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these tests of its quality. The case of the cow sold to which you refer, was shortly after his return from at the same price, as being, on the whole, the best by Mr. Welles to Mr. Quincy, justifies my caution Great Britain (which was in 1795.] He remarked, milkers.” cn this head. Mr. Welles supposed her milk to be that the cattle which he had generally met in New

T. PICKERING. rich, and that on the same food she would yield as England, appeared to be of the Devonshire breed, much butter as the Oakes cow; yet, though so that he had seen in Great Britain.” much larger an animal, Mr. Quincy's careful ex- Now although I suppose the Devon race of cattle

SHEEP-No. 5. periment proved her inferiority, even to the vast to be predominant in New England, I doubt not that Mr. Editor, difference of one half.

some of other breeds were early introduced by our From 1808, up to 1811, sheep of the home Ezekiel H. Derby, Esq. has favoured me with an ancestors; some Herefords unquestionably, whose breeds, in some instances slightly touched with meaccount of a heiter of the improved short horn descendants are yetdistinguished by their white faces. rino, were shown for the cups. The seventh annibreed. She and a bull of the same breed, presents The following concludes Mr. Marshall's minute de- versary was remarkable for three out of the four from Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin to the Agricultural scription of a good Herefordshire ox: “The coat candidates, being of merino blood. The following Society of Massachusetts, were, by the Trustees, neatly haired, bright and silky; its colour middle account of the Exhibition, will show the weight and committed to the care of Mr. Derby, in Salem, to red, with a 'bald face;' the last being esteemed fleece; although the term unwashed is used, it is give to the farmers of Essex an opportunity of characteristic of the true Hereford breed."* By not properly applicable, as all the lambs prepared putting their best cows to the bull. The heifer, on “bald face” (marked by Marshall with commas, as for the shows were pet lambs, had been very carethe 28th of January last, dropped her first calf—a a local expression) white faces are doubtless intend- fully and cleanlily kept, and had little or no foreign female. A fortnight after, she gave ten quarts of ed. White faced cattle, of our native stock, are matter in their fleeces. milk in a day, besides what the calf sucked; and now often to be seen; but I think less frequently

“Four tups were shown for the prize cup of sixty about six weeks from her calving, 8 quarts were than in the early part of my life.

dollars value, as follows: taken from her; being so much more than Mr. Der- Or Mr. Stuart's animals, the following is his own

Coton, native blood, property of Mr. Lee, of by thought necessary to the health and useful thriv. account, as verbally stated to a friend from whom I Coton-Weight of carcass unclipt, 145 lbs. ing of the call; which is well grown and in good received it. That he sent to England for two heif

Do. of fleece, unwashed,. 8 1 oz condition. Her milk is pronounced to be rich; buters and a bull of the Bakewell breed: that they were

Columbus, quarter blood merino, prohas not yet been brought to the only certain test. shipped—but that the bull and one of the heifers perty of D. M. Chichester, Esq. 111 5 Her food has been partly English and partly salt- were left on the passage; that the other arrived at marsh hay,* with four quarts of corn and cob-meal Philadelphia, when he lived at Germantown, where,

Fairfax, half blooded merino, propermixed with chaffed hay, and half a bushel of the a few months after, she brought forth a fine bull

ty of John C. Scott, Esq.

94 common flat or English turnips, daily: calf; that shortly afterwards, being determined to

Fleece, unwashed,

6 S Major Rudd says of the improved short horns, remove to Boston, he sent thither the cow and her Gunston, quarter blooded merino, prothat "if this breed were every where disseminated, calf, where they were delivered to Mr. Joseph Rus- perty of George Mason, Esq. 123 8 the produce of beef, on a given extent of land, sel, who sent them to his island below Boston, where Fleece, unwashed,

6 33 would be nearly doubled; that their milk is richer in they for some time remained and propagated the

The judges, after minute and very careful exami: quality, but less in quantity than of the old breed; breed, [but certainly within narrow limits, especial- nation of the comparative merits of the several canand that an improved short horned cow will yield ly as they were kept on an island] that they were didates, in conformity to the rule of decision furabout eight or nine pounds of butter per week, not large animals, but easily made fat, and on coarse nished them by the proprietor of the institution, avoirdupois weight.” He says also, that in form fodder; that the cow was not a great milker, seldom (viz. general excellence,) unanimously adjudged the and handling, the improved short horns are a per- giving more than six quarts [ať a milking, must be prize to the tup bred by J. C. Scott, Esq. of Strawfect contrast to the old breed; and he believes they understood,) under the most favourable circumstan-berry Vale, Fairfax county.” consume less food: and that “in countries where ces; but the milk was rich: that they were of a liver

Thus it will be seen, that an half bred merino, beef is in great demand, the improved short horns colour, spotted with white; some of the calves white, being a cross of merino upon the native stock, proare beyond all doubt the best.”

with liver coloured ears: and that he sold them to duced the heaviest fleece in proportion to the weight Mr. Powell controverts an opinion which has been Mr. Bowdoin, who sent them to Nashaun, one of of carcass. expressed, that the cattle of Massachusetts are of the Elizabeth islands, (his property,) where both of

The merino strain began about this time very the Devon breed. “I would contend (he says) that them died; poisoned, as Mr. Stuart thinks, by eat- generally to be adopted, in all parts of the United the finest cattle of Massachusetts are mixed with ing hemlock plants in the spring of the year.

States. "I had long combated the merino opinion, families of which Mr. Gore, Mr. Stuart and Mr. From this history of the Gore, Stuart, and Vaug- in a correspondence with Chancellor Livingston Vaughan imported the sires. Lancaster, Leicester, han imported cattle, it may be possible to trace some and other eminent men, till finding myself almost and Hereford blood, can be traced by a practised of their progeny in the neighbourhood of Boston, left alone, I made a merit of necessity, and went eye, in many of the best working oxen exhibited at perhaps a few in Vermont, and a very small num- with the tide. Mr. L. had made me a present of a the New England Agricultural shows."

ber in Maine, if Mr. Vaughan took his cow into Rambouillet merino of great value, with which I in Although satisfied that the blood of those import- that district: but on the New England stock at time bred away all my long wool, and became me

rino in toto. ed cattle of Gore, Stuart and Vaughan, was here of large, it is certain no effect could have been pro

But I had previously sent abroad very limited extent, I have made inquiry to ascer- duced, by any or all of.them.

many of my Arlington long woolled, some to my tain the facts. From Mr. Gore I have received the From the writings of Young, Marshall and others, friends, and some to endeavour to raise a fund to following information.

it appears that farmers in England entertained dif establish a perpetual premium for American cloth, The bull of English extraction, owned by me ferent opinions concerning the several breeds of to be annually adjudged at the seat of government. about the years 1794, 5, 6 and 7, was by a cow im- cattle; some preferring the long horned, especially Any of those gentlemen, or their neighbours, who ported from England by Mr. Charles Vaughan.— Bakewell's highly improved race; while others received those sheep, will do a most acceptable serThe bull was dropped from the cow on her passage chose the improved Holderness, or short horned. vice, by informing of the success which attended from England, and given to me by that gentleman, Others again, preferred the native breeds of their their introduction to the various parts of the counshortly after the arrival of the cow in America.— respective districts. So in our own country, opin-try, whither they were sent. A very fine young lle proved to be a remarkably fine animal, large, ions vary. Mr. Powel disapproves of the lately im- ram was sent to Thomas Miller, Esq. of Powhatan, and of excellent form. His proportions were all good. ported Devonst and their offspring. Of these I can Virginia, but his success has not been heard of. According to my recollection, he was as handsome say nothing, having seen none of them. But in

The tide has now turned, and numerous applicaand large as any bull I have since seen. I gave to some parts of England there are Devonshire cattle tions are made to me for long woolled. I am rallythe man who superintended my farm, all he could which are highly prized. “It has been found by a ing again under the flag of long woolled, and breedobtain for his services. I have no belief that many person in the vicinity of the Devizes, Wiltshire, ing from a Bakewell of the breed of Mr. Barneycows were brought to him. During my absence in who, as well as his father before him, has been in but I fear that the wool of the Persian, of sixteen Europe, he became unruly; and about the year the habit of letting cows to men who supply the inches, “I shall ne'er look upon its like again.” 1798, my agent sold him, and, as I understood, to town with milk; and who buys all his cows, and

I received also as a present, a ram and ewe, a man living in Vermont."

consequently can have no partiality for any particu- brought from the island of San Fernando Aronha, “The observation expressed to me by Mr. Jay, lar sort, having at different times had all kinds; that in the Southern ocean. They were nearly hairy, the milkmen have uniformly, for the last thirty resembling goats, and died on the approach of

winter. English Hay is a term I do not recollect to have met years, given the preference to the Devonshire sort, with out of New England. By it is meant that mixture

It appears that there are only certain parallels of of grasses which constitute good upland meadow, such

latitude where wool-bearing sheep will flourish; as our ancestors knew in England. They used the * Rural Economy of Gloucestershire, vol. 1, p. 247. when you exceed these, either by too much north term to distinguish this supland hay from the wild, t I believe these were a present to a gentleman in coarse, wet-meadow and salt-marsh hay of the country. Maryland, from Mr. Coke, of Norfolk, in England. * Kees' Cyclopedia-Art. Dairying)


or south, the fleece degenerates to hair, but the shall speak hereafter. In reference to the power of evinced in the various communications on both the flesh is found of excellence in almost all climates. nature over all animals, I would beg leave to cite subjects proposed, that, if the terms on which they of the original, or parent sheep, Luccock relates- an example, in the Arabian horse, taken from my are received would allow of it, each might be en* The mouflon, the argali of Dr. Pallas, which is address, published in 1808.

titled to particular mention. They hope yet to see now perhaps entirely banished from Europe, bears The Arabian horse, while roaming in his native some of them usefully occupying the columns of the so great a resemblance to our domestic sheep, and deserts, gathers strength and activity from the American Farmer. possesses so many of its properties, as to be deem- quantity of exercise necessary to obtain his food.

JOSEPH GALES, Jr., Chairman. ed by naturalists the parent stock. The fleeces are the chieftain who subdues this tyrant of the herd, indeed so much alike, that the description of one takes care to preserve his former habits, that he Mr. Editor, answers almost equally well for that of the other. may convert those habits to his own use. He is not They consist in summer of a short hair, sleek and immured in close stables, covered with cloths, or the late Cattle Show, mention is made of a “two

In the report of the committee upon horses for resembling that of a deer, in winter of wool, like submitted to the farrier's skill, but rests in ease and down mingled with hair, every where an inch and happiness at the door of the tent, cheered by the year old colt from New York," as being “che proan half long at least, concealing all its roots; a tine attentions of his friend, and participating in the desire that all inaccuracies, which should accidentwoolly down, of a white colour in general

. It is hospitalities of the family. Thus fitted for service, ally occur in the statement, miglit be pointed out, now contined almost, it not entirely to Asia, and is and preserved in those habits which nature at first it may not be amiss to observe, that the colt beso shy, that as new colonies seitle, it retreats from had formed, the Arabian horse outstrips the wind, longs to Mr. Vanbrugh Livingston, of Westchester their observation, to the most wild and naked rocks, and bears his master in triumph o'er the field. where it delights to bask itself in the unintercepted The breeder, like the physician, should endea

county, N. Y., and was sent by him to the abovenamed exbibition.

AMICUS. rays of the sun. vour to assist nature, and not to counteract her

June 13, 1825. “Observing in this manner, the different kinds of laws, and by studying the habits of animals in their fleeces which are produced in countries where do- native state, he may find a data from which better mestic animals have undergone the least alteration, systems may be formed than from all the hypothe

WHITE FLINT WHEAT. and remarking how nearly they correspond with ses extant. Respectfully, yours,


Bremo, June 15, 1825. the coats of those which retain their native wild


In your inquiries about the white flint wheat ness, we perceive the astonishing effects of cultiva- Arlington House, June 17, 1825.

sown last fall in Maryland and Virginia, I presume tion. The celebrated burdens, borne by the sheep

you allude to what has been sometimes called Cayof Spain, Persia, and Cachemire, were doubtless in

MARYLAND CATTLE SHOW. uga, or New York white flint wheat. I received a their original state, as coarse and hairy as those

barrel of this wheat from Gen. S. Van Rensselaer, produced on the wastes of Tartary, or among the

of Albany, which was carefully sown in good time. morasses of Siberia. It is probable that in most, The committee on the volunteer premiums have It is not quite ready to be harvested, but sufficientif not all these countries, the race which now inha- given to the subject of the premiums offered for ly advanced towards ripeness for me to pronounce bits them, is a breed imported from some neigh- essays on two important branches of rural economy, that it withstands the attacks of the hessian fly," bouring region. But history, which is always de- that earnest and serious attention which the ini- in every respect, as well as our well-known lawler fective in the narrative of rural affairs, is not sutfi- portance of the subjects and the characters of the which it so exactly resembles, in every particuciently explicit to enable us at this distant period, donors seemed to entitle them to.

lar of grain, growth, time of ripening, and, lastly, even to guess at the time when they were first intro

The first which presented itself, following the being mixed with a portion of the peculiar darker duced; nor can we trace from it the different stages order of publication, was the silver cup, offered by coloured heads which I have always seen accom of their improvement. Those of Spain, probably, that liberal and public spirited citizen Robert Oliver, panying the lawler, that I cannot resist the conclu were brought from the opposite coast of Atrica; ana Esq. “to the author of the best essay on the natural sion, it is the same wheat. England is undoubtedly indebted for the flocks history of the mule, and its value for the general

Yours, respectfully, which adorn her pastures, to various parts of the purposes of agriculture, in comparison with horses.”

JOHN H. COCKE. continent.

For this premium there were six competitors, and “Certain it is, however, that the amelioration of several essays of great merit; giving a mature conthe flocks has always been closely connected with sideration to them respectively, and observing ex

AGRICULTURAL PROSPECTS. the progress of the arts and of civilization; for we actly the terms on which the premium is offered, uniformly find in countries where these have flou- the committee award the premium for the best Dear Sir, Edisto Island, S. C., May 16, 1825. rished, a race of sheep which yield wool much su- essay on this subject, to Samuel Wyllys Pomeroy, Since February, we have experienced a succes perior to that which we find all around them.- of Brighton, in Massachusetts. It might be deemed sion of very boisterous and inclement weather. The Where the best blessings of social life have been invidious to other competitors for this prize, to last month was unusually cold and rainy, and about but little cultivated, we sometimes meet with the speak of them by name. For the purposes of this four weeks since, the crops of cotton planted in strong and shy argali, which bounds before its communication, it is sufficient to state, that, at least March and the early part of April, were so seriously hunters, anxious for those recesses which never one of the other essays contained matter which injured by a severe gale, that even now many of were imprinted with the human footstep. But would have added to the practical value of that of our farmers are replanting. In the hope that good where the mattock of agriculture turns the soil, the Mr. Pomeroy, though inferior to it in other respects, weather would revive their plants, they neglected goat and its kindred sheep, little differing from each and particularly in what relates to the natural his-to apply the only remedy upon which they could other in their shape, or their fleece, crowd around tory of the animal, which it appears to have been rely. The cotton crops are, therefore, very backthe tent of the herdsman, and demand that care an important part of the object of the donor to ward, and unless we are blessed with a late fall, a which is necessary to their subsistence.” draw forth.

good harvest cannot be anticipated. Man can certainly, sir, do much, but not all; na- For the other essay, "on the value and use of The present high prices for cotton, and the proture must and will do her share-climate and soil oxen, in comparison with horses, in the middle and bability of an advance the next year, have induced will have their due influence upon all animals, whe- southern states, accompanied by a description of the many of our planters to neglect the corn crop. As ther for food or fleece. The care of man in select- best method of gearing and breaking them,” the there will no doubt be a very great want of that ing various breeds of animals, is a truly important committee after a mature and deliberate examina- article in the fall, our friends at the north and east step toward bringing them to perfection, but unless tion of a number of able and practical essays on may reasonably calculate on ready and profitable he shall place them in those latitudes adapted to the subject, do award the premium of a silver cup sales. So long as the price of cotton is high, so their several natures and properties, but little bene- of the value of $25, patriotically presented by the long will the southern states need a large supply of fit will result from his knowledge. venerable Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, to Thomas corn.

Respectfully, yours, Sheep appear by Providence to have been in- P. Stabler, of Montgomery county, Maryland. His

WHITEMARSH B. SEABROOK. tended for the use of all mankind, in a more or essay is considered entitled to the premium, as conless degree, and hence are found in nearly all the forming to the intention of the donor, which doubtcountries of the globe; and it is very certain that less was, to elicit the best practical information on

HORTICULTURE. the arts of civilization have produced far greater the subject. improvements than belong to the animal in its sa- The committee take much pleasure in stating to

PEACH WASP. vage state. But that sheep, if left to the influence the friends of the agricultural society, that the com- Mr. SKINNER, of climate and soil alone, and that climate and soil positions on both the above subjects demonstrated

Bremo, May, 1825.

Until this and the last spring, I had never found peculiarly adapted to their nature and necessities; the growing interest which is felt in the improve-the Peach Wasp in the chrysaloid state earlier than that they will not degenerate, but rather improve, I'ment of agriculture, and the advantages which July, but for the most part in August. (See Ameriam disposed to believe from the experience of the result to the community by the labours and contri- can Farmer, vol. 1, p. 350.) In many instances this Sea Island sheep of our own country, of which Il butions of the association. So much merit was I spring, I have discovered them in that state which



immediately precedes their existence in the fly form, Q. What productions of nature are included 4. Foot-stalks; these support the leaf, and defend as early as the last of February and first of March; under the name of plants or vegetables?

and convey nourishment to the bud. and subsequently, in the spring examination of my A. Plants or vegetables are all those productions 5. Flower-stalks; or foot-stalks to the flower and peach trees, I found many of the worms just com- which possess life, and derive their nourishment fruit. mencing their destructive ravages, in a very minute from the earth in which they grow.*

6. Arms; which is the term given to the offensive state-clearly indicating that they had but recently R. Are they not extremely numerous?

parts of plants; as thorns, prickles, stings, &e. come forth from the egg. Hence, I infer these eggs A. Yes: it is supposed there are upwards of 7. Pubes; a name applied to the defensive parts, were deposited by flies transformed from the chry- twenty thousand species of plants, which compose, such as the hairy, woolly, or clammy substances saloids of February and March. This change in what naturalists have termed, the vegetable kingdom; common to certain plants. the attack demands a corresponding change in the nor will this number appear so very surprising when Q. What is the flower? defence.

we consider that the whole surface of the earth is X. The flower is that temporary and beautiful I have hitherto kept this enemy at bay, by post-covered with them. About 2000 of these are natives part of vegetables which is intended for the introing my guards in time to meet the July and August of Great Britain, of which nearly one half are mosses duction of the seed. It consists of seven principal generation of fies. In future, I apprehend, we and the like.

parts, namely: the calyx, corolla, stamen, pistil, must prepare ourselves against a spring invasion

pericarp or seed vessel, seed, and receptacle; the also; for, from the various sizes and conditions of Of the Structure of Plants in General. four first belong properly to the flower, and the the worms I examined this spring, I have every

Q. Of what does a perfect plant consist?

three last to the fruit.* reason to conclude, there is in reserve for us, the

A. A perfect plant consists of the trunk or stem,

Q. What are annual plants? usual supply of summer. the root, the leaves, the supports, the flower, and

A. Plants are said to be annual, when they are I once believed, the co-operation of all the indi- the fruit.

sown, blossom, produce seeds, and die, in the course viduals of a neighbourhood, in destroying all the

of one year.

Q. What is the trunk or stem? old neglected peach trees, which serve as so many Ă. The trunk is composed of six organic parts,

Q. What are biennial plants? nurseries of this fly, and carefully protecting every namely:

A. Those plants which totally perish the second peach tree that was permitted to stand, would 1. The cuticle (or epidermis,) which is the out- year after they have been sown are termed biennial, exterminate the evil, within prescribed limits; but, ward thin covering, answering to the skin of ani

Q. Which are perennial plants? to say nothing of the difficulty of effecting such a mals.

A. Such as continue alive in the ground for seves co-operation, there is now reason to believe that

ral 2. The outward bark (or cortex,) which protects

years. this enemy to the peach, is propagated in some the plant from the effects of the cold.

CHAPTER III. of our forest trees. I have found a worm resem3. The inner bark (or liber.)

Parts of Fructification. bling it, in every appearance, in the common red

4. The alburnum, which is a soft white substance, Q What parts of a plant are necessary for the oak—and I am informed by Tucker Coles, Esq., of situate between the inner bark and the wood. young botanist to be first acquainted with? Albemarle, that he had discovered it, since the al

5. The wood (or lignum,) which is the compact A. The flower and fruit; these consist of seven most entire destruction of the peach trees of the fibrous substance, surrounding the pith.

parts, as before observed, which are particularly Green Mountain, in the young chestnuts of the fo- 6. The pith (or medulla,) which is a soft white requisite to be known, as on them the classification rest. This destructive insect, which was unknown substance, and in young plants is very copious, but of plants, according to the system of Linnæus, is in this part of Virginia 25 years ago, now threatens diminishes as the plant grows, and at length dis- founded. in a few years more to leave not a peach tree standappears.

Q. What is the calyx? ing, if not carefully and regularly protected against

Q. What is the root?

A. The calyx, empalement, or flower-cup, is the its ravages.

Ă. The root, which enables the tree to stand firm green part which is situated immediately below the The Rose-bug of the eastern shore of Virginia, in the ground, and which absorbs the juices from the blossom. Its chief use is to enclose and protect the has made its appearance on the western side of the earth, necessary for its growth, by means of small other parts of the flower. It sometimes consists of Chesapeake within a few years past. Hitherto a fibres, is a continuation of the trunk descending two or more leaves, as in the rose, and sometimes very few have been seen. They are in considera-into the earth, and consists of the same parts, tabular, is like the cowslip, &c.t ble numbers here this spring, (60 miles above the although less conspicuous.

Q. What is the corolla? head of the tide.) They have not, as yet, done Q. What are the leaves?

Ă. The corolla, blossom, or what is commonly any serious injury to the flowers and fruits, of which Ă. The leaves, which differ much in their forms called the flower, is the part which is most beautithey are so destructive in the lower part of the and manner of growth, consist of an immense num fully coloured, of the finest texture, and often smells state--but from the activity and thriving appear- ber of fibres, termed the nerves of the leaf, but which sweet. The leaves which compose the corolla are ance of this year's race, I think it probable, their are merely its vessels, running in every direction, called petals. descendants of the next, may inflict upon us some and branching out into innumerable small threads. Q. What are the stamens? of the evils which our fellow citizens of the eastern The surface of the leaf, like the skin of animals, is A. The stamens or chives, which are Anthera shore have so long complained of. If any of your full of pores, which serve both for respiration and situated in the centre of the flower, are readers in that quarter can provide us with a reme- the absorption of dew, air, &c. thereby nourishing composed of two parts, one long and thin, dy against this new enemy, it will be at once ren- the plant, and contributing to its growth. by which they are fastened to the bottom dering us a friendly service, and subserving one of Q. What are the supports?

of the corolla, called the filament; the other the objects of your valuable paper.

Ă. The supports (or fulcra,) are certain external thicker, placed at the top of the filament,
Yours, respectfully,

parts of plants, which are useful to support and de- called the anthera, which opens when it is
JOHN H. COCKE. fend them from enemies and injuries. They are ripe, and discharges a yellowish dust, called
divided into seven kinds.

pollen or farina; from its being like flour.*
Q. Describe them.

Q. What are the pistils?
Ă. 1. Tendrils; which are small strings that are Ă. The pistils, or pointals, commonly appear is

not strong enough to stand alone; but support them- the centre of the corolla, from which they rise like PINNOCK'S CATECHISM OF BOTANY; selves by embracing, some shrub, &c. near to them. so many columns. There are from one to twelve, BEING A PLEASING AND FAMILIAR DESCRIPTION OF The vine and pea will serve for examples of this.

or more, in each flower. The pistil consists of three

2. Floral leaves; which are very small leaves parts. THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM; IN WHICH THE LINplaced near the flower.

Q. What are they? 3. Stipules; small leafy appendages, situate on HERED TO, AND SUITABLE EXAMPLES OF EACH

the sides or below the leaf, to protect it when Emer'ging, part. coming forth, rising into view.

emerging from the bud. “On every thorn delightful wisdom grows;

By the flower and fruit, or parts of fructification, In every rill a sweet instruction flows."-Young. * The following is a more scientific definition: other modes of propagation, such as by buds, grafts, or

the species of each plant may be for ever renewed: all PROM THE SIXTH LONDON EDITION.

Plants or vegetables are all those bodies which have layers, will sooner or later have their termination. organization and life, but are destitute of sensibility + Although the colour of the calyx is usually green, and the powers of voluntary motion, deriving their

yet in some plants it is of other colours. In some innourishment from the earth in which they grow. Introduction.

stances, also, the calyx renains till the seed is ripe, as Organ 'ic, a. consisting of various parts so constructed in the dead nettle; in others it falls before the flower is Question. What is Botany? as to co-operate together.

at maturity, as in the poppy; while the lily, and some Answer. Botany is that science which arranges Fi'brous, a. composed of fibres, thread-like.

others, appear to be wholly without it. and distinguishes all plants or vegetables, and Absorb', v. to suck up.

This dust, falling on the stigma of the pistil, is the traches us their peculiar properties and uses. Respira'tion', s. the act of inhaling, breathing. cause of complete fructification.




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Q. How

No. 14.-Vol. 7.)
A. The

Q. What plants are comprehended in the thir.
the style, and the stigma. Stigma

Q. On what are the characters of the classes founded?

teenth class (Polyandria?) The germ is the pedestal or base of the

A. The characters of the classes are taken from A. Those that have more than twenty stamens pistil, generally of a roundish shape, though sometimes slender. Its office is to contain the number, connexion, length, or situation of the attached to the receptacle. the seeds which are not yet arrived at mastamens.

Q. What distinguishes the fourteenth class (Diturity; the style is the pillar or thread which

Q. You say there are twenty-four classes; how dynamia?)

A. When there are four stamens in a flower, of may they be distinguished? supports the stigma; and the stigma is the bigbest part of the pistil.*

A. In each of the first twenty classes there are which two are longer than the others, it belongs to What is the pericarp?

stamens and pistils in the same flower; in the twen- the fourteenth class. A. The pericarp, or seed-vessel, is the ty-first class they are in distinct flowers on the same Q. How may the fifteenth be known? case or covering of the seed, and is the plant; in the twenty-second, in distinct flowers on A. Tetradynamia, the fifteenth class, is known by external part of the germ come to matu

different plants; in the twenty-third, they are in the having six stamens in the flower, four of which are rity. It is of various shapes, globular, as same flower, as well as in distinct ones; and they longer than the other two. in the poppy; long, as in the pod of the are not all to be seen in the twenty-fourth class. & Describe those of the sixteenth class (Monapea; pulpy, with a stone in the middle,

Q. As no progress can be made in botany till the delphia?)

names of the classes are well understood, I will A. In the sixteenth class the stamens are united as in the plum; pulpy, containing seeds inclosed in a case, as in the pear, juicy, and con- thank you to inform me whence they are derived, by their filaments into one set, forming a case round taining seeds which have only an external case, as and then repeat them.

the lower part of the pistils, but separating at the the gooseberry.

A. The names of the classes are formed from top.
Q. What is the seed?
Greek words, and express the characteristics of each

may the seventeenth class (Diadelphia) A. The seed of plants is that part of every vege- class. The first ten classes are named from the be distinguished? table which, at a certain state of maturity, is sepa- Greek numerals, and the word andria, which the stu- A. In the seventeenth class the corollas are parated from it, and contains the rudiments of a new dent must consider as meaning the same as stamens. pillionaceous, or like a butterfly, as the blossom of plant, though the parts are too minute to be dis- CLASSES.

a pea; the stamens are connected by their filaments, Berned by our organs of sight.

1. Monandria, One stamen.

but divided into two sets, one of which is thicker, Q. What is the receptacle?

2. Diandria,
Two stamens.

and forms a case round the pistil; the other is Ă. The receptacle, or base, is that part which 3. Triandria, Three stamens.

smaller, and leans towards the pistil. supports and connects the whole together. In some 4. Tetrandria, Four stamens.

Q. How is the eighteenth class known? plants it is very conspicuous: particularly, for in- 5. Pentandria, Five stamens.

Ă. In the eighteenth class, (Polyadelphia, the stance, in the artichoke; the whole of the lower 6. Hexandria, Six stamens.

stamens are united by their filaments into more part, which we eat, being the receptacle.

7. Heptandria, Seven stamens.

than two sets or parcels. Q. When is a flower said to be superior? 8. Octandria, Eight stamens.

Q. By what means may the nineteenth class be A. A flower is superior when the receptacle of 9. Enneandria, Nine stamens.

known? the flower is above the germ. 10. Decandria, Ten stamens.

A. Syngenesia (the name of the nineteenth) conQ. When is it inferior? 11. Dodecandria, Twelve stamens.

sists of compound flowers, as the common daisy or A. When the receptacle is below the germ. 12. Icosandria, Twenty stamens.

dandelion; and they are called compound, because Q. Is not a flower sometimes called naked? 13. Polyandria, Many stamens.

each single flower consists of a collection of little A. Yes, it is said to be naked when the calyx is 14. Didynamia, Four stamens, two longer.

flowers or florets, attached to the same broad reabsent.

15. Tetradynamia, Six stamens, four longer. ceptacle, and contained within one calyx. Q. Are not flowers sometimes called complete,

Filaments united at bot- Q: What distinguishes the twentieth class, (Gyand at other times incomplete?

16. Monadelphia, tom, but separated at nandria?) A. Yes; a flower is complete when it has both a


A. In the twentieth class the stamens are attachcalyx and corolla; and incomplete when either of 17. Diadelphia, Filaments in two sets.

ed to the pistil. these are deficient. 18. Polyadelphia, Filaments in many sets.

Q. By what means may the twenty-first class be R. What is an aggregate flower?

19. Syngenesia, Stamens united by antheræ. known? A. Au aggregate Power is a flower composed of 20. Gynandria, Stamens and pistils together. A. The twenty-first class (Monæcia) contains florets standing on foot-stalks, attached to a broad

Stamens and pistils in se- those plants which have flowers of different kinds receptacle.

21. Monæcia,

parate flowers, upon the on the same plant, some bearing pistils, and others Q. What is an umbellated plant?

same plant

stamens only. A. An umbellated plant is one which sends out

Stamens and pistils dis

Q. How may the twenty-second class (Diccia) towards the top, from the same point or centre, a 22. Diæcia,

different be known? number of branches, like the spokes of an umbrella,


A. The twenty-second class consists of those and bearing flowers on the top, as the carrot, pars- | 23. Polygamia, Variously situated. species which have stamens on one plant, and pistils nip, and parsley, 24. Cryptogamia, Flowers invisible.

on another.

Q. What kind of plants does the twenty-third On the Classification of Plants.

The Classification of Plants explained.

class (Polygamia) comprehend?

A. The twenty-third class comprehends those Q. What is intended by the classification of Q. The principles on which the classes are form- plants which have at least two, and sometimes three plants?

ed are certainly simple, and easily to be compre- kind of flowers. 1. Some with pistils and stamens A. For the more easy comprehension of the bended: but it will be necessary for us to go over in the same flower. 2. Others having stamens science of botany, Linnæus divided the whole vege- them again, and distinguish the properties of each only. 3. Or having flowers with pistils only. table creation into twenty-four classes. These are class more particularly before we proceed farther. again divided into orders, which are subdivided into Tell me, therefore, how the first ten classes are class?

Q. What are comprehended in the twenty-fourth genera or tribes; and these genera are further di- known.

A. The twenty-fourth class (Cryptogamia) comvided into species, or individuals.

A. All plants which have only one stamen are of prehends all plants in which the flowers are invisiQ. What may this division be likened to? the first class, those that have only two are of the ble to the naked eye, as mosses, ferns, mushrooms,

Ă. A class resembles an army; an order, a regi- second; those that have only three are of the third; sea-weeds, &c. nent, a genus, a company, and a species, a soldier. and so on, the number of stamens being the same

as the number of the class in the first ten classes. * Numerous experiments have been made to ascer- Q. How is the eleventh class (Dodecandria)

MISCELLANEOUS. tain the importance of the Stamina and Pistilla to the known? production of perfect seed, and the results have been A. The eleventh class contains all those plants,

ITEMS, uniformly conclusive. In fact, although botany, as a which have from twelve to nineteen stamens, fixed Selected from late English papers received at the office of science, was little understood by the ancients, yet they to the receptacle.

the American Farmer. were aware of the importance of these two parts of the

Q. How is the twelfth class (lcosandria) known? dower in maturing the fruit of the palm tree; for those

There is at present, at Stralsund, an extraordinatrees bearing stameos only were carefully planted

Ă. By having twenty or more stamens, fixed to ry Elephant, which has been taught to manæuvre a among those that bore the pistils, that the dates (the the inside of the calyx. In this class the place of piece of artillery. He brings a 48-pounder up to fruit) might come to perfection; and in the present insertion is more to be relied on than the number the ramparts, loads it, rams it down, points it, lights day, in those countries where this fruit is an article of of the stamens, for there are sometimes less than the match, and fires the cannon, all in seren food, it is scrupulously attended to. twenty, and sometimes more.

minutes and a half.

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nomical advantages resulting from it are as follows:

PRICES CURRENT. (Quantity of rain which fell in Glamorgan coun

According to the old method, a calf intended for ty, in Wales, during the last year-inserted to gra: intended for agriculture from six to eight weeks. slaughter is made to suck for three weeks, and those


from own country, and make comparison of the climates Supposing the cow gives only a moderate quantity BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 10

Ib. of milk, the value of it will amount, in three weeks, BACON, and Hams, . . of different countries.] to nearly the value of the calf. If, on the contrary, COFFEE, W.1. Green, ·

17 201 Although the quantity of rain we have noted durwe rear a calf according to this method, we con

do. Common,

165 ing the past year may be found

in your
Journal, we sume during the three weeks only three quarts of COTTON, Louisiana, &c.

have again stated it below, as some of your readers oatmeal at most, and the skimmed milk-calves COTTON YÅRN, No. 10,
may not have your Journal at hand to refer to that have been brought up by this method have
We trust we may not have so great a quantity to been always healthy and strong, and not subject to

An advance of 1 cent

each number to No. 18. record again as the last four months present: disease. They are not suffered to suck at all, but 'CANDLES, Mould,

12 Inches. Dec. pts.

13 to have the pure milk of the mother to drink for Dipt,

10 January


the first four days; because it has been observed, CHEESE,

10 February 3 30

35 March.

that the separation after four days is more painful FEATHERS, Live, .
2 60

2 25 to the mother than when the calf is taken from her FISH, Herrings, Sus. new bbl. 2 18 April . 2 70

Shad, trimmed, new, soon after its birth.

6 50 7 00 3 20

FLAXSEED, Rough,. bush 1 June 4 30

FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 75 July 40

Fine, August 2 30

Susquehanna, superfi. 4 62


11 September

6 70 Take for every gallon of clear water, a pound of FLAX, October

5 50 6 95 quick lime; mix them well together; and when un

GUNPOWDER, Balti. . |25 165

bush GRAIN, Indian Corn,

47 November 9 60 dissolved lime is precipitated in fine powder, pour

Wheat, White,

95 1 00 December 7 75 off the clear lime water for use at the time it is

do. Red,
wanted. Put the feathers to be cleaned in another Buckwheat,
12] 53

80 tub, and add to them a sufficient quantity of the Rye,
clear lime water to cover the feathers about 3 inch- Barley,

Average per month
4 48 4 es; when well immersed and stirred therein, the Clover Seed, .

3 3 25 3 50 3 75 Do. for the last 4 months 7 75 feathers when thoroughly moistened will sink down Ruta Baga Seed, . -and should remain in the lime water three or four

Orchard Grass Seed,

Mangel Wurtzel Seed, 1 50 Signor Gulmini lately died near Parma, at the age days; after which the foul liquor should be separat

Timothy Seed, of 138 years. He was the first tenor in Italy, and ed from the feathers by laying them on a sieve.


22 28 the leader of the band of Pope Benedict XIV. The feathers should be afterwards well washed in

Peas, Black Eyed,

95 1 clean water and dried on nets, the meshes being Beans, White,

1 12 The letters from Egypt state, that the greatest about the same fineness as those of cabbage nets. HEMP, Russia, clean, . ton 215 attention has been lately given to the cultivation of The feathers must, from time to time, be shaken on HOGS' LARD,

Ib. 6

dull sugar. It is also stated that the Pacha bas trans- the nets; and as they dry they will fall through the LEATHER, Soal, best,

24 mitted orders to England to send out immediately meshes, and are to be collected for use. The ad- Eastern Tan,

18 MOLASSES, Havana, gal.

37 persons acquainted with the manufacture of rum. mission of air will be serviceable in the drying,

50 We believe two gentlemen are already engaged for and the whole process may be completed in about MEAL, Corn, kiln dried, bbl. 2 31


61 this undertaking

three weeks. The feathers, after being thus prepar- NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl. 1 62
ed, will want nothing more than beating for use, Pitch,

1 50) 1 75
The fleeces of 2,623 sheep were exported under either for beds, bolsters, pillows, or cushions. Turpentine, Soft,
the regulations of the new act, between the 1st of

OIL, Whale, common, ·


27 December, 1824, and 5th of January, 1825.


14 15 At the sheep and cattle sale, held at Claughton- The root of the garden carrot abounds in nutri- PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl

10 50 11 hall, near Garstang, one fine young ox was sold to tious saccharine juice, and is slightly, aromatic. PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75 a butcher from Chorley, for 57l. 10s. These are desirable properties against the scurvy. POTATOES,


75 To experience the good effects of these properties, RICE, fresh,

c.Ib. 3 50

There is nothing un- SOAP, Baltimore White, lb. 14 The Duke of Devonshire has purchased the first the roots must be eaten raw.

18 do. Brown,

10 edition of Hamlet, from Messrs. Payne & Foss, for pleasant in this: on the contrary, it is what the com

23 234 37 mon people often do by choice. These roots would WHISKEY, Ist proof, . gal. nearly 200 guineas.

82 1

I 25 keep well during the longest voyage, packed up in PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr

37 casks, having the interstices filled with sand; each SUGARS, Havana'White, c.16.13 00 13 50 14 ON LADIES' EVENING DRESSES.

15 When dressed for the evening the girls now-a-days sailor might be allowed to eat one root every day, do. Brown, Scarce an atom of dress on them leave; or every other day, according to the state of his


10 20 10

12 Nor blame them for what is an evening dress, health and the quantity of roots on board.


lb. 15

15 25 But a dress that is suited for Eve?



19 SPICES, Cloves,

1 10


Ginger, Ground,


3 00

3 50 Nutmegs,

2 50

3 00 BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, JUNE 24, 1825.



SALT, St. Ubes,

bush TOBACCO.-Four hogsheads Tobacco, made by Ground Alum,


Mr. Outerbridge Horsey, on his farm in Frederick SHOT, all sizes, cwt. 9 25 Put some water on the fire, nearly the quantity county, sold for $23 per hundred round.

WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 00 4 00

do. that the calf can drink; when it boils, throw into it

1 10 1 15

Sicily, .
Inspections in Baltimore during the last week, at


1 30 one or two handfuls of oatmeal, and suffer the whole the three state warehouses—No. 1, 200 hhds.- No.


doz. 3 to boil for a minute. Then leave it to cool until 2, 200 hhds.- No. 3, 265 hhds. Total, 665 hhds.

Port, first quality, gal. 2

2 50 new-milk warm; tben mix with it one or two quarts

WOOL, Merino, full bla Ib. 35 40 of milk that has stood twelve hours, and has been CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.


do. crossed, . Col. J. H. Powel, in Reply to Col. Pickering on Native skimmed; stir the whole and give it to the calf to

but fret of Common, Country,


tags. Skinders' or Pulled,

301 drink. At first it is necessary to make the call Cattle, No. 2-On Improving the Native Breed of New

35 drink by presenting the fingers to it; but it soon Sheep, by G. W. P. Custis, Esq., No. 5 Jaryland Cat.

England Cattle, by Col. T. Pickering, No. 3—Essay on learns to do without this help, and will grow incom- tle show, Report on Volunteer premiums-White Flint Printed every Friday, at $5 per annum, for JOHIN S. parably faster than by the old method.

Wheat-Agricultural Prospects—Peach Wasp, Pin- SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Toy, corner of St. This metuod is not only a theoretical truth, but nock's Catechism of Botany-Miscellaneous Items from Paul and Market streets, where every description of its success is confirmed by experience. The eco-'late English papers-Recipes—Prices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

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