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reference to the mitigation of punishment in general, are deci-
sive on that point. But we have few data on which reliance
can be placed, for the purpose of an exact comparison, except
since 1834, in which year a new classification of offences was
adopted in the criminal returns, as follows :-
Class 1.–Offences against the person ; such as murder, shooting at, with

intent to maim, manslaughter, rape, and assault.
Class 2.-Offences against property, committed with violence ; such as

burglary, housebreaking, and robberies.
Class 3.-Offences against property, committed without violence; such

as cattle and horse stealing, larceny, &c., &c.
Class 4.-Malicious offences against property; such as setting fire to

houses or crops, riot, and destruction of machinery, killing and

maiming cattle, &c. Class 5.-Forgery and offences against the country; high treason, game

offences, prison breaking, riot, &c., &c. Class 6.-Other offences.

The following table exhibits the number or proportion of each of these six classes of offences, to the population for the time being, in the sections of counties, as per table on page 658, and for five periods since 1834.

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5 Manufacturing... 55-330 24:160 49.806 41•870 32 651 3 Mining ............ 60 128 66.659 41.755 66.946 64.458 3 Metropolitan...... 13247 15.443 12.661 14.357 12.876 16 Agricultural ..... 57.108 41.444 41.255 50 598 51.050

2 Collegiate ......... 77.506 32 610 | 41.578 56:524 57.349 11 Mixed ............... 45-511 | 45.364 | 31.911 51.004 / 52.083

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Considering 1847 to be an exceptional year, on account of the
prevailing distress, we may place in juxtaposition the ratio of
each class of offences in 1834-6, and in 1844-6 respectively, for
all England.
1834-6.

1844-6.
Class 1.-1 in 7,218. 1 in 7,522.

2.-1 in 10,552. 1 in 10,416.
, 3.-1 in 844. 1 in 814.
, 4.-1 in 98,464. 1 in 72,442.
,, 5.—1 in 36,129. 1 in 34,944.

» 6.-1 in 12,687. 1 in 19,276.
The first, which is the most important class, shows a small,
and the last a large decrease. The other four shows an increase;
class 3 alone exhibiting a high ratio. This class, it will be ob.
served, is that of 'offences against property, committed without
violence,' and the increase in this class, betwixt 1834-6, and

1844-6, consists entirely in the specific item of simple larcenies,' the number being 7,756 for all England in the former period, and 8,465 in the latter. Now, as the first table shows that the ratios of all offences to the total population at these periods, were respectively, 1 in 654, and 1 in 644, or about one and a half per cent. increase, it is clear that we must look for the source of that increase in class 3, and that, in fact, classes 1 and 6 will show a lower per centage to the total of crimes, and classes 2, 4, and 5, a slight increase in that ratio. We give the proportions each year, from 1836 to 1847.—Class 1 shows a proportion of 9.2 in 1836, and only an average of 8 in 1844-6.

TABLE IV.
Relative Proportions of the Sir Classes of Crime, in Centesimal Parts, in the

following Years.

Class Ratio Class Ratio Class Ratio Class Ratio Class Ratio Class Ratio Total
I. to 2. to 3. to 4. to 5. to 6. to loro

offences Years No. of Totals No. of Totals No. of Totals No. of Totals No. of Totals No. of Totals for ou

Offen- of Offen. of Offen- of Offen- of Offen of Offen- of Enolon

ces. Crime ces. Crime ces Crime ces. Crime ces. Crime ces. Crime

100

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Class 6 shows an average of 4:8 in the former, against 3.5 in the latter periods, whilst class 3 shows an increase from 77.4, to 79.4.

A more distinct idea of the proportion of the principal classes of crime, will be conveyed by the following table, in which the actual number of each, for four periods, is given.

TABLE V.
Numbers of the Principal Crimes, under Classes 1, 2, and 3, in the under-

mentioned Years in England.
1834–6.

1844–6.
1843.

1847. Average.

Average.

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Taken either together or separately, the last two tables establish the gratifying fact of an actual diminution of the more serious offences, during the last ten years pro rata to population, and that four fifths of all the crimes belong to the class of 'offences against property, without violence.' The latter fact, whilst it greatly narrows the scope of our public reformatory appliances, is suggestive of the appropriate remedies and preventives.

We may not go minutely into the analysis of the six great classes of crime, in order to show the ratio of their prevalence in particular counties. Our third table, gives the ratios of these in the respective groups of counties. We may point out a few of the more marked and important features of that table.

In the class of offences against the person, the manufacturing and mining counties show an increased, but fluctuating ratio throughout. The metropolitan and agricultural counties, a diminished ratio, with one exception. The collegiate, a largely diminished ratio throughout, and the mixed counties a considerable diminution on the whole, with the exception of 1843. In every instance but one (that one the metropolitan), 1843 exhibits the highest ratio of this class of offences, and the same remark applies to the next class of offences. This class forms the connecting link betwixt the more atrocious, and the merely venial offences. It embraces the burglar, the house-breaker, and the highwayman, and combines in the character of too many of the offenders, dishonesty, brutality, and a reckless disregard of life. The table shows this class to be an increasing one on the whole, and largely in the two first groups of districts. Class 3–Offences against Property, without Violence,' shows a larger increase than class 2, and a very marked and rapid increase in the ratio, comparing 1834-6 with the two next periods, and 1844-6 with 1847. The solution of this increase will be offered when we come to notice the effects of bad harvests, on the general ratio of crime. The other classes may be dismissed with the remark, that malicious offences are the most rife in the agricultural sections of the kingdom, and are happily least prevalent where the consequences of such crimes would be most disastrous. It is, indeed, a remarkable fact, that crimes of this class are rare in the great seats of manufactures and commerce; partly, we believe, because there is a more intelligent perception of the ultimate consequences of such crimes to themselves, in the bulk of the manufacturing operatives; and even more, because of a higher moral restraint, combined with a kindly feeling, on the whole, betwixt the employers and the employed.

It would compel us to enter into great minuteness of detail, were we to place the several groups of counties in comparison with each other, as to the prevalence of particular crimes in each of the six great divisions or classes of offences. Such an analysis would shew, as might be expected, that some crimes are almost peculiar to particular localities, just because the locality

OL. XXIV.

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