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in the main street, or a party of Guides, whose A deep hum pervades the air, and minchargers are in fine condition, and apparently gles with the rumbling and stir of the town. most carefully groomed. And hark! bugles From this sometimes a bugle sounds, and is are eounding: the dormant battalion is pouring echoed back from the hills; or you hear the down from the narrow, steep street, with their clock from the old campanile which overlooks buglers in front, and at quick step they file out the whole. It is difficult to associate the mingled on their way to the front. And now, on this reposed animation of this scene with the idea varied scene, it is only necessary that the "cen- of battle, the din of the onslaught, with wounds tral interest” should appear, and render it and suffering! It is the sunny side of war; for, complete. But the “General” is at the out- though there are pictures of the Salvator Rosa posts; he drove off at four this morning. type, and spots everywhere where the fiercer Anxiously does the heart beat for the moment mood of the river, as it dashes between horrent when a carriage, accompanied by a slender crags and beneath dark precipices, and wild staff and unassuming escort, shall cross the figures, too, whose matted locks, fierce eyes, and square, and for some brief moments present to swarthy faces blackened with powder almost our eyes the soldier of a thousand fights-the suggest the outlawed bandit-yet the prevailing kingdom-maker of our day-the old sea-lion, | one is oneof serene beauty and picturesque enjoy. wounded, patient, unsubdued !

ment. It has the air of some mighty pic-nic, with
the abandon and wildness of a gipsy encampment;
but it is a pic-nic on the scale of a campaign-
a gipsy settlement, with the numbers and

material of an army. Come here at early dawn, III.--UNDER THE CHESTNUT AND when the sleepers are rising in hundreds from VINE.

their blankets and straw, and rolling up their

cloaks in the dewy morning air; or, rather Somethiug like the above is the picture seen wander here beneath this moon, beneath the from this window. Every detail it is useless to soft Italian night, that has all the cool freshness introduce, superfluous to touch in every sea- of the Tyrol climate. It is the same scene that ture; but leave the square, wander through we saw, not two hours since; yet not the same, the intricate streets; or, better still, quit the for now the moonlight's potent spell is gilding town altogether, and walk down the liomeward even squalor with beauty, and deepening the road to the bridge. The streets were pictu picturesque into the romantic. At regular resque, but the sylvan beauty of the encamp- intervals gleam the bayonets of the sentries; ment gives & charm still greater to the fields. here is a mounted guide, his grey cloak almost From Storo a level country extends to the river, envelopes rider and steed in its ample folds; he on the further side of which green slopes of sits silent, motionless, statuesque; the moon's pasture and orchard stretch rapidly upward, till rays shine on his charger's arching neck and they meet, and are bounded by a range of rocks sleek sides. Near are a group of his comrades' similar to the masses which overhang Storo. Jhorses; all round you hear the jingle of the

The ground along the bank is open green bells on the mules, and occasionally a shrill sward, with scattered oaks and chestnut: the neigh sounds far and wide. Mellowed by rest is gardens, orchards, vineyards, in continu- | distance a loud chorus is borne from some ous succession, unbroken by fences or by walls. recumbent group of soldiers ; nearer, a guitar is Everywhere are the bivouacs of the volunteers. struck, and a plaintive song, which it accomTents, wigwains, and huts extend far and wide, panies, silences and soothes the listening beneath the shade of the vines, the acacias, and bivouacs. the fruit-trees. On either side the road or lanes

It is a moment for fancies fresh and free as they branch off in picturesque streets, till lost

these tender leaves and wreathed sprays overto the eye amidst the distant stems and foliage.

| head, which chequer the magic silver light on They line the river-banks, and sprinkle the op

the turf beneath: slight as they are, they screen posite slopes, till the blue smoke of their fires

thee better than even yonder icy ranges from our is seen rising against the lighter grey of the rocks. Rows of piled muskets alternate with

mighty, toiling, nineteenth century! The minne

singer roams once more on his Swabian hills, the tents. Here and there long, narrow fires crackle beneath rows of big cauldrons, tended

the troubadour beneath the vines of Provence.

The free lance gleams again! Sire

fixed by sedulous red shirts; another, with


carouses with his routier captors; Raymond bayonet, stands sentry over a pyramid of loaves,

and De Foix breathe anew, and love and fight, cheeses, and huge dusky biscuits. Near the fires is carried on abundant chopping of herbs

and sing! or meat, washiug of vegetables, and plucking

Dreams are fair, but they are short. It is of fowls. Wine is there in casks, sometimes well : yet drawn off into open tubs. By these often sits a vivandiere, sometimes serving out the drink,

óveipárwy nap, sometimes stitching at red shirts or blue. Hundreds of bullocks, inules, and horses are tethered Day is greater than night, yet even dreams beneath the trees, or graze in the more open are sometimes true. meadows,

IV.-Signs Of Victory,

their quarters; still the squares and streets The sound of music below made me think

are anything but deserted; but a changed that another column was marching out; but

spirit rules the hour; for see, as the sun on going into the square I found that one

sinks lower and lower, these white-canopied

waggons come rolling in. “Feriti !” they are of the volunteer bands had turned out to play there for an hour. They were sur

indeed the ambulances with wounded. From rounded by a throng of red shirts, enjoying the

now till dark and after dark they come in at music; this, of its kind, was particularly good,

intervals : some stop at houses with sentries at the band, nearly thirty strong, played with the

the door, some pass through the town, or down

the Brescia road. Their arrival creates no senatmost vigour and animation.“ Viola les signes | de victoire," said R-, I don't know whether

| sation; there has been too much fighting during the band had really been ordered to play

the last month for that; yet what is going on is in honour of the morning's repulse of the

not altogether suggestive of insensibility. I "Tedeschi,” but it was clear that the men con

saw at every step eager-looking men gaze into nected the two in their minds. By this time

the waggons—sometimes mounting the steps, the day's work was on every tongue. Men

sometimes taking advantage of the frequent and officers were coming in every moment,

halts which the carriages made. I heard who had been engaged, enquiries for friends

their passionate greetings when they found a and excited exclamations of grief or exultation

comrade among the pale occupants, their mingled with the notes of cornet and bugle.

anxious enquiries, their lingering farewells. I Parties had been told off to assist in conveying

saw others, some, apparently, themselves with the wounded, and the thought that some hun

slight wounds, alleviating the roughness of the dreds of " feriti" were even now on their way

| progress by their exertions, for the ambulances from the front, and that scores lay, not yet cold,

cold jolted terribly over the paved streets. Their conbut never to hear drum or bugle again, made

ductors surrounded them, and lifting or holdthe heart vibrate to the joyous strains with a 1:

huling back, softened and broke the constant somewhat deeper throb than is generally ex

jolts that occurred. “Adagio! adagio!” they cited by marches or dance tunes. But there

cried, laying hold of the spokes of the wheels, are few who do not know that grief and exulta

or the sides of the ambulance, and sometimes tion, which must too often meet and jarr, can

literally carrying it over the rough places. sometimes harmonize and blend in one. The

The men were supported or lifted from the soldier at all events soon learns it. Many a man

ambulance at the hospitals with almost womanly in that crowd might be heard to mutter during

tenderness. It was impossible not to feel somethe most jubilant cadence, “ Povero Giovanni !"

thing more than respect for these men, some of or “Povero Francesco !" while “Medio de

| them so unkempt and disguised by rough camp fonté leporum," something seems to surge up

| life, yet so tender and solicitous : it was a respect ward, with a choking sensation from the very

mingled with the conviction—"these are brave bottom of the heart. But there was no doubt

men.” More too, that ready courtesy and

politeness, which we are perhaps too apt to that, if our loss had been severe, the attack had been thoroughly repulsed, and the enemy driven

contrast with British bluffness or reserve, is, back even beyond their own outposts ; so tri

otri. after all, not mere “superficies;" it has, after all, umph was the order of the day. As the old

| a core of its own-a background of stirling hu

manity. It would have been mere useless walls rang to a popular tune some of the red

officiousness to offer assistance, none was shirts began to extemporize a waltz, dancing

wanted. with each other, every couple keeping perfect

A certain class of wounds seem to time, to the old trois temps. This was an infec

have been kept at Tiano ; here at least we see tious sort of proceeding, couple after couple was

few of the more ghastly description-little of formed, and drifted away from the central

that rending and mangling which result from crowd, and the more scattered groups down the

shell and round shot. The more deadly main street and up the narrow winding Strada di :

wounds often make the least external show. Chiesa, set to. Everywhere the eye met re

Men sit up or limp away whose heads, arms, volving red shirts; it was taken up by the

and feet are swathed in discoloured bandages ;

| these look somewhat ghastly, but seem genetroops on the small square above, in front of

rally cheerful and unsubdued. But others are the church, till the great fountain, the tall picturesque campanile, the town's quaint gables,

| lifted out, sometimes moaning, more often

silent, whose hurts you cannot readily discover. and even the huge rocks that rose over all,

Many of these have had their uniforms more or seemed to take part in the dance. It is the 21st, and the battle of Tiano (or of

less stripped off by the surgeon, and are wrapped Beccezza) has been raging from dawn till after

in cloaks and blankets. One I saw, near the noon; but all was over two hours since. To

centre of whose bare chest was a small red spot: morrow morning we shall drive on to Tiano,

he must have been shot right through the lungs, to visit the scene of the fight.

and a painful catching gasp seemed to say that he was drawing the few last breaths of the life

he had given for Italy. V.-FURTHER “Signs.” The music has ceased, the crowd generally dispersed, and most of the men haye gone to!

VI. - Tiano (AMPOLA AND Bez CCA). ! 5th are here, each man enraged at the regiment's

| heavy losses yesterday, and longing to revenge July 22.--Here we are in “Upper” Tiano, his colonel. All anticipate a fresh engagement. Tiano Superiore, or Tiano di Sopra, as it is called. These two are all that are left of a party of It perfectly buzzes with exciternent from yester- thirty who dined together in Brescia before day's fight. At first the Garibaldians fell back joining the camp, the other twenty-eight are on this place, but the tug of the conflict was killed or wounded. One of them fiercely between it and Bezecca, a little further on! narrates the treachery of a native, who, acting the road to Riva. We left Storo at five this as guide, led his company into an ambush of morning, but the seven miles took nearly three “Tedeschi," and was shot forthwith by the hours, so blocked was the steep road with heavy | narrator's own hand. There is a dark story material going to the front; while at the little about a body of Austrians, who appeared on the fort or Block-Haus, Ampola, just half-way, a heights clad in the red shirt, and with cries of complete stoppage gave us full opportunity to “ Avanti, Garibaldini," lured on some unsusexamine the dismantled fort, the blackened pecting volunteers, who, when close, were walls of the baracks now almost level with the received with an exterminating volley. But all ground; the craggs from which the Italians agreed that this tale wanted confirmation. had plied their artillery; and the romantic The man on my right tells me of his life on stream which thundered down into a hollow, the bill-tops for the last three days. Always on right beneath the fort, in a white and brilliant the move; the supplies sent up, but unable to cataract.

overtake the party; nothing but biscuit to live In spite of delay we got into Tiano at a lucky

| on. He has been dragging up the guns, and

his neck is scarred, and his collar cut through moment; for scarcely had we effected a lodge.

| by the ropes. He soon turns our conversation ment in the Albergo, when officers and men, flocking in from outpost duty in search of

to more peaceful topics, being interested in

English literature. But in this he is less at breakfast or of rest, filled the house like a beehive. The inn had been cleared out the day

home than a comrade who pursues the subject

more eagerly. He deplores the want of educabefore, and it was necessary to disperse in every direction in search of provisions. It was ap

tion among his countrymen, but hardly with proaching noon when some of our party re

justice, perhaps, if he himself is to be taken as appeared with partial supplies. Our meals in

a specimen. He works hard at English politics Ştora had been scrambles, our breakfast here

and English books, is especially familiar

with John Stuart Mill, and bas translated the was a thorough “scrimmage;" yet, as before,

Essay on Liberty: a Life of O'Connell is also courtesy and good-fellowship prevailed universally, and it was fortunate they did ; for, in

one of his works. This man's conversation respect of food aud drink, of fire to cook by, or

(and that of others like him) seems to indicate the wherewithal, of whatever kind, to accom

that not only the rank and wealth of Italy are plish dinner, it was everyone for himself and his

| represented up here in her volunteer army, but own, and crowding and jostling without limit was

also the thought and education of the country. the result. The central scene of operations was of

There doubtless are “canaglia' and ragamufcourse the kitchen, and we had again to admire

fins in the ranks; but they are side by side with the equanimity and goodnature with which the

Visconti and Spinulas, with refined and highlycook and her staff endured the usurpation of

educated gentlemen. the guests. The landlord also and his servants

All this time fresh relays of volunteers have were wisely content to assist and supplement

been dropping in, and fresh dinners prethe exertions of the crowd, too numerous for

paring; but the crowd gets thinner and thinner, their wants to be supplied by the ordinary

and presently a battery of field-guns passes service of the inn.

somewhat hastily towards the front, and the

dispersion of guests goes on still more rapidly. At last our turn comes. As usual we had

However, all remains quiet; and soon we hear contrived to ally ourselves with others, and to

that nothing is expected to occur in this direcestablish an impromptu mess, a process which

tion. “Garibaldi has just driven back to Storo." was greatly forwarded by D-~'s wide-spread

| The advance is to be pushed by the other road, acquaintance with both officers and men, and

which, from Storo, leads on Trent by Condino by R--'s adroitness in the culinary line. We

and Lardaro. Lardaro! that is the next nut to sit down to salmi, roti, and omelettes of a rude

crack, and a bard one it will be for troops with but savoury description. Alas! no vegetables,

such light artillery. The Austrian fort there is no bread, not a crumb of the latter in the town.

said to be very strong. We also, therefore, At this critical moment enter two Bersaglieri, for

drive back to Storo, and have leisure once more whom places have been kept; they have brought

to remark what manner of country this is which an ample supply of huge ration biscuits, and

Garibaldi and his men have so far conquered. nothing more is wanted.

It looks a tiny corner on an ordinary map, We had fasted long, most of our companions this piece of the Tyrol. A war-map shows the still longer. Our “breakfast-dinner" is soon truth somewhat better ; but come and sce it with finished. Cigars are lit, the thin country wine your own eyes, and you will finally confess that, (not “Asti," alas !) goes round again, and talk after all, the “red-shirt” army has done somesets in more furiously than ever. Many of the I thing. It is true that their more advanced po

sitions are but thirty miles from that fort- plausible and tempting ; on the other hand crowned ruck of Anfo, which was Italy's outpost there is a profound gratification in the feeling on the solitary lake. But that thirty miles has liberavi animam meam. already taken them more than half way to Trent! Now, of course, every one professes the itself, and given them no inconsiderable portion / unbiassed mind, open to conviction—the teinper of the coveted district. But the point is that it of inquiry and of observation rather than of is thirty miles of mountain and valley.

assertion and criticism;" so that I will only say Prussia occupied Bobemia by a ten days' that I, too, can see the darker side of the piccampaigo; but Prussia had not to attack a ture; I, too, could say my say about shortsingle position like these which meet us at every comings in the Garabaldian army. But, for turn of the road. Prussia crossed the Iron many reasons, my few remarks will be profesMountains it is true; but the passes were un- sędly on the other side only. For too often do defended, and afterwards vast plaids and level we hear complacent scoffers (French, Englisli, roads lay before her advancing troops. But or Italian) who, mingling some few grains of this country is all “iron mouulains"; and its truth with much of its opposite, sneer someroads are all “ passes"-all occupied with de- times at the Garibaldians, sometimes at their liberate skill and defended with every advantage General. Even Italians (though I believe very on the side of those attacked.

few) are to be found who speak of their volunJust above Rocca d'Anfo you see Caffaro : it teers as “canaglia”-the sweepings of the is the frontier town. Two hot fights-bayonets streets; or who ask “What have they done?” trice crossed at its quaint little bridge-marked or say, with a shrug of the shoulders, “Ah! the opening of the campaign. Thence, one by Garibaldi is brave as a lion; but then-he has ode, Monte Suello, Bagolino, Darzo, and no tacliques, no strategy." Others, and trueLodrone witnessed the fruitless efforts of the hearted men too, indignant at certain mortifying Austrians to hold their own against the “ Cami- occurrences,* refuse to take a moment's account chi Rossi.” At last Storo is occupied, and of brighter events. Others, again, well-wishers held at one time under the very fire of Austrian of Italy, see both sides, and, too candid to de. sharpshooters from the rocks above. Still day lineate the brighter features, without dwelling by day, almost hour by hour the work goes on- also on ill deserts, do neither one or the other, here a village, there a height is occupied, still and indulge simply in general statements and the advance is maintained, though not without vague expressions of praise and sympathy. almost daily loss. But bow can so brief an There are, however, & few tangible facts outline do justice to the arduous details — to the worthy of mention; a few circumstances, with life-and-death contests, the petty skirmishes regard to which the evidence of one's owu eyes with the Tyrol marksman on the cliffs, the Aus- forces rather than suggests certain conclusions. trian lancer in the valley ? Or, more, to the days | With regard to the Garibaldians as men, I may and nights of intense bodily toil; while guns say that in the whole force it was impossible to were not dragged only, but carried to the sum see or hear of anything like disorder, brawling or mits of mountains, which it was a toil even for the ill-conduct of any sort or kind; but the most unladen to climb : and while forced "mountain refined courtesy and the warmest hospitality marches" were made to turn positions which and kindness might be found by the stranger could not be openly assaulted without fearful in abundance. With regard to what they have loss? Thus was the Val di Ledro occupied, and done as an army, I can only speak of results in consequence Ampola surrendered “Senza of a highly-disciplined and determined enemy Condizioni," battered as it was, but not vitally driven back, step by step, his onsets inet and injured by the light mountain guns. Thus, too, repulsed, his tactics foiled, bis troops dislodged (on the Lardaro road) Condino and its depend- | from positions chosen by themselves, and by encies are occupied. Thither we go to-morrow, | nature almost inaccessible. An advance kept with bigb hopes of seeing, ere long, successful | up almost hour by hour, as the outposts were operations against Lardaro itself.

pushed from peak to Peak, from hamlet to hamlet; while bebind, as if by magic, the fields swarmed with the camichi rossi and the fra.

grance of their soupa already perfumed the air, VII.-AN OPINION OF THE GARIBALDIAN as you drove on the village just evacuated by ARMY.

the Tedeschi. For, take notice as we drive.

Yesterday, their white tupics were in full posIt is perhaps difficult to estimate the precise session of garden, field, and street. This amount of interest which the English public afternoon, English and Italian ladies are altakes in the affairs of Italy in general, or in the ready preparing hospital wards in the Albergo, fortunes of her volunteer army in particular; where some Austrian colonel had his quarters mucb, however, has actually been said and not twenty-four hours back. written on this subject; and, whether opinions are uncalled for or not, it is sometimes difficult * Such, for instance as the panic which overcame to remain silent-difficult to refrain from saying many of the men on the 21st, when deprived of their one word, however unimportant, to the end officers, and for the first time, perhaps, under fire. It that true impressions, rather than false, may I is well known that the bravest troops may quail under prevail, “Reserve" has arguments only tog I these circumstances,

The guns went to the front long ago, but the errantry; but he is out of place in the 19th commissariat train is still on the move : blankets, century.” loaves, flour, bullocks (and as before) fill the ! Oh! wisdom of the unwise ! is he not, then, road at intervals. In a convenient house the by your own showing, above all others the man Posta Militêre is already established, doing for this age? If, indeed, it is true that we are a work in a business-like style, that would not self-seeking,"common-place,"gold-worshipping shame St. Martin-le-Grand.

generation, are we not, therefore, in the greater “The Telegraph will be up by the time we need of a man like this? not because he is less drive back to-morrow,” says D-

selfish or more devoted than thousands around "Impossible,” thought I (though I had seen it us; but because in him that faith and singleon the other roads)! “Where are the workmen to ness of heart has been united not only with the dig holes by hundreds for the posts? Where enterprise but also with the versatile prowess are the posts, the wires, and the fixings?” of a Raleigh, and has been embodied in a career

As it happened we did not return till a day at once martyr-like and romantic, which has later ; but there, at all events was the scientific made it shine like a beacon to his generation, triumph of the age; its tall posts, and miles of kindling and animating the faith of thousands wire accompanying the road, leaping chasms, of hearts, less illustrious, but not less true than crossing the river, overtopping the chesnuts, his own! looking as if it had been there for years-50 finished and thorough had been the work of crowbar, spade, and axe; but tools and work

VIII.--LION's Cubs, men (Lombard or Tyrolian) have already cleared off, and left not a chip or nail behind.' True it! Condino is, perhaps, even more picturesquethan is ihat some of the Austrian armies are not Storo. It also has its piazza or “ place"; but without their telegraph, and we heard some-one side is formed by the sloping mountain itthing of the Prussian field telegraph, as a proof, self, and big rocks and trees come striding down among others, of the science of their system into the very town. As you look in this direcand the completeness of their organization. But tion the view, instead of being bounded by a this is only the Armata Voluntaria—the "unor-, row of houses, passes right up into verdant ganized crowd of brave undisciplined men, who glades, each a charming oasis, which the conmay carry on a desultory guerilla warfare with trast with the rocky masses that flank it makes some success, but who cannot be looked to for still more inviting. Rills of water from the bill the work of regular troops, or take the position cascade down them. You might envy the of a regular army." Yet, somehow this rabble few horses and mules which graze upon these of raw Garabaldini has its commissariat and turfy slopes. Here and there a tent or a "lean. quarter-master's department, its hospitals and to " against the rock, suggests that some of the ambulance trains, its military post, and its troops have picked out their quarters, either telegraph ; and, what is more, the commissariat with an eye for the picturesque, or for the com. does feed the troops, the wounded are tended, parative seclusion therein afforded. The square the telegraph works, the post does dispatch itself “ hums, like a beehive," with life-eating, your letters with care and promptitude.

drinking, talking, and singing, buying and sellTrue it may be that a month, or even a week, ing, &c. back, matters were otherwise; but how long « Everyone” is here, and my Italian comis it since this force took the field ? how many panion has been busy pointing out individuals weeks since war itself was declared ? Surely we worth notice : now the veteran who commands know of regular armies in which similar defici- the Guides, now the man who saved Garibaldi's encies took something more than a week or two life at the Volturno; or those here and there in being rectified. But let justice be done to all who, to my great wonderment, wear the wellparties. May not this change for the better, in known “Manxman's” three-legged badge on some measure result from the very representa-their breasts. But I learn that it has nothing tions of those correspondents, some of whose to do with the Isle of Man. It means Sicily letters, in certain London journals have given (Trinacia), and marks those men who are of the an unfavourable impression on these points ? thousand," and who sailed from Genoa in If so, all honour to those Englishmen whose Garibaldi's famous expedition, resolute plain speaking has in any degree “ Menotti,” said my companion, touching quickened the attention of the Italian public, my arm, and directing my attention to a small and stimulated the Italian Government to greater group of officers and men close by. regard for the requirements of their volunteers. Menotti Garibaldi is standing at the corner

And, above all, honour to him, whose energy of the street, a friend at his side; a yard or two and tempered will, at once forbearing and off stand one or two Garibaldians, and Gariresolute, has once more answered “invincible" baldi's negro attendant, who gazes at Menotti, to the bodings of anxious friends and the and seems to feel unbounded satisfaction in slanders of deadly enemies. I have heard doing so—at least his ink-black features are lit “Garibaldi is not a man for this age. He is too by a broad, genial smile of mingled pride and simple and straightforward, and much too ready attachment. The appearance of the young to think everyone like himself. In character he Garibaldi certainly justifies his follower's ad belongs to the crusades and the days of knighta ' miration. This lion's cub looks none the worse

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