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1. 18. little winged boys, emblematical of loves and desires, Cupid being represented as winged.

1. 19. the middle arches, i.e. middle age.
1. 22. fetched, dew, sc. from my lungs.
1. 25. quit, cease to occupy myself with.

1. 35. adamant, literally that which cannot be conquered, hence frequently used as a synonym for a hard precious stone, the diamond, which is a doublet of adamant.

P. 78, 1. 12. seats, habitations. 11. 26, 7. every island ... inhabitants, probably an allusion to Christ's words (John, xiv. 2), “In my Father's house are many mansions”; many not in number only, but in variety, and adapted to the characteristics of individual souls.

11. 33-6. the secrets ... adamant, the secrets of the final habitation of the wicked.



No. 191.

P. 79, 1. 9. schoolmen, the disputants of the logical and metaphysical schools of the middle ages in Europe, who thought all knowledge was to be obtained by pursuing the Aristotelic methods of throwing everything into syllogisms.

1. 24. such nice circumstances, circumstances of such a perplexing character, requiring such delicate discrimination.

1. 25. violate his neutrality, show partiality, inclination to one rather than the other.

1. 28. has a mind to, is inclined to.

P. 80, 11. 2, 3. stand ... competition, are in a position of rivalry in which none have any advantage over others.

1. 10. because ... Lord, because it is the number of the present year, A.D.

11. 10, 11. a tacker ... 134, “In the year 1704 a bill was brought into the House of Commons against occasional conformity; and in order to make it pass through the House of Lords, it was proposed to tack it to a money-bill. This occasioned warm debates, and at length it was put to the vote; when 134 were for tacking: but a large majority being against it, the motion was overruled, and the bill miscarried” (Ferguson).

1. 12. dissenter, one who dissents from the doctrines and form of worship of the Church of England. Such are the Methodists, Baptists, Independents, Moravians, etc., etc.


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11. 15, 6. because beast, “Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man ; his number is six hundred three-score and six,Revelations, xiii. 18. The dissenter is “a great enemy to popery” (1. 13), and by bigots “the beast” was identified with the Pope.

11. 18, 9. to find ... number, to choose a number that represents their own age.

11. 20, 1. a pretty ... ciphers, the figures of which by their position seem symmetrical, or perhaps only figures that happen to look pleasing to the eye when written down.

1. 23. thinks:.. lot, fancies he has the best chance of drawing the first prize.

11. 24, 5. the Golden Number, here golden is used in a double sense, (1) with a reference to the 'Golden Number of the Prayer Book used in calculating the date on which Easter-day falls, (2) with a reference to the sense of 'golden' as precious.

1. 28. will be exerting, cannot refrain from exerting. 1. 30. acted, actuated; frequently in this sense in former times, cp. The Spectator, No. 287,,“ Íf I shall be told that I am acted by prejudice, I am sure it is an honest prejudice ; Pope, Essay on Man, ii. 59, "Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul. So, conversely, Massinger, The Roman Actor, iv. 2. 28, used "actuate” for “act,” “Or actuate what you command to me.

11. 34, 5. Diseurs de bonne Avanture, tellers of good luck. publish their bills, set up their notices, advertisements.

11. 35, 6. turned ... advantage, made profit out of our lotteries.

P. 81, l. 1. a caster ... figures, a calculator of what figures would be lucky ; an astrological phrase.

1. 3. Post-Boy, another of the newspapers of the day.

11. 8, 9. Bible ... Crowns, the sign of the tavern. Such signs' still are used in the case of taverns, inns, and in former days were also hung over private houses, their places being now taken by numbers on the doors.

1. 11. coffee-house theorists, frequenters of coffee-houses who are ever propounding and discussing some theory or other. versation, manner of life, conduct.


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1. 12. canvassed, examined, discussed ; literally sifted through


l. 14. powers, values when combined, though Addison is perhaps using the term vaguely.

11. 15, 6. extracted ... root, of course said jestingly, there being neither square or cube root of the number.

1. 25. rally, banter, teaze ; merely another form of to 'rail.'


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1. 30. of it, we should now say

11. 31, 2. strong, vivid : that I have ... lot, sc. in his imagination ; possessed, taken possession of.

1. 34. set up an equipage, bought a carriage and horses.

P. 82, 1. 11. extravagance, wildness of imagination, though with a reference to the literal extravagance of which Gossling had been guilty.

1. 12. expensive, addicted to spending money. 11. 13, 4. live up... possessions, regulate our expenditure not by what we actually possess, but by what we expect some day to become possessed of ; spend up to the limits of our expectations, not those of our income. make a figure, indulge in a display.

1. 16. disburse, here used to mean "re-imburse.'

1. 17. place, appointment, office. reversion, property to which we may be heirs on the death of somebody.

1. 19. break, become bankrupt.

1. 23. contingent, dependent upon some event which may or may not come to pass.

1. 24. occasions romantic generosity, leads us to indulge in a generosity of an extravagant character ; from the French ' mances,' tales of a fantastic nature, we get the word 'romantic' in the sense of high-flown, extravagant. chimerical, see note, p. 23, 1. 7.

1. 26. live above ... circumstances, spend more than his income.

11. 30, 3. It should be ... possess, cp. Bacon, Essays, Of Expence, “Ordinary Expence ought to be limited by a man's estate ; and governed with such regard as it be within his compass.







P. 83, 1. 4. province, sphere, scope of action. 1. 9. numerous, crowded. 1. 15. wainscot, boarding, railing in front ; Skeat, who derives

; the word from ‘wain,' i.e. waggon, and 'shot,' says, " The original sense would appear to be wood used for a board or partition in a coach or waggon, which seems to have been selected of the best quality ; hence it came to mean boards for panel-work, and lastly, panelling for walls”...

1. 16. Trunk-maker, maker of leather-covered boxes to contain clothes, etc., especially when carried on a journey.

1. 25. the rather, all the more because ; the, ablative of the demonstrative pronoun, that.

1. 26. than ordinary, than he ordinarily is.
1. 28. uttering himself, giving expression to his feelings.

1. 29. transported, carried out of himself, excited beyond restraint.

1. 30. play-house thunderer, the man employed at the theatre to imitate the sound of thunder in a storm by rolling weights across an iron ceiling stretched above the stage.

P. 84, 11. 6, 7. a huge oaken plant, a huge stick formed of a young oak plant, or a branch from an oak tree.

1. 10. lays it upon, strikes with it : next, nearest. ll. 10, 1. stands in his way, is within reach.

11. 11, 2. composes ... posture, resumes his former posture of earnest attention.

1. 15. except against it, find fault with it, take exception to it. 1. 16. shining, bright.

1. 21. the clap, applause given by clapping the hands which the sentiment deserves.

1. 23. ratifies it, seals it with his approval. 1. 26. pay his attendance, attend, be present. 1. 29. laid about him, sc. with his oaken plant, vigorously used his stick.

1. 33. this season, the fashionable period of the year in London ; plies, sc. his vocation, exercises his function.

1. 34. Nicolini, a famous Italian actor and singer of the time.

1. 36. upon Dogget, in applauding Dogget ; “ Thomas Dogget, an excellent comic actor, who was for many years joint-manager with Wilkes and Colley Cibber" (Ferguson).

P. 85, 1. 3. obstreperous, displayed in so violent a fashion ; literally clamorous, from Lat. ob, against, near, and strepere, to make a noise, rattle, roar.

1. 7. sounding, reverberating. 1. 9. kettle-drum, a drum resembling a kettle in shape ; cp. Haml. i. 4. 11.

1. 13. director, conductor, as we should now say. 1. 15. raise my simile, use a more dignified simile.

1. 16. Virgil's... wind, Æolus ; see note, p. 14, 1. 6; the passage referred to is in Æneid, i. 85.

1. 20. saved, from being condemned by the audience. 1. 25. come into it, join in it. 1. 27. brutum fulmen, literally a bolt of lightning striking blindly, i.e. without any discrimination on whom it falls ; here, as Addison renders it, mere “empty noise.”

11. 27,8. when it has... it, when the sound of the trunk-makers' applause is not to be discovered in that of the general audience.

1. 30. to be... interest, to exert himself in favour of.

11. 33, 4. hits ... head, applauds at the right moment; to 'hit the nail on the head' being a proverb for doing a thing deftly, touching the important point in a discussion.

P. 86, 11. 2, 3. that stands ... applause, that is near enough for him to reach and to express his approval on.

1. 5. pure, wholly.

1. 9. the spring of his arm, the energetic use of his arm, that nimbleness of action which a man has while still in his full vigour.

1. 12. bamboos, as being light weapons and so suited to the airy character of operas.

1. 13. crab-tree cudgels, which should give forth a sharp sound suited to the vivacity of comedy ; cudgels made from boughs of the crab-apple and of a more springy, elastic, character than the solid “oaken plants” to be used for the solemn business of tragedy.

1. 14. to the end, with the object. 1. 16. preferred, advanced.

1. 19. Art of Poetry, the Ars Poetica, or Epistle to the Pisos, by Quintus Horatius Flaccus, the Roman poet, a metrical treatise on poetry written towards the close of his life.

1. 20. a due composition, a blending in proper proportions.



1. 26. have obtained, have prevailed, been customary.

P. 87, 1. 1. catechetical method, a system of question and answer, like a catechism.

1. 2. upon, after, in succession.
1. 4. up, we should now omit the word.
1. 3. out of ... mouth, by his own admissions.

1. 5. the passes, the paths, outlets, for escape ; literally the narrow passages between mountains.

1. 6. at discretion, on any terms that the victorious party may choose to grant.

1. 8. syllogisms, a process in formal logic, consisting of the major premiss, the minor premiss included in the major, and

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