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son, pleaded their Cause before Pompey, the General of the Romans, who was now at Damascus: While, at the same Time, the People declared against both; for they pretended they were not to be governed by Kings, but by the Priests of God.

42 Q. How was the Controversy decided ?

A. Pompey not giving a speedy Determination, and Ariftobulus suspecting the Event, he retired and prepared for War: Whereupon Pompey seized Ariftobulus in one of his Castles, and confined him in Prison, and laid Siege to Jerusalem ; and being received into the City by Hyrcanus's Party, besieged also the Temple and the Castle Baris, and took it in three Months Time.

43 Q How came the Romans to take fo ftrong a Place fo foon ?

A. Though the Jews had learnt from the Beginning of the Maccabean Wars, to defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath ; yet being not actually assaulted, they permitted the Romans to build up their Works and Engines on the Sabbath, without disturbing them; whereby the Tower or Castle, and with it the Temple, were taken.

44 Q. On what Day was the Temple taken?

1. On the very Day which the Jews kept as a solemn Fast, for the taking of Jerufalem and the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar: And it is remarkable, that the Priests who were at the Altar continued their Devotions, and their Rites of Worship, till they perittied by the Hands of the Enemy.

45 Q. What Blood and Plunder ensued in the Temple?

1. Twelve thousand Jew's were llain on this Occafion, partly by Pompey's Army, and partly by their own Brethren, of the Party of Hyrcanus. But when Pompey entered the Sanctuary, he forbore

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to touch any of the sacred Vefsels thereof, or
the two thousand Talents which were laid up
there for facred Uses; he ordered the Temple to
be cleansed, and Sacrifices to be offered there ac-
cording to their own Laws.
Note, Though Pompey was so moderate in his Vic-

tory, yet in a little Time after, Crassus, another
Roman General, in his March through the Coun-
try, seized and took away thofe two thousand Ta.
lents, and the golden Vessels of the Temple, and
rich Hangings of inestimable Worth. But the
Vengeance of Heaven seemed to follow him: His
Counsels in his Wars, from this Time forward,
were under perpetual Disappointment; he was llain
in a War with the Parthians: His Head was cut off,
and melted Gold was poured down his Throat, by
way of Insult over his insatiable Covetousness,

46 Q. What was the final Effect of this Victory of the Romans ?

A. Pompey demolished the Walls of Jerusalem, put to Death some of the chief Supporters of Ari. itobulus, restored Hyrcanus to the High Priesthood, and made him also Governor, but under Tribute to the Romans, and reduced his Dominions to narrower Bounds: Then he carried Ariftobulus, with bis Children Prisoners to Rome; except his eldest Son, who escaped. Note, From this Quarrel between Hyrcanus the se.

cond and Ariftobulus the Ruin of Judea and Jerusalem must be dated; the final Loss of the Li. berty of the Jews, and the Translation of the so. vereign Authority to the Romans; which had till then descended with the Priesthood, and been possessed by the Jews, though often under. some Tribute to Heathen Princes.

47 Q. Did Ariftobulus of his Sons ever attempt the Recovery of their Power and Government?

A. Being escaped from Prison, they made several vigorous Attempts, but without Succefs.

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84 Q. What Changes did Jerusalem pars under through these Times?

A.Gabinius,aRomanGeneral,marchingthrough Judea, in a little Time made a great Change in the Government, leffened the Power of Hyrcanus yet further, altered the Constitution of the Sanhedrim, or Jewish Senate; but all was restored again shortly after by Julius Cæsar: For, as Hyrcanus's Requeft, he gave him Leave to rebuild the Walls of Jerusalem, and by a Decree from the Senate of Rome, the ancient Friendship with the Jews was renewed.

49 Q. Where was Antipater all this while, who had excited Hyrcanus to recover the Government of Judea ?

A. He did many Services for Cæsar in his Wars in the neighbouring Countries; whereupon he was made his Lieutenant in Judea, under Hyrcanus, who was confirmed by Cæsar in the Government and High Priesthood. And, at the same Time, Antipater procured Phafael, his eldest Son, to be made Governor of the City of Jerusalem ; and Herod, his second Son, Governor of Judea. Note, This Herod grew up to high Power afterward;

he was called Herod the Great, and was King of Judea, when our Saviour was born. 50 Q What became of Antipater at last ?

A. He was poisoned by one Malichus, a Rival, who envied bis Greatness and Power in Judea : But his Death was revenged by his Son Herod, who was permitted by the Roman General to procure Malichus to be murdered.

51 Q. What further Troubles did the Jews meet with about this Time ?

A. Some Part or other of their Nation were continually subject to Plunderers, sometimes from the

Roman

Roman Generals, for not paying the Tribute demanded, or on some other Pretences ; sometimes by the Parthians, who affifted Antigonus, Son of the late King Ariftobulus, to recover Jerusalem and Judea, in Opposition to the united Forces of Phafael, and Herod, and Hyrcanus.

52 Q. Did Antigonus ever recover this Government ?

A. The Parthian General, Pacorus, who was at War with the Romans, did by meer Treachery get into bis Cuftody both Hyrcanus and Pharal, feized Jerusalem, and rifled it, made Antigonus Governor of Judea, and delivered up Hyrcanus and Phafael to him in Chains; but Herod made his Escape.

53Q. What became of Phalael and Hyrcanus?

Ä Phalael beat out his own Brains in Prison; Hyrcanus's Ears were cut off, that being maimed, he might be no longer High Priest, Lev. xxi. 17. and he was sent far off among the Parthians, that he might raise no Disturbances against Antigonus.

54. Q. Whither did Herod take his Flight?

X. After a little Time he went to Rome, to represent all these Transactions, and he made his Complaints with great and unexpected Success ; for Julius Cæsar being sain in the Roman Senate, Mark Anthony and Octavius (who was afterwards Augustus Cæfar) governed all Things there, and they agreed to make Herod King of Judea, with the Consent of the Senate, hoping it would be for their Intereft in the Parthian War.

SECT,

SECT. VIII. Of the Government of HEROD the Great, and his Posterity, over the Jews.

HAT did Herod do on his receiving

this new Dignity? A. He returning to Judea, first relieved his Mother, who was put in Prison by Antigonus; he made himself Master of Galilee, he destroyed some Jarge Bands of Robbers which infested the Country thereabout, sheltering themselves in Mountains, and the Caves of fteep and craggy Rocks.

2 Q. What Artifice did he use in order to attack them!

1. By reason of their dwelling in such hollow Caves in Precipices, there was no scaling them from below; and therefore to ferret them out of their Dens, he made large open Chefts, and filled them with Soldiers, which he let down into the Entrance of those Caves by Chains from Engines which he had fixed above, and thus he destroyed great Numbers of them. Note, This Country was often annoyed with the Re

mains of these Plunderers in the Reign of Herod; but he treated them without Mercy, and all the Country that sheltered them with great Rigour, till he restored Peace to Galilee. 3 Q. Where was his next March?

A. Into Judea against Antigonus ; and after fe. veral Batiles, with various Success on both sides, at last, by the Afiltance of the Roman Legions, he beficged Antigonus in Jerusalem.

40. Did not Herod himself attend this Siege?

A. Yes, but while the Preparations were making for it he went to Samaria, and there he married. Mariamne; a Lady of the Family of the Macca

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