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true insight. The tale too abounds in separate thoughts, claiming to be well kept in the memory; as, witness Hawthorne's remark that 'feeble and torpid natures, being incapable of better inspiration, need to be stirred up by fear.'

. The' Passages from a Relinquished Work' only professedly takes this form to serve his purpose the better. Exquisite also in its delicate humour, it exhibits, through the thinnest of dramatic disguises, the effect on his fiction of what he called his puritanic blood and training-leading him to seek out, and give prominence to, obscure points-matters relating to the inner life, in fact—and to disregard the more obvious sources of interest.

The first of the ‘Sketches from Memory' has direct critical value in its relation to the story of “The Great Carbuncle,' as students of Hawthorne and thoughtful readers will at once discover for themselves. “April Fools' shows how, even when the editor's pen was in

his hand, and when the theme was commonplace and hackneyed, he could not escape from moralising and unconscious allegory.

A warm word of acknowledgment for help received is due to Mr. Fields' · Yesterdays with Authors;' though the bulk of this memoir is derived from other sources and was written before Mr. Fields' sketches first appeared. I have not, however, hesitated to draw in a fact or characteristic utterance from this source. So complete is Mr. Fields' sketch of Hawthorne, and so excellent is the spirit in which it is written, that this effort of mine would have been rendered unnecessary, if it had not been that the form with which Mr. Fields contents himself, limits him to separate points and anecdotes, with no real connection in time. If he had thrown his materials into a definitely-connected shape before publishing in book form, I fear my little endeavour would have been forestalled, and doubtless by a worthier product. But Mr. Fields' method

has led him into errors, which become confusing when one is in earnest search for the real facts of Hawthorne's life. One instance will illustrate what is meant. Mr. Fields at p. 45, writes thus :-'When Hawthorne was a little more than fourteen the family moved to Raymond in the state of Maine.' And then, near to the end of his sketch, he says, in reporting Hawthorne's words : ‘He said at an early age he accompanied his mother and sister to the township in Maine, which his grandfather had purchased. That, he continued, was the happiest period of his life, and it lasted till he was thirteen, when he was sent to school in Salem. Hawthorne could not have been more than eleven when the family removed to Raymond; for certainly he went to school at Salem when he came back from there.

Had space allowed, I might have been tempted to illustrate in fuller detail the peculiar way in which Hawthorne continually

returned on his own ideas. But this itself would have needed almost a volume, for it would have been nothing else than an exhaustive analysis of his novels, in the light of biographical facts and of his note books. When, for example, he temporarily threw aside ‘Septimius’in dissatisfaction, he could not, along with it, ‘rid his bosom of the perilous stuff' of 'deathlessness.' He simply found relief in ‘Pansie,' which we now know was to be a statement of the same idea from what he regarded, however, as the healthier side. As Septimius aimed at conquering the 'common fate' by charms and was miserably defeated ; so old Dr. Dolliver was unconsciously to conquer death by the mightier spell of natural affection. There was an old saying that a man could not die so long as he kept his feet; so Hawthorne, by Dr. Dolliver, doubtless meant to illustrate, in his own striking way, that 'love alone confers immor

tality,' which, indeed, was with him a kind of favourite dogma.

I entertain hope that there are not a few who will sympathise with my honest effort to throw light on Hawthorne's life and character, and to render his writings yet more familiar to English readers.

H. A. P.

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