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Peter Jones. An Autibiography. Stage the First London: John

Chapman. 1818. The object of this volume is to show how an inquiring man was led from traditional Christianity' to a vague spiritualism. In this first stage he has reached the point of emancipating himself from the authority of Scripture as a historical record, and from many of the notions which we denominate Christian. He has arrived at the be. lief in the existence of an extinct primitive human race, of which all our civilisation is the legacy. Such books as this demand attention. They are the new phase of opposition to Scripture truth which we have now to study, and wben men of the talents and acquire. ments of the author of this volume address themselves thus to the assault, it is high time for some other people to get ready for the defence. Peter Jones' may not cause storms, but it portends them.

Memoir of the Rev. Samuel Dyer, sixteen years missionary to the Chinese.

By Evan Davies, author of China and her Spiritual Claims.'

pp. 303. London: John Snow. The publication of wisely written accounts of missionary lives and labours is calculated to sustain and direct the missionary spirit in our churches. Mr. Dyer deserved this honour, and the description here given of his coirse is as instructive and interesting as that of any we have seen. We trust this record of his worth will meet with the acceptance which it richly merits from the Christian public.

A Brief Historical Relation of the Life of Mr. John Livingstone,

Minister of the Gospel ; with an Historical Introduction and Notes. By the Rev. Thomas Houston. A New Edition. Edinburgh:

Johnstone. John LIVINGSTONE was one of the purest and gentlest of the Covenanters, and though not a man of great energy, but, as he himself says, 'wofully lazy and of a soft disposition,' yet took a considerable share in the proceedings of that stormy time. His Autobiography and Characteristics of Eminent Ministers, are well known to all students of ecclesiastical bistory in the seventeenth century, as having all the fidelity of an eye-witness; but they have still higher merit, they breathe the simplicity of a child, the piety of a saint, the firmness of a martyr.

The present edition is complete and convenient. The historical introduction is accurately written.

Historical Charades. By the Author of Letters from Madras.' An admirable child's book; spirited, good humoured, bustling, it will fascinate young people. We have submitted it to a jury of children of the age for which it is intended, and can heartily concur in their sentence, that it is very nice.'

The Way of Faith ; or, The Abridged Bible : containing Selections from

all the Books of Holy Writ. By Dr. M. Büdinger. Translated

from the German by David Astier. London: Bagster. 1818. The reason assigned for the publication of this volume, which appears under the sanction of the Chief Rabbi, is, a wish to supply the want felt among the Jewish community, of a version of their own of the Sacred Scriptures, to put into the bands of cbildren and females.' But we contess to a suspicion, that the object is not to grally a lelt want, by giving to these classes as much as they can receive, but rather to avoid the danger of their seeking, among Christians, what is denied them by their own leaders, and to give them as little as will satisfy. Whether this be so or not, the volume marks a great. progress in the Jewish people. Here is an acknowledgment of a craving for a knowledge of Scripture—and here, whatever may be the motive, is, at least, a partial response to that craving. It augurs well; it leads to the hope, that the mutilated, rather than abridged Bible, bere presented, will soon be found insufficient for the class for whom it is intended. As to the execution of the design, we need only say, that the greater part of the volume is occupied with ex. tracts from the historical books, in which our authorized version is principally followed ; and that the selections from the other parts of Scripture are seemingly made on the principle of excluding any. thing that may awaken the consciousness of sin, and yet more obviously, anything that may point to Him in whom that consciousness finds its relief. Israel and its glories, morality and ceremonies, form the staple of the volume. If it be an introduction merely, it is good; if it be, as is most probable, a perinanent substitute for the whole Scripture of the Old Testament, it is lamentably deficient.

Sermons on Practical Subjects. By the Rev. S. Warren, LL.D., In

cumbent of All Souls, Manchester. A New Edition. London

and Edinburgh : Blackwood. 1848. We have found no thoughts and only one figure in this volume which have not old familiar faces, the author's object being, as all sermon publishers tell us, practical utility rather than novelty or research. For such a purpose these discourses are well fitted ; they are correct but not tame, calm but not cold, earnest but not extravagant.

Literary Entelligence.

Just Published, Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, for 1849. By the Hon. Mrs. Norton, with contributions by R. M. Milnes, Esq., M.P., Hon. Edmund Phipps, and others.

Belgium, the Rhine, Italy, Greece, and the Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean. Mustrated by Thomas Allom and others. With Historical, Classical, and Picturesque Descriptions. By the Rev. G. N. Wright, M.A., and L. F. A. Buckingham, Esq.

Fireside Tales for the Young.' By Mrs. Ellis.

The Juvenile Scrap Book, a gage d'amour for the Young. By Miss Jane Strickland. 1849.

Poems, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, with a Steel Portrait of the Author.

The History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal, from the Earliest Times to their Final Expulsion from those Kingdoms, and their subsequent Dispersion. With complete Translations of all the Law's made respecting them, during their long establishment in the Iberian Peninsula. By E. H. Lindo,

The Church and the Education Question : a Letter to the Lord Bishop of Ripon. By Henry Parr Hamilton, M.A.

A Bishop's Charge to the Laily, in Answer to a Bishop's Charge to the Clergy ; being Two Discourses on Church Authority and Sacramental Efficacy. By Rev. Brewin Grant, B.A.

Beauchamp; or, the Error. By G. P. R. James, Esq. 3 vols.

The Bible of every Land; or, a History Critical and Philological of all the Versions of the Sacred Scriptures, in every Language and Dialect into which Translations have been made, with Specimen Portions in their own Characters, and Ethnographical Maps.

Descriptive Atlas of Astronomy. Part VI.

The Pulpit Orators of France and Switzerland, Sketches of their Character, and Specimens of their Eloquence. By Rev. Robert Turnbull.

The Church of Christ, Her Duty and Auxiliaries, with a triple Dedication to the Bishops and the Members of the Church on Earth. By a Plain Man.

Ruins of Many Lands. With Illustrations. Part I.
The People's Dictionary of the Bible. Part XXXVIII.

The Journal of Sacred Literature. No. IV. Edited by John Kitto, D.D. P.S.A.

The National Cyclopædia of Useful Knowledge. Part XXI.
The Quarterly Journal of Prophecy. No. I.

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Edited by Wm. Smith, L.L.D.

History of the French Revolutions, from 1789 to the Present Time. Part III.

A Voice from the Dumb. A Memoir of Jno. Wm. Lashford. By Wm. Sleight.

Commentary on the Psalms. By E. W. Hengstenberg. Vol. 3.
A Tour in the United States. By Archibald Prentice.

Fifty Days on Board a Slave Vessel in the Mozambique Channel, in April and May, 1843. By Rev. Pascoe Grenfell Hill, Chaplain of H.M.S. Cleopatra.

Composition and Punctuation Familiarly Explained. By Justin Brenan.

Co-operation with the Committee of Council on Education, Vindicated and Recommended. By Francis Close, A.M.

The Wesleyan Almanack for 1849. On the Antidotal Treatment of the Epidemic Cholera. By John Parkin, M.D.

The Pearl of Days; or, the Advantages of the Sabbath to the Working Classes. By a Labourer's Daughter.

The Fairy Knoll. By Mrs. Sherwood.

The Harmony of History with Prophecy. An Exposition of the Apocalypse. By Josiah Conder.

Narrative of a Campaign against the Kabaïles of Algeria ; with the Mission of M. Suchet to the Emir Abd-El-Kader. By Dawson Borrer, F.R.G.S.

Letters of William 11, and Louis xiv., and of their Ministers ; illustrative of the Domestic and Foreign Politics of England, from the Peace of Ryswick to the Accession of Philip v. of Spain. Edited by Paul Grimblot. 2 vols.

Proofs of the Authenticity of the Portrait of Prince Charles, painted at Madrid in 1623, by Velasquez.



For DECEMBER, 1848.

Art. I.-1. Criminal Tables, for England and Wales. 1805–1847.

London: Hansard. 2. Statistics of Crime. By R. W. Rawson, Esq., Hon. Secretary,

Statistical Society of London. Statistical Journal, Vol. II. pp. 317

-344. 1839. 3. Statistics of Crime in England and Wales, for the Years 1842–

1844. By F. G. P. Neison, Esq., F.L.S., F.S.S. Statistical

Journal, Vol. IX. pp. 223—275. 1846. 4. Thirteenth Report on Prisons. London: Hansard. 1848. 5. Ninth Annual Report of Births, Deaths, and Marriages. London:

Hansard. 1848.

The extent, progress, and causes of crime in this country, have occupied, as they well deserve, a large share of public attention, and have been laboriously investigated by many able men. The criminal records of the nation have also been improved in their arrangement, and made to embrace information, other than the bare enumeration of offences, in classes and in counties, so as to throw light upon those social and educational conditions, which respectively conduce to, or repress, crime. For the last few years, two principal objects have been aimed at by those who have subjected the records of crime to searching analysis: First,—To ascertain the influence of education in counteracting crime; and Second,-To determine the influence of relaxed severity of punishment, on the ratio of the more serious offences against the laws. It is not our intention to allude further to the latter subject; but in the course of our VOL. XXIV.

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analyseracting crimei punishment, It is not the course of

remarks, we shall have occasion, again and again, to refer to the conclusions which have been aimed at by several investigators, as to the former. The leading object of this class of inquirers, has been to determine what influence education has in the repression of crime. As a body, they have, for many years, advocated a national system of education, and laboriously sought to establish the proof of its necessity, by a demonstration of the co-extensiveness of crime and ignorance, in the several counties of England. The ratios of crime in particular districts are, of course, determinate and palpable things; but not so the ratios of ignorance. Various tests have been used to determine the latter. The signing of the marriage register, by marks, has been taken as a criterion of the degree of education, and although allowance has been made for disturbing elements, in cases where the marriage-mark test was at par, and the ratio of crime greatly discrepant, on the whole, considerable reliance has been placed on it; and, as we shall endeavour to show, far more reliance than can justly be so placed. Again, the degree of instruction amongst the criminals themselves, has been investigated for a similar purpose; and the conclusion drawn, that ignorance and crime are, -mathematically considered-equal quantities; -morally considered-cause and effect.

Now we are not about to enter into the question-of the connexion betwixt ignorance and crime, nor into the still more important question,—what is that education which will really counteract crime? It must suffice to say, that our judgment is clear and decided agaivst the sufficiency of mere scholastic knowledge, as distinct from education, or to speak more definitely, moral training, to counteract the natural tendency of man's nature to certain indulgencies of the baser passions, and to furnish a defence against the thousand temptations to crime, which, more especially in great cities, assail the great mass, and most vehemently, the young. And apart from this conviction, we cannot but perceive, that gravely to take the very low qualifi. cations of reading and writing, no matter in what ratios, as tests of the moral condition of particular sections of the population, is, apparently at least, to favour the idea that mere reading and writing have a moralizing influence. The ratios of crime and of ignorance, as to reading and writing, might be shown to be coincident; but that would still leave the problem unsolved, what are the causes of crime?-because the ratios of reading and writing might only be, as we believe them to be, the accompaniment, or indication, of a certain moral condition of the people, and not the cause of that condition. Nor are we insensible that a conclusion may be established from a comparison

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