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activity Adam Smith advantages amount banks become bimetallism called capital CHAPTER cities civilization classes competition consider consumed consumption cooperation cost cultivation desire distribution dollars duction economic employers England especially exchange exist expenditure extensive fact factors factors of production favor fiat money free land furnish gold human important increase individual individual capital industrial industrial revolution interest investment Knights of Labor labor organizations legal tender legislation less limited luxury manufacture means ment monopoly natural natural monopolies nomic ownership paper money payment person Political Economy possible present principle private enterprise private property production profit protection protectionism question railways regulation rent result satisfy wants saving secure sense silver simply social social capital society supply theory things tion trades unions United utility wage-earners wages wealth workingmen workmen
Сторінка 202 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and, fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Сторінка 25 - At every considerable house there was a manufactory. Every clothier keeps one horse at least to carry his manufactures to the market ; and every one generally keeps a cow or two or more for his family. By this means the small pieces of enclosed land about each house are occupied, for they scarce sow corn enough to feed their poultry. The houses are full of lusty fellows, some at the dye-vat, some at the looms, others dressing the cloths ; the women and children carding or spinning ; being all employed...
Сторінка 189 - I confess to at one time having viewed them suspiciously; but a long study of the history of labor has convinced me that they are not only the best friends of the workman but the best agency for the employer and the public; and that to the extension of these associations political economists and statesmen must look for the solution of some among the most pressing and difficult problems of our times.
Сторінка 25 - ... divided into small enclosures from two acres to six or seven each, seldom more, every three or four pieces of land had an house belonging to them.
Сторінка 158 - University: (1) Credit furnishes a more perfect and convenient means of payment in large sums and between distant places than the precious metals, saving time and labor. This is effected by means of notes, checks and bills of exchange.
Сторінка 38 - There were dark patches even in his age, but we now approach a darker period, — a- period as disastrous and as terrible as any through which a nation ever passed ; disastrous and terrible, because, side by side with a great increase of wealth was seen an enormous increase of pauperism ; and production on a vast scale, the result of free competition, led to a rapid alienation of classes and to the degradation of a large body of producers.
Сторінка 244 - That the percentage of outlay for clothing is approximately the same, whatever the income. Third.
Сторінка 48 - Cash-payment is not the sole relation of human beings ; we think, nothing doubting, that it absolves and liquidates all engagements of man.
Сторінка 25 - At every considerable house was a manufactory. . . . Every clothier keeps one horse, at least, to carry his Manufactures to the Market; and every one, generally, keeps a Cow or two or more for his Family.
Сторінка 325 - The more complicated our civilization becomes, and the more sensitive our social organization, the more indispensable such protection is found to be. In an increasing number of cases men cannot tell what they are buying or discern whether it secures their interests or not. As Professor Jevons tersely says : " While it is a fact that people live in badly drained houses, drink sewage water, purchase bad meat or adulterated groceries, it is of no use urging that their interests would lead them not to...