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of liberty? The Whigs indeed com- placed.” But the present Ministers, plain bitterly of the injury done them who are, in the opinion of the Reby the existing race of "Utopians,” viewer, “ beyond all comparison the who are naturally more impatient un- most contemptible, in pretensions, of der the repulse which they have re- any that have ever governed a great ceived from an Opposition bound to nation,” would, in the supposed event, them by many ties of kindred, than become the Opposition; and if the under the discountenance of a Ministry character thus given of them be just, to whom they are, and ever must, re- it is impossible that men can be worse main entire strangers. Of this infa- qualified for the undertaking; Nay, tuated party, we pity the wild enthu- they have in fact discovered their utsiasm of some, and detest the malig- ter incapacity, on a former occasion, want turbulence of others; but in the for this great constitutional trust, excess of their insanity, every one sees “ The risk,” says the Reviewer, the promise of an approaching and “would be considerable, of the new speedy dissolution.

Opposition rather encouraging thon We engaged to shew, that the un- checking such a dereliction of duty : wary zeal of the Reviewer had prompt- they followed this course during the ed him to state his case in such a year 1806, when the country had not manner, as to lead irresistibly to the the benefit of a constitutional Opposiinference, that the public interests de- tion.”+ But how splendid are the mand the continuance of his friends qualifications of the Whigs for this in Opposition ; and we proceed to ful- great undertaking !" It is certain," fil our promise by quoting his own we are told," that at no period of the words: “ As long as men are ambic English history was there ever embotious, corrupt, and servile,” says he, died so formidable an association in be“every sovereign will attempt to ex- half of the principles of civil and relitend his power; he will easily find gious liberty, and, in general, of libeinstruments wherewithal to carry on ral, enlightened, and patriotic policy, this bad work; if unresisted, his en- as the great body of the Whigs now croachments upon public liberty will are.” # The country, it would seem, go on with an accelerated swiftness, has but a choice of evils; but as there each step affording new facilities for can be no comparison betwixt the danmaking another stride, and furnishing ger of having even a weak and corrupt alditional confidence to attempt it.” * Ministry, when overawed by the conSplendid as are the pretensions of his stitutional terrors of a formidable Opfriends, the Reviewer does not, we position, and that of having'an adpresume, assert their entire exemption ministration resistless in talent, and from the frailties and corruptions of overwhelming in influence, which, inhuman nature; it might be necessary, stead of being retarded in a career of therefore, if they were in power, to guilty ambition, would be more rapidwatch even their operations. He ad- ly impelled by an under-current of mits as much, indeed, and eludes one sympathising corruption ;-as there of the difficulties of the discussion, by can be no comparison betwixt the ocassuming the fact. “Of the imputa- casional perversion of power and the tions cast upon party men,” says he, utter extinction of liberty, the infer“ for deserting their followers or their ence is irresistible, that things ought principles when they take office, it is to remain as they are, and that the the less necessary to speak at large; Whigs perform their best and noblest because, as suon as they have the go- service to their country in the ranks vernment in their hands, they ought to of Opposition. he closely watched, and are pretty sure to be so by those whom they have dis

* Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 195

+ Ibid. p. 195. Edinburgh Review, No 59, p. 184.

Ibid. p. 197.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

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Platina. A very singular mass of pla. the horizon, allowing for the necessary cortinum has lately been found in South Ame. rections, was 15° ; its distance from the true rica, and is now deposited in the Royal Mu- sun, which bore E. by S. by the compass, seum at Madrid. Dn. Ignacio Hurtado is was 22° 30', and its continuance upwards of the proprietor of certain lands in the Que. half an hour. No halo round the sun brada de Apotó, in the province of Notiva, was perceptible at the time. in the government of Chocó. In this Que- At half-past seven, a beautifully coloured brada is situated his gold mine, called Con- parhelia appeared on an attenuated Cirros. doto. One of his negro slaves, named Jus- tratus, namely, one on each side of, and to, found this mass of platina in the year both horizontal with, and equidistant from, 1814, near the gold mine. Dn. Ignacio, the real sun, which was then 22° in altitude. most generously, and full of ardour for the These two mock-suns sometimes appeared sciences, presented this unequalled specimen at the same time for two or three minutes, to His Most Catholic Majesty, through his and at other times alternately, when their Excellency Sor. Dn. Pablo Morillo, com- colours were brightest : they disappeared mander-in-chief of the Royal Spanish ar- twice from the intervention of clouds; and, mies in the province of Venezuela, who at the place of their re-appearanee, a bright transmitted the same, together with other light was first perceived in the cloud, gra. objects of natural history, belonging to the dually forming into the shape of a cone lybotanical department, under the Spanish ing horizontally, with its apex turned from naturalist, Dn. José Mutis, to Europe, the sun; and at the base of this cone, through General Pascual Enrile, who brought nearest the sun, there was a light red, a deit safely to Spain, and forwarded it to the licate yellow, and lastly, a pale blue, which hands of the king himself by Captain Anto- altogether formed the mock-sun : when the nio Van Halen. Being an unique speci- parhelia appeared most perfect, they were men, his majesty gave it to the museum. circular, of an orange colour, and nearly as Its figure is oval, and inclining to convex. large again as the apparent size of the sun's

The Spaniards term it “ Pepita,” which disc : only two parts of the solar halo, in signifies water worn, and not in sitú. which they were situated, could be traced ;

Its large diameter is two inches, four lines and these were perpendicular through the and a half, and its small diameter two phenomena, which did not disappear till afinches. Its height is four inches and four ter eight o'clock. lines. Its weight is one pound, nine ounces, The State of the Clouds and Instruments. and one drachm. Its colour is that of na- -During this rare and pleasing sight, there tive silver. Its surface is rough, and here were, in the vicinity of the sun, Cirrocu and there spotted with yellow iron ochre. muli and plumose C'irri descending to Cir. The negro who found it suspected that it rostrati, and Cumulus clouds rising in the contained gold : he tried to fracture it, but W. from whence a fresh breeze and vapour he was only able to make a dent in the me- sprang up. The barometer at 30 inches, tal, which is, however, sufficient to show its but sinking slowly; the thermometer rose character.

from 56° to 62° ; and De Luc's whalebone To avoid every possible doubt about the hygrometer receded from 65° to 60o. Be. mass of platina, it should perhaps have been fore ten o'clock, the azure sky was commentioned, that the Spanish Secretary of pletely veiled with compound modifications State, his Excellency Dn. José García de of clouds, followed by large passing Nimbi Leon and Pizarro, had taken all the mca- and a few drops of rain. sures to ascertain the fact of its being ge- The Rhinoceros. It has been questioned nuine native platina.

if a musket-ball would penetrate the hide Precious Opal.Two mines of precious of a rhinoceros. An opportunity lately ocopal have lately been discovered in the king curred of making the experiment on the dom of Mexico, in the district of Gracias de carcass of an old animal of uncommon size, Dios, sixty Spanish miles in the interior of which had been killed near Givalpara, on Honduras. The opals are imbedded in the border of the wild country of Asam, a Perulam earth, and are accompanied by all spot where rhinceroses abound. After rethe other varieties of opal, but particularly peated trials the bullet was found always to with the sky blue Girasol, and the sun opal By off, for the skin being very thick and of Sonnenschmidt.

extremely loose, it was constantly by that Parhelia at Gosport.-At half-past six, means put out of its course. A.M. a fine parhelion appeared on a thin In that part of the country there are many vapour passing to a Cirrostratus cloud ; it rhinoceroses, and elephants in vast numbers. was sitizated E. by N., and its altitude from So numerous a dock was seen crossing the

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Burhamputa Piver, at a brcadth of two in which the cow-tree yields the greatest miles, that the channel secmed full ; nor was quantity of milk. When this fluid is exthe end of the line perceptible, although posed to the air, perhaps, in consequence of they had been some time passing. A the absorption of the oxygen of the atmosboat, going down the river, was obliged to phere, its surface becomes covered with put about, as it was impossible to get by membranes of a substance that appears to them; and it was a considerable time be be of a decided animal nature, yellowish, fore the line had left the jungles of the thready, and of a cheesy consistence. These eastern side, whilst the jungles on the west- membranes, when separated from the more ern side prevented their course being traced aqueous part of the fluid, are almost as by the eye.

elastic as caoutchouc; but at the same time The people of the country say, that the they are as much disposed to become putrid rhinoceros is inuch an overmatch for the as gelatine. The natives give the name of elephant; as the former being very nimble, cheese to the coagulum, which is separated gets round the elephant, makes his attack by the contact of the air ; in the course of in the same manner as the wild boar, and five or six days it becomes sour. The milk, rips up the belly of his antagonist.

kept for some time in a corked phial, had Gus Lights. By the list of the Local deposited a little coagulum, and still exhal. Acts, it appears, that legal powers were ob- ed its balsamic odour. If the recent juice tained, in the last session of Parliament, to be mixed with cold water, the coagulum is light with gas

formed in small quantity only; but the seBath, Liverpool

paration of the viscid membranes occurs Leeds,

Edinburgh, when it is placed in contact with nitric acid. Nottingham, Worcester,

This remarkable tree seems to be peculiar Oxford,

Kidderminster, to the Cordilliere du Littoral, especially Sheffield,

Brighthelmstone, from Barbula to the lake of Maracayba ten of the most considerable and most in. There are likewise some traces of it near the telligent cities and towns in the einpire. village of San Mateo; and, according to

Gas Light Apparatus.- Mr Mair, of the account of M. Bredmeyer, in the valley Kelso, has, by a simple process, construct. of Caucagua, three days journey to the east ed an apparatus which produces gas suf. of the Caraccas. This naturalist has likeficient to supply ten different burners, the wise described the vegetable milk of the cow, Rame of each far surpassing that of the tree as possessing an agreeable flavour and largest candle, and which completely il. an aromatic odour; the natives of Caucagua luminate his shop, work-shop, and dwel. call it the milk-tree. ling-house, with the most pure pellucid New Researches on Heat.-MM. Dulong brightness, the cost of which is only about and Petit have lately given to the world a three pence per night. Wax cloth bags Memoir on Heat, which gained the prize have been invented, which, when inflated medal for 1818, of the Academy of Science. with gas, are removed at pleasure from place The title of the paper is, “ On the Measure to place, and when ignited, they answer all of Temperatures, and on the Laws of the the purposes of candles. By this process, Communication of Feat." it would seem that any person, with bags as Law 1. If the cooling of a body placed above prepared, may be furnished with gas in a vacuum terminated by a medium abfrom the coal-pits, and apply the gas so solutely deprived of heat, or of the power of procured to whatever number of tubes for radiating, could be observed, the velocity of lights he has occasion for.

cooling would decrease in a geometrical proCow Trec.-M. Humboldt and his com- gression, whilst the temperature diminished panions, in the course of their travels, heard in an arithmetical progression. an account of a tree which grows in the 2. For the same temperature of the bounvalleys of Aragua, the juice of which is a dary of the vacuum in which a body is nourishing milk, and which, from that cir- placed, the velocity of cooling for the excess cumstance, has received the name of the of temperature, in arithmetical progression, cow-tree. The tree in its general aspect re- will decrease, as the terms of geometrical sembles the chrysophyllum cainito; its leaves progression diminished by a constant numare oblong, pointed, leathery, and alternate, ber. The ratio of this geometrical progres. marked with lateral veins, projecting down sion is the same for all bodies, and equal to wards ; they are parallel, and are ten inches 1.0077. long. When incisions are made into the 3. The velocity of cooling in a vacuum trunk, it discharges abundantly a gluti- for the same excess of temperature increases nous milk, moderately thick, without any in a geometrical progression, the temperaacridness, and exhaling an agreeable balsa- ture of the surrounding body increasing in mic odour. The travellers drank consider- an arithmetical progression. The ratio of able quantities of it without experiencing the progression is also 1.0077 for all bodies. any injurious effects ; its viscidity only ren- 4. The velocity of cooling due to the condering it rather unpleasant. The superin tact of a gas is entirely independent of the tendent of the plantation assured them that nature of the surface of bodies. che negroes acquire flesh during the season 5. The velocity of cooling due to the cor

a certain

1818.]
Literary and Scientific Intelligence.

723
tact of a fluid (gas), varies in a geometrical even and fine grain, which are capable of
progression, the excess of temperature vary, taking a good polish with pumice-stone, and
ing also in a geometrical progression. If having the quality of absorbing water, may
the ratio of the last progression be 2, that of be used for lithography.
the first is 2.35; whatever the nature of the Composition of the Ink.—Heat a glazed
gas, or whatever its force of elasticity. This earthen vessel over the fire ; when it is hot,
law may also be expressed by saying, that introduce one pound by weight of white
the quantity of heat abstracted by a gas in Marseilles soap, and as much mastic in
all cases proportional to the excess of the grains; melt these ingredients, and mix
temperature of the body raised to the power them carefully ; then incorporate five parts
of 1.233.

by weight of shell lac, and continue to stir 6. The cooling power of a fluid (gas) di- it; to mix the whole, drop in gradually a , minishes in a geometrical progression, when solution of one part of caustic alkali in five its tension or elasticity diminishes also in a times its bulk of water. Caution, however, geometrical progression. If the ratio of must be used in making this addition, bethis second progression be 2, the ratio of cause should the ley be put in all at once, the first will be for air 1.366; for hydrogen the liquor will ferment and run over. When 1.301 ; for carbonic acid 1.431 ; for olefiant the mixture is completed by a moderate gas 1.415. This law may be expressed in heat and frequent surring, a proportionate the following manner :

quantity of lamp-black must be added, after The cooling power of gas is, other things which a sufficient quantity of water must be being equal, proportionate to

poured in to make the ink liquid. power of the pressure. The exponent of Drawiny.--This ink is used for drawing this power, which depends on the nature of ing on the stone, in the same manner as on the

gas, is for air 0.45 ; for hydrogen 0.315; paper, either with a pen or pencil ; when for carbonic acid 0.517; for olefiant gas the drawing on the stone is quite dry, and 0.501.

an impression is required, the surface of the 7. The cooling power of a gas varies stone must be wetted with a solution of niwith its temperature; so that, if the gas can tric acid, in the proportion of fifty to one of dilate so as to preserve the same degree of water ; this must be done with a soft sponge, elasticity, the cooling power will be found taking care not to make a friction in the diminished by the rarefaction of the gas, drawing. The wetting must be repeated as just as much as it is increased by its being soon as the stone appears dry; and when heated ; so that ultimately it depends upon the effervescence of the acid has ceased, the its tension alone.

stone is to be carefully rinsed with clean It may be perceived, from the above propositions, that the law of cooling, com- Printing.-While the stone is moist, it posed of all the preceding laws, must be should be passed over with the printer's ballvery complicated; it is not therefore given charged with ink, which will adhere only to in common language, but may be found in those parts not wetted. A sheet of paper, a mathematical form in the body of the me. properly prepared for printing, is then to. moir.

be spread on the stone, and the whole comLithography.--The French Academy of mitted to the press, or passed through a rolFine Arts, having appointed a Committee ler. to examine the lithographical drawings of To preserve the drawing on the stone M. Engelmann of Mulhause, in the Upper from dust, when not in use, a solution of Rhine, have reported, that the stone must gum-arabic is passed over it, which can be be rendered capable of imbibing water, and easily removed by a little water. lustead also of receiving all greasy or resinous sub- of ink, chalk crayons are sometimes used

The first object can be effected by for drawing upon the stone or upon paper, an acid, which will corrode the stone, take from which a counter-proof is taken upon off its fine polish, and thus make it suscep- the stone. The crayons are thus madetible of water.

Any greasy substance is three parts of soap, two parts of tallow, and capable of giving an impression upon stone, one part of wax, are all dissolved together whether the lines be made with a pencil or in an earthen vessel. When the whole is with ink; or otherwise, the ground of a well mixed, a sufficient quantity of lampdrawing may be covered with a black greasy black, called Frankfort black, to give it an mixture, leaving the lines in white.

intense colour, is added; the mixture is Hence result two distinct processes : first, then poured into moulds, where it must rethe engraving, by tracing, produced by the main till it is quite cold, when it will be line of the pencil, or brush dipped in the proper to be used as chalk pencils. greasy ink : secondly, the engraving by dots French Kaleidoscopes. Our readers will or lines, as is done on wood or copper. no doubt have seen the various paragraphs

Impressions of prints may be easily ob- in the French papers respecting the imtained without any reversing, by transpos- provements on the kaleidoscope, and will ing on the stone a drawing traced on paper have formed their own opinion of the prewith the prepared ink.

tensions of that class of inferior opticians. All kinds of close calcareous stone, of an We have had occasion to see several of their

water.

stances.

instruments, and it is a remarkable fact, system generally, a subscription for a suithat not one of the makers of those vey has been opened, and plans by Mr Stewhich we have seen have the slightest venson, engineer, are in considerable for. knowledge of the principles or construc. wardness. tion of the kaleidoscope. The very reflec- " It seems to be desirable, that railways, tors are placed at the wrong angle, the eye for alternate carriage and general use, should wrong placed, and the pictures destitute of proceed on a continued level, or upon sucsymmetry. They are indeed inferior to the cessive levels ; and a simple system of lock. common kaleidoscopes made by the Jews in age (if it may be so called), by which load. London, or the beggar boys in Edinburgh. ed waggons may easily be elevated or de.

Improvement and Extension of Iron Rail. pressed, from one level to another, would ways.—The Highland Society of Scotland appear to be a desirable attainment. The have recently announced the following pre- edge railway is generally used and prefermium, viz.

red in Scotland, as causing less friction and A piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, less expense of horse power; and it would will be given for the best and approved es- tend to facilitate the general use of railsay on the construction of rail-roads, for the ways, if, by some simple change, the wheel conveyance of orditiary commodities. In usually employed for the road or street could this essay it will be essential to keep in view, be made also to suit the rail-way, or the how far rail-roads can be adapted for com- railway wheel be made to suit the road or mon use in a country ; the means of laden street, so that the cart or waggon which carriages surmounting the elevations occur. brings the commodity from the colliery or ring in their course ; and whether rail-roads, stone-quarry, the farm-yard, or the manuor the wheels of carriages, may be so con- factory, to the railway, might travel along structed as to be applicable to ordinary it to the termination of the railway, and roads as well as to rail-roads, so that no in- proceed from thence through the streets of convenience shall be experienced on leaving the town to the dwelling of the consumer, either to travel on the other : the essay to be without unloading or change of carriage. accompanied with such models or drawings " The general use of railways by ironas shall be sufficient to illustrate the state. manufactureys, for their own peculiar obments it contains.

jects, qualifies them in an eminent degree to It is desirable that some account should afford valuable suggestions on the best be given of the principal rail-roads in Bri. means of perfecting the railway system ; tain, together with a brief history of their and from a desire to collect the general introduction. The premium not to be de- sense of enlightened and scientific men, we cided until the 10th November 1819. take the liberty of submitting the annexed

And with the same view, the following queries to your consideration, and to request, circular letter has been addressed to the va- if agreeable to you, that you will be pleased rious iron-masters in Scotland and England, to favour us with any suggestions which viz.

miay occur to you upon the subject. “ Sir,--Although the railway that is Nothing could give a stronger impulse now in contemplation in the vicinity of E- to the iron-manufacture than the complete dinburgh be entirely a matter of local con- success of this scheme. It seems to claim cern, the peculiar plan of it is certainly to the attention of the iron-manufacturers of be viewed in a different light, as an object Great Britain as a body, and to merit their that well deserves the attention of the various individual and collective support." classes of the community throughout the Edinburgh, March 25, 1818. kingdom. Instead of insulated patches of railway here and there, for particular pur

Queries. poses, and for the conveniency of private individuals, as is now the case, it is here 1. What is the best breadth of railway, proposed, through the medium of rail. and the best form of a waggorf or carriage, ways, to open extensive communications for the conveyance of commodities in geneto branch them out from the metropolis of ral ? Scotland in various directions, and to dis- 2. Supposing the trade alternate, it will tant points

and thus to facilitate convey. be desirable that the railway should proceed ance in general by an improved system of on a continued level, or upon successive leroads for heavy carriages.

vels. What are deemed the best means, “ The Highland Society of Scotland have, with reference to economy and despatch, in a very patriotic manner, offered a pre- for elevating or depressing the laden cas. mium of fifty guineas for the best essay on - riages from one level to another ? the means of attaining so desirable an ob. 3. Supposing the edge railway, which is ject as the introduction of railways for the generally preferred in Scotland, to be adoptpurposes of general carriage.

ed, can a wheel be so constructed as to be “ With a view to the establishment of applicable to streets or ordinary roads, as the railway in question, for the conveyance well as to rail-roads, so that no inconveof commodities to and from Edinburgh, nience shall be experienced on leaving either and thereby to give a commencement to the to travel on the other ?

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