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walks and shrubberies. The good women give the leaves powdered to children troubled with worms; but it is a violent remedy, and ought to be administered with caution.

Helleborus viridis, green hellebore,-in the deep stony lane on the left hand just before the turning to Norton Farm, and at the top of Middle Dorton under the hedge: this plant dies down to the ground early in autumn, and springs again about February, flowering almost as soon as it appears above ground,

Vaccinium oxycoccos, creeping bilberries, or cranberries, in the bogs of Bin's Pond;

Vaccinium myrtillus, whortle, or bleaberries,-on the dry hillocks of Wolmer Forest;

Drosera rotundifolia, round-leaved sundew,-in the bogs of Bin's Pond;

Drosera longifolia, long-leaved sundew,—in the bogs of Bin's Pond;

Comarum palustre, purple comarum, or marsh cinquefoil, —in the bogs of Bin's Pond;

Hypericum androsæmum, Tutsan St. John's Wort,-in the stony, hollow lanes;

Vinca minor, lesser periwinkle,-in Selborne Hanger and Shrub Wood;

Monotropa hypopithys, yellow monotropa, or bird's nest, -in Selborne Hanger under the shady beeches, to whose roots it seems to be parasitical—at the north-west end of the Hanger;

Chlora perfoliata, Blackstonia perfoliata, Hudsoni, perfoliated yellow wort,—on the banks in the King's Field;

Paris quadrifolia, herb Paris, true love, or one berry,– in the Church Litten Coppice;

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, opposite golden saxifrage, -in the dark and rocky hollow lanes;

Gentiana amarella, autumnal gentian, or fellwort,-on the Zigzag and Hanger;

Lathræa squamaria, toothwort,-in the Church Litten Coppice under some hazels near the foot bridge in Trimming's garden hedge, and on the dry wall opposite Grange Yard;

Dipsacus pilosus, small teasel, in the Short and Long

Lith;

Lathyrus sylvestris, narrow-leaved, or wild lathyrus,in the bushes at the foot of the Short Lith, near the path;

Ophrys spiralis, ladies' traces,-in the Long Lith, and towards the south corner of the common;

Ophrys nidus avis, bird's nest ophrys,-in the Long Lith under the shady beeches among the dead leaves, in Great Dorton among the bushes, and on the Hanger plentifully;

Serapias latifolia,' helleborine,-in the High Wood under the shady beeches;

Daphne laureola, spurge laurel,-in Selborne Hanger and the High Wood;

Daphne mezereum, the mezereon,-in Selborne Hanger among the shrubs at the south-east end above the cottages;

Lycoperdon tuber,* truffles,-in the Hanger and High Wood;

Sambucus ebulus, dwarf elder, wallwort, or danewort, Lamong the rubbish and ruined foundations of the Priory.5

1 Spiranthes autumnalis, Rich. 2 Neottia nidus-avis, Rich. * Epipactis latifolia, Al.

4 Tuber æstivum, Vitt. 5 From this letter and the previous one it would appear that Gilbert White paid comparatively but slight attention to the vegetable productions of the neighbourhood in which he resided. His strictures on “mere systematic classification" were perhaps not uncalled-for at the period when they were written, for the science of botany was then in a very unsatisfactory state in this country, little else being attempted beyond an arrangement of our indigenous plants according to the sexual system of Linnæus. It is to be regretted, however, that our author thought it “needless work” to enumerate the plants found about Selborne, for the possession of such a catalogue at the present day would be of considerable interest and utility to those who are occupied with an investigation of the laws affecting plant distribution.

In regard to the botany of Selborne, Dr. Trimen informs us that Gilbert White's scanty observations on the subject have been supplemented by the late Dr. Bell Salter, who published in the “Phytologist" (vol. i. p. 1132) a list of the flowering plants observed by him at Selborne during three days' botanizing in the month of September, 1844, and subsequently in the same periodical (vol. ii. pp. 97 and 131) he gave an elaborate account of the Diambles (Rubi). Many notices of Of all the propensities of plants none seem more strange than their different periods of blossoming. Some produce their flowers in the winter, or very first dawnings of spring; many when the spring is established ; some at midsummer; and some not till autumn. When we see the Helleborus foetidus and Helleborus niger blowing at Christmas, the Helleborus hyemalis' in January, and the Helleborus viridis as soon as ever it emerges out of the ground, we do not wonder, because they are kindred plants that we expect should keep pace the one with the other. But other congenerous vegetables differ so widely in their time of flowering, that we cannot but admire. I shall only instance at present in the Crocus sativus, the vernal, and the autumnal crocus, which have such an affinity, that the best botanists only make them varieties of the same genus, of which there is only one species; not being able to discern any difference in the corolla, or in the internal structure. Yet the vernal crocus expands its flowers by the beginning of March at farthest, and often in very rigorous weather; and cannot be retarded but by some violence offered :—while the autumnal (the Saffron) defies the influence of the spring and summer, and will not blow till most plants begin to fade and run to seed. This circumstance is one of the wonders of the creation, little noticed, because a common occurrence; yet ought not to be overlooked on account of its being familiar, since it would be as difficult to

Selborne as a locality will be found scattered throughout Dr. Bromfield's Catalogue of Hampshire Plants (op. cit. vols. iii. iv.)

Dr. Trimen adds: “ The singular parasitic Toothwort, Lathrea squamaria, and the pretty Marsh Cinquefoil, Comarum palustre, do not seem to have been recorded since Gilbert White's day for this part of Hampshire. The Mezereon above noticed may have been planted in the Hanger (see Phytologist,' vol, iii. p. 794). As an indication of the advance which has been made in the knowledge of plants since White's observations were penned, it may be mentioned that upon the lowest computation the species of Crocus now known to botanists amount to forty-seven. The three mentioned by White, Crocus sativus, C. vernus, and C. nudiflorus, are now universally considered to be distinct and well-defined species.”—ED.

1 Eranthis hyemalis of recent authors.

be explained as the most stupendous phenomenon in nature.

Say, what impels, amidst surrounding snow
Congeal'd, the crocus' flamy bud to glow?
Say, what retards, amidst the summer's blaze,
Th' autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days ?
The God of Seasons; whose pervading power
Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower:
He bids each flower his quickening word obey ;
Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay."

LETTER XLII.

TO THE HONOURABLE DAINES BARRINGTON.

“Omnibus animalibus reliquis certus et uniusmodi et in suo cuique

genere incessus est : aves solæ vario meatu feruntur et in terrâ et in aëre."—Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. x. cap. 38.

SELBORNE, Aug. 7, 1778. GOOD ornithologist should be able to distinguish birds by their air as well as by their colours and shape; on the ground as well as on the wing, and in the bush as well as in

the hand. For, though it must not be said that every species of birds has a manner peculiar to itself, yet there is somewhat in most genera at least, that at first sight discriminates them, and enables a judicious observer to pronounce upon them with some certainty. Put a bird in motion

et vera incessu patuit Thus kites and buzzards sail round in circles with wings expanded and motionless; and it is from their gliding manner that the former are still called in the north of England gleads, from the Saxon verb glidan, to glide. The kestril, or wind-hover, bas a peculiar mode of hanging in the air in one place, his wings all the while being briskly agitated. Hen harriers fly low over heaths or fields of corn, and beat the ground regularly like a pointer or setting

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dog. Owls move in a buoyant manner, as if lighter than the air; they seem to want ballast. There is a peculiarity belonging to ravens that must draw. the attention even of the most incurious—they spend all their leisure time in striking and cuffing each other on the wing in a kind of playful skirmish ; and when they move from one place to another, frequently turn on their backs with a loud croak, and seem to be falling to the ground. When this odd gesture betides them, they are scratching themselves with one foot, and thus lose the centre of gravity. Rooks sometimes dive and tumble in a frolicsome manner; crows and daws swagger in their walk; woodpeckers fly volatu undoso, opening and closing their wings at every stroke, and so are always rising or falling in curves. All of this genus use their tails, which incline downward, as a support while they run up trees. Parrots, like all other hookedclawed birds, walk awkwardly, and make use of their bill as a third foot, climbing and descending with ridiculous caution. All the Galline parade and walk gracefully, and run nimbly; but fly with difficulty, with an impetuous whirring, and in a straight line. Magpies and jays flutter with powerless wings, and make no dispatch; herons seem encumbered with too much sail for their light bodies; but these vast hollow wings are necessary in carrying burthens, such as large fishes, and the like; pigeons, and particularly the sort called smiters, have a way of clashing their wings the one against the other over their backs with

snap; another variety called tumblers turn themselves over in the air. Some birds have movements peculiar to the season of pairing: thus ring-doves, though strong and rapid at other times, yet in the spring hang about on the wing in a toying and playful manner; thus the cock-snipe, while breeding, forgetting his former flight, fans the air like the wind-hover; and the greenfinch in particular exhibits such languishing and faltering gestures as to appear like a wounded and dying bird; the kingfisher darts along like an arrow ; fernowls, or goat-suckers, glance in the dusk over the tops of trees like a meteor; starlings, as it were, swim along, while missel-thrushes use a wild and desultory flight; swallows

a loud

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