon.

company with Mr. Watsor, purchased at that sale in many of the corn-growing districts of our counYours, sincerely,

seren bucks, seven ewes, and one lamh. The stock try, and which are so peculiarly suited to our level CHAS. CHAMPION. quite answers our expectation—the half blood lambs and sinooth prairie lands. J, S. SKINNER, Esq.

are extremely fine, in regard to size and wool; and! Owing to the excessive rains, which usually fall P. S. As our ministers are now adopting the libe- we think we shall have no difficulty in obtaining s1 in the spring of the year, it is necessary, where the

the pound for their wool, next season, washed on surface is level, to drain off the superabundant ral principles of free trade, and have allowed wool to be exported, I should not think it unlikely but the sheep. The price paid for each you have an- water, and, that previous to the seeding of all kinds

of small grain, the land should be ploughed and some sheep might be permitted to be exported, upon

The farmers in Connecticut hare generally dis- thrown into beus adapted to the inclination of the making particular application. I have named iliis in consequence of your expressing the desire of posciel of their wool; that from the best flocks of surface. These beds, when judiciously formed, which

Merinos has broughť from 67 to 75 cents, wasicu be found of great utility in draining the level lands, some gentlemen in America, to have some of

my on the sheep. The sheep fever runs high in this and rendering less precarious, and more abundant breed of sheep.

region, and we have no doubt but the Messrs., every description of crops.

Scarles will realize a fair price for their second im- The wheat crop, with us, is worse managed, and, DEVON CATTLE AND SAXON SHEEP. portation of Saxon sheep, which are to be sold near of course, more frequently fails than any other. It Boston on the 14th July.

is seeded too thin, too late in the season, and on too [Mr. Hurlbert resides in what may be called a

Yours, respectfully,

level a surface, and is suffered to stand too long dairy country, and is well known in the Baltimore

SAM'L HURLBERT & CO. before it is reaped. The general dryness of the market, where he sells, annually, a very large quan- P. S. The samples of wool annexed are only of autumns requires more early seeding than is usual tity of cheese. He “shcars his own fiecce, and he ten months growth; the sheep from which they with us, to enable the wheat to acquire sufficient wears it,” for we have generally seen him clad in

were taken were sheared the 5th of last August, strength to withstand the intense cold and sudden homespun broadcloth, of elegant quality, from his and now the 8th of June.

changes of ou: winters. Wheat should not be sufown sheep, and spua in his own family. Tle is what

[Farmers or manufacturers can see the samples fered to stand, as is our general practice, until it may be emphatically called a well judging practical man; so attentive to his own affairs, and so nice an of the American Farmer.] enclosed in the above letter, by calling at the office becomes hard and dry, but should be cut when the

straw is somewhat green, and the grain soft; in this observer withal, that we should suppose he could

state much is saved by its not shattering, and it has give us some particulars, some weights and mea

been found to yield, when ground, less bran and surements, illustrative of the quality of his favour- CLIMATE, SOIL, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS OF more and better flour. ites, the Devons; what they have yielded in milk,

It is believed that few, if any portions of the butter, cheese, beef, &c., and how they have com-!

Union are better adapted to the growth of hemp and pared at their cattle shows, in the yoke and other Extract from an Aldress delivered by Governor Coles, dar than Illinois, and there can be but little doubt, wise, with other breeds. They could not be in at the Agricultural Society of the state of Illinois,

il the advantages to be derived from the machinery better hands than his and Mr. Barney's.]

held at the State House in the town of Vandalia, on

lately invented for their preparation be equal to Winchester, Centre county, Conn., ? Monday the 13th of December, 1824.

what it is represented, that they will soon be culti7th June, 1825.

Communicated for publication in the Am. Farmer. vated very extensively and to very great profit. J. S. SKINNER, Esq.,

We have already been taught by experience. And time may show I do not hazard too much in We take the liberty to enclose you the impres-that every part of Illinois is adapted to the growth supposing, that the inferiority of our climate for the sion of a wood cut of our Devon buil, Holkham; it of the difierent kinds of grasses, of Indian corn, growth of the high prized cottons is counterbalanced is a tolerablc likeness, though not so fine in the wheat, barley, rye, oats, hemp, flax, and tobacco; by the superior advantages of our situation for the head as the original. We purchased. Holibam of and, in the more sandy soils, that cotton and rice production of hemp, flax, and wool. Mr. Patterson, of your city, in the fall of 1819. He may be cultivated to advantage. Bene and palma- Cotton, however, has been found to grow luxuriwas then seven months old; he is now six years old, christi grow well

, and it is believed, if judiciously antly on our warm and sandy soils, and to be a proand probably weighs 1700 lbs., and his progeny can- managed, would be profitable crops. Hops are in- fitable crop, and better adapted to free labour than not be less than nine hundred. He is doubtless one digenous to the country, and would, if cultivated, has generally been imagined. A considerable quanof the finest animals of the breed, or of any other give an abundant and certain yield, and be valuable tity, of good quality, is now annually raised, particubreed in America. His stock, wherever they are

larly in the Wabash country, and there can be no known, are more admired than any other breed of Ram, No. 2, cost $58;

doubt but it would be highly advantageous to our cattle; they seem to be exactly fitted, in all respects,

Ewe, No. 52,
75;

farmers to turn their attention more to its cultivafor the pastures of New England. His oldest calves Ram, No. 53, “ 138; bought in company with Mr. tion. The preparation of the land, and the planting are now four years old, and it is now ascertained Watson, to whom we paid $100 for his half of him. and culture of cotton, are very similar, and but little

THE STATE OF ILLINOIS.

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