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Richard Powell, of Foresthill, near Shotover in main benefits of conjugal society, whica are so Oxfordshire, a justice of the peace, and a gentle lace and peace, are greater reasons of divorce than man of good repute and figure in that county. But adultery or natural frigidity, especially if there be she had not cohabited with her husband above a no children, and there be mutual consent for semonth, before she was earnestly solicited by her paration. He published it at first without his relations to come and spend the remaining part name, but the style easily betrayed the author; of the summer with then in the country. If it and afterwards a second edition, much augmentwas not at her instigation that her friends made ed, with his name; and he dedicated it to the Par. this request, yet at least it was agreeable to her liament of England with the Assembly of Divines, inclination; and she obtained her husband's con- that as they were then consulting about the genesent upon a promise of returning at Michaelmas. ral reformation of the kingdom, they might also And in the mean while his studies went on very take this particular case of domestic liberty into vigorously; and his chief diversion, after the busi- their consideration. And then, as it was objected, ness of the day, was now and then in an evening that his doctrine was a novel notion, and a paradox to visit the Lady Margaret Lee, daughter of the that no body had ever asserted before, he endeaEarl of Marlborough, Lo

High Tre

surer of voured to confirm his own opinion by the authority England, and President of the Privy Council to of others, and published in 1614 the Judgment of King James I. This Lady, being a woman of Martin Bucer, &c.: and as it was still objected, excellent wit and understanding, had a particular that his doctrine could not be reconciled to Scriphonour for our author, and took great delight in his ture, he published, in 1645, his Tetrachordon, or conversation; as likewise did her husband Captain Expositions upon the four chief places in ScripHobson, a very accomplished gentleman. And ture, which treat of marriage, or nullities in marwhat a regard Milton again had for her, he has riage. At the first appearing of the Doctrine and left upon record in a sonnet to her praise, extant Discipline of Divorce the clergy raised a heavy among his other poems.

outcry against it, and daily solicited the ParliaMicheelmas was now come, but he heard no- ment to pass some censure upon it; and at last thing of his wife's return. He wrote to her, but one of them, in a sermon preached before the received no answer. He wrote again letter after Lords and Commons on a day of humiliation in letter, but received no answer to any of them. He August, 1644, roundly told them that there was a then despatched a messenger with a letter, de- book abroad, which deserved to be burned, and sining her to return; but she positively refused, that among their other sins they ought to repent, and dismissed the messenger with contempt. that they had not yet branded it with some mark Whether it was, that she had conceived any dis- of their displeasure. And Mr. Wood informs us, like to her husband's person or humour; or whe-that upon Milton's publishing his three books of ther she could not conform to his retired and phi- Divorce, the Assembly of Divines, that was then losophical manner of life, having been accustom-sitting at Westminster, took special notice of them; ed to a house of much gaiety and company; or and notwithstanding his former services in writing whether being of a family strongly attached to against the bishops, caused him to be summoned the royal cause, she could not bear her husband's before the House of Lords: but that House, wherepublican principles; or whether she was over-ther approving his doctrine, or not favouring his persuaded by her relations, who possibly might accusers, soon dismissed him. He was attacked repent of having matched the eldest daughter of too from the press as well as from the pulpit, in a the family to a man so distinguished for taking pamphlet entitled Divorce at Pleasure, and in anothe contrary party, the King's head-quarters being ther entitled an Answer to the Doctrine and Dis. in their neighbourhood at Oxford, and his Majesty cipline of Divorce, which was licensed and recomhaving now some fairer prospect of success; whe-mended by Mr. Joseph Caryl, a famous Presbyther any or all of these were the reasons of this terian divine, and author of a voluminous comextraordinary behaviour; however it was, it so mentary on the book of Job: and Milton, in his highly incensed her husband, that he thought it Colasterion or Reply, published in 1615, expostuwould be dishono urable ever to receive her again lates smartly with the licenser, as well as handles efter such a repulse, and he determined to repu- very roughly the nameless author. And these diale her as she had in effect repudiated him, and provocations, I suppose, contributed not a little to W consider her no longer as his wife. And to make him such an enemy to the Presbyterians, tu fortify this his resolution, and at the same time to whom he had before distinguished himself a justify it to the world, he wrote the Doctrine and friend. He composed likewise two of his sonnets Discipline of Divorce, wherein he endeavours to on the reception his book of Divorce met with, but prove, that indisposition, unfitness, or contrariety the latter is much the better of the two. To :his of tunul, proceeding from any unchangeable cause account it may be added from Antony Wood, that a nature, hindering and ever likely to hinder the after the King's restoration, when the subject of


divorce was ur.der consideration with the Lords convinced or not at his arguments, he was certainupon the account of John Lord Ross, or Roos, his ly convinced himself that he was in the right; and separation from his wife Anne Pierpoint, eldest as a proof of it he determined to marry again, and daughter to Henry, Marquis of Dorchester, he made his addresses to a young lady of great wit was consulted by an eminent member of that and beauty, one of the daughters of Dr. Davis. House, and about the same time by a chief officer But intelligence of this coming to his wife, and of state, as being the prime person who was know- the then declining state of the King's cause, and ing in that affair.

consequently of the circumstances of Justice PowBut while he was engaged in this controversy ell's family, caused them to set all engines on work of divorce, he was not so totally engaged in it, but to restore the wife again to her husband. And he attended to other things; and about this time his friends too for different reasons seem to havo published his Letter of Education to Mr. Samuel been as desirous of bringing about a reconciliation Hartlib, who wrote some things about husbandry, as her's, and this method of effecting it was conand was a man of considerable learning, as ap- certed between them. He had a relation, one pears from the letters which passed between him Blackborouglı, living in the lano of St. Martin's and the famous Mr. Mede, and from Sir William Le Grand, whom he often visited; and one day Petty's and Pell the mathematician's writing to when he was visiting there, it was contrived that him, the former his Treatise for the Advancement the wife should be ready in another room; and as of some particular parts of Learning, and the lat- he was thinking of nothing less, he was surprised ter his Idea of the Mathematics, as well as from to see her, whom he had expected never to have this letter of our author. This letter of our au- seen any more, falling down upon her knees at his thor has usually been printed at the end of his feet, and imploring his forgiveness with tears. At poems, and is as I may say the theory of his own first he showed some signs of aversion, but he conpractice; and by the rules which he has laid down tinued not long inexorable; his wifo's intréaties, for education, we see in some measure the method and the intercession of friends on both sides, soon thut he pursued in educating his own pupils. wrought upon his generous nature, and procured And in 1644, he published his Areopagitica, or a happy reconciliation with arı act of oblivion of Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to all that was past. But he did not take his wife the Parliament of England. It was written at home immediately; it was agreed that she should the desire of several learned men, and is perhaps remain at a friend's, till the house that he had the best vindication that has been published at newly taken was fitted for their reception; for any time or in any language, of that liberty which some other gentlemen of his acquaintance, having is the basis and support of all other liberties, the observed the great success of his method of educaliberty of the press: but alas, it had not the de- tion, had recommended their sons to his care; and sired effect; for the Presbyterians were as fond of his house in Aldersgate-street not being large exercising the licensing power, when they got it enough, he had taken a larger in Barbican: and into their own hands, as they had been clamor- till this could be got ready, the place pitched upon ous before in inveighing against it, while it was in for his wife's abode was the widow Webber's house the hands of the prelates. And Mr. Toland is in St. Clement's Churchyard, whose second daughmistaken in saying, " that such was the effect of ter had been married to the other brother many this piece, that the following year Mabol, a li- years before. The part that Milton acted in this censer, offered reasons against licensing; and at whole affair, showed plainly that he had a spirit his own request was discharged that office.” For capable of the strongest resentment, but yet more neither was the licenser's name Mabol, but Gil- inclinable to pity and forgiveness: and neither in bert Mabbot; neither was he discharged from his this was any injury done to the other lady, whom office till May, 1649, about five years afterwards, he was courting, for she is said to have been although probably he might be swayed by Milton's ways averse from the motion, not daring I suppose arguments, as every ingenuous person must, who to venture in marriage with a man who was known peruses and considers them. And in 1645, was to have a wife still living. He might not think published a collection of his poems, Latin and himself too at liberty as before, while his wife conEnglish, the principal of which are on the Morn- tinued obstinate; for his most plausible argument ing of Christ's Nativity, L'Allegro, Il Penseroso, for divorce proceeds upon a supposition, that the Lvcidas, the Mask, &c. &c.: and if he had left thing be done with mutual consent. ao ocher monuments of his poetical genius behind After his wife's return his family was increased him, these would have been sufficient to have ren- not only with children, but also with his wife's redered liis name immortal.

lations, her father and mother, her brothers and But without doubt his Doctrine of Divorce and sisters, coming to live with him in the general dis the maintenance of it principally engaged his tress and ruin of the royal party: and he was sa sboughts at this period; and whether others were far from resenting their former ill treatiner of him

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shat he generously protected them, and entertained charged the business of his office a very little time, them very hospitab!y, till their affairs were accom- before he was called to a work of another kind mmdated through his interest with the prevailing For soon after the king's death was published a faction. And then upon their removal, and the book under his name, entitled E.xcv B20 INX, or the death of his own father, his house looked again Royal Image: and this book, like Cæsar's last like the house of the Muses; but his studies had will, making a deeper impression, and exciting like to have been interrupted by a call to public greater commiseration in the minds of the people, business; for about this time there was a design than the king himself did while alive, Milton was of constituting him Adjutant General in the army ordered to prepare an answer to it, which was under Sir William Waller; but the new modelling published by authority, and entitled E.xcvOxazolus, of the army soon following, that design was laid or the Image-breaker, the famous surname of many aside. And not long after, his great house in Bar- Greek emperors, who, in their zeal against ilulabican being now too large for his family, he quit. try, broke all superstitious images to pieces This ted it for a smaller in High Holborn, which open- piece was translated into French; and two replies ed beckward into Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he to it were published, one in 1651, and the other in prosecuted his studies till the King's trial and 1692, upon the reprinting of Milton's book at death, when the Presbyterians declaiming tragi- Amsterdam. In this controversy a heavy charge cally against the King's execution, and asserting has been alleged against Milton. Some editions that his person was sacred and inviolable, provoked of the king's book have certain prayers alded at him to write the Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, the end, and among them a prayer in time of capproving that it is lawful to call a tyrant to account tivity, which is taken from that of Pamela i Sir and to depose and put him to death, and that they Philip Sidney's Arcadia : and it is said, that this who of late so much blame deposing are the men prayer was added by the contrivance and artifice who did it themselves: and he published it at the of Milton, who, together with Bradshaw, prevailbeginning of the year 1619, to satisfy and com- ed upon the printer to insert it, that from thence puse the minds of the people. Not long after this he might take occasion to bring a scandal upon he wrote his Observations on the Articles of Peace the king, and to blast the reputation of his book, between the Earl of Ormond and the Irish Rebels.' as he has attempted to do in the first section of his And in these and all his writings, whatever others answer.

This fact is related chiefly upon the auof different parties may think, he thought himself 'thority of Henry Hills the printer, who had frear advocate for true liberty, for ecclesiastical liber- quently affirmed it to Dr. Gill and Dr. Bernard, ty in his treatises against the bishops, for domestic his physicians, as they themselves have testified. liherty in his books of divorce, and for civil liberty But Hills was not himself the printer, who was in his writings against the king in defence of the dealt with in this manner, and consequently he parliament and people of England.

could have the story only from hearsay: and After this he retired again to his private studies; though he was Croinwell's printer, yet afterwards and thinking that he had leisure enough for such he turned papist in the reign of James II, in order a work, he applied bimself to the writing of a llis. to be that King's printer, and it was at that time tory of England, which he intended to deduce that he used to relate this story; so that I think, little from the earliest accounts down to his own times: credit is due to his testimony. And indeed I

I can and he had finished four books of it, when neither not but hope, and believe, that Milton had a soul Courting nor expecting any such preferment, he above being guilty of so mean an action, to serve was invited by the Council of State to be their so mean a purpose; and there is as little reason for Latin Secretary for foreign affairs. And he served fixing it upon him, as he had to traduce the king in the same capacity under Oliver, and Richard, for profaning the duty of prayer " with the pollutand the Rump, till the Restoration; and without ed trash of Romances.” For there are not many doubt a better Latin pen could not have been found finer prayers in the best books of devotion; and in the kingdom. For the Republic and Cromwell the king might as lawfully borrow and apply it to koorted to pay that tribute to any foreign Prince, his owo occasions, as the Apostle night make which is usually paid to the French king, of ma- quotations froin Ileathen poems and plays: and it naging their affairs in his language; they thought became Milton the least of all men to bring such is an indignity and meanness to which this or any an accusation against the king, as he was linsell free nation vught not to submit; and took a noble particularly fond of reading romanera, and nas rewolution neither to write any letters w any foreign made use of them in some of the best and latest Flile's, nor to receive any answers from them, but of his writings. in the Lalin wngue, which was common to them But his most celebrated work in proses his !).

fence of the people of England against Sulmastas, But it was not only in foreign dispatches that Defensio pro populo Anglicano contia (luudii QuerTunivul made use of his pen. He had dis- Anonymi, alias Salmasia, Defe «sionen. Pruun


Salmasius, by virth a Frenchman, succeeded the sador from the Duke of Parma to the French king famous Scaliger as honorary Professor of the uni- wrote a fine encomium of his Defence, and sent versity of Leyden, and had gained great reputa-him his picture, as appears from Milton's Letter tion by his Plinian Exercitations on Solinus, and to Philaras, dated at London, in June, 1652. And by his critical remarks on several Latin and Greek what gave him the greatest satisfaction, the work authors, and was generally esteemed one of the was highly applauded by those, who had desired greatest and most consummate scholars of that him to undertake it; and they made him a present age: and is commended by Milton himself in his of a thousand pounds, which, in those days of fru Reason of Church Government, and called the gality, was reckoned no inconsiderable reward for learned Salmasius. And besides his great learn- his performance. But the case was far otherwise ing he had extraordinary talents in railing. “This with Salmasius. He was then in high favour at prince of scholars, as somebody said of him, seemed the court of Christina, Queen of Sweden, who to have erected his throne upon a heap of stones, had invited thither several of the most learned men that he might have them at hand to throw at every of all countries: but when Milton's Defence of one's head who passed by.” He was, therefore, the People of England was brought to Sweden, courted by Charles II, as the most able man to and was read to the Queen at her own desire, he write a defence of the late king, his father, and to sunk immediately in her esteem, and the opinior. traduce his adversaries, and a hundred Jacobuses of every body; and though he talked big at first, were given him for that purpose, and the book was and vowed the destruction of Milton and the Par. published in 1649, with this title, Defensio Regia liament, yet finding that he was looked upon with pro Carolo I. ad Carolum II. No sooner did this coldness, he thought proper to take leave of the book appear in England, but the Council of State court; and he who came in honour, was dismissed unanimously appointed Milton, who was then pre- with contempt. He died some time afterwards at sent, to answer it: and he performed the task with Spa, in Germany, and, it is said, more of a broken amazing spirit and vigour, though his health at heart than of any distemper, leaving a posthumous that time was such, that he could hardly endure reply to Milton, which was not published till after the fatigue of writing, and being weak in body he the Restoration, and was dedicated to Charles II. was forced to write by piece-meal, and to break off by his son Claudius; but it has done no great hoalmost every hour, as he says himself in the intro-nour to his memory, abounding with abuse much duction. This necessarily occasioned some delay, more than argument. so that his Defence of the people of England was Isaac Vossius was at Stockholm, when Milton's not made public till the beginning of the year book was brought thither, and in some of his let1651: and they who can not read the original, may ters to Nicholas Heinsius, published by Professor yet have the pleasure of reading the English trans- Burman in the third tome of his Sylloge Epistolalation by Mr. Washington, of the Temple, which rum, he says, that he had the only copy of Milton's was printed in 1692, and is inserted among Mil- book, that the Queen borrowed it of him, and was ton's works in the two last editions. It was some very much pleased with it, and commended Mil. what extraordinary, that Salmasius, a pensioner ton's wit and manner of writing in the presence to a republic, should pretend to write a defence of (of several persons, and that Salmasius was very monarchy, but the States showed their disappro- angry, and very busy in preparing his answer, bation by publicly condemning his book, and or- wherein he abused Milton as if he had been one dering it to be suppressed. And, on the other of the vilest catamites in Italy, and also criticised hand, Milton's book was burnt at Paris, and at his Latin poems. Heinsius writes again to VosToulouse, by the hands of the common hangman; sius from Holland, that he wondered that only one but this served only to procure it the more readers: copy of Milton's book was brought to Stockholm, it was read and talked of every where, and even when three were sent thither, one to the Queen, they who were of different principles, yet could another to Vossius which he had received, and the not but acknowledge that he was a good defender third to Salmasius; that the book was in every of a bad cause; and Salmasius's book underwent body's hands, and there had been four editions in only one impression, while this of Milton passed a few months besides the English cne; that a through several editions. On the first appearance Dutch translation was handed about, and a French of it, he was visited or invited by all the foreign one was expected. And afterwards he writes from aninisters at London, not excepting even those of Venice, that Holstenius had lent him Milton's crowned heads; and was particularly honoured Latin poems; that they were nothing, compared and esteemed by Adrian Paaw, ambasssador from with the elegance of his Apology; that he had the States of Holland. He was likewise highly offended frequently against prosody, and here was couplimented by letters from the most learned and a great opening for Salmasius' criticism: but as to 'ngenious persons in France and Germany; and Milton's having been a catamite in Italy, he says, Leonard Philaras, an Athenian born, and ambas- that it was a mere calumny; or the contrary, bo

was disliked by the Italians, for the severity of his and there his third child, a son was born, anu manners, and for the freedom of his discourses named John, who through the ill usage or bad against ropery. And in others of his letters to constitution of the nurse died an infant. His nwy Vosssius and to J. Fr. Gronovius from Holland, health was too greatly impaired; and for the beHeinsius mentions how angry Salmasius was with nefit of the air, he removed from his apartment in him for commending Milton's book, and says that Scotland-Yard to a house in Petty-France WestGraswinkelius had written something against Mil- minster, which was next door to Lord Scudalon, which was to have been printed by Elzever, more's, and opened into St. James' Park; and but it was suppressed by public authority. there he remained eight years, from the year 1652

The first reply that appeared was published in till within a few weeks of the King's restoration.
1651, and entitled an Apology for the king and In this house he had not been settled long, before
people, &c. Apologia pro rege et populo Angli- his first wife died in child-bed; and his condition
cano contra Johannis Polipragmatici (alias Mil- requiring some care and attendance, he was easily
toni Angli) Defensionem destructivam regis et induced after a proper interval of time to marry a
populi Anglicani. It is not known, who was the second, who was Catharine, daughter of Captain
author of this piece. Some attribute it to one Ja-Woodcock, of Hackney: and she too died in child-
nus, a lawyer of Gray's Inn, and others to Dr. bed within a year after their marriage, and her
John Bramhall, who was then Bishop of Derry, child, who was a daughter, died in a month after
and was made Primate of Ireland after the restora- her; and her husband has done honour to her
tion: but it is utterly improbable, that so mean a memory in one of his sonnets.
performance, written in such barbarous Latin, and Two or three years before this second marriage
so full of solecisms, should come from the hands he had totally lost his sight. And his enemies
of a prelate of such distinguished abilities and triumphed in his blindness, and imputed it as a
learning. But whoever was the author of it, Mil-judgment upon him for writing against the King:
lon did not think it worth his while to animadvert but his sighit had been decaying several years beo
upon it himself, but employed the younger of his fore, through his close application to study, and
nephews to answer it; but he supervised and cor- the frequent head-aches to which he had been
rected the answer so much before it went to the subject from his childhood, and his continual tam-
press, that it may in a manner be called his own. pering with physic, which perhaps was more per-
It caine forth in 1652 under this title, Johannis nicious than all the rest: and he himself has in-
Plužppi Angli Responsio ad Apologiam anony- formed us in his second Defence, that when he
rui cujusdam tenebrionis pro rege et populo An- was appointed by authority to write his Defence
glicano infantissimam; and it is printed with of the people against Salmasius, he had almost
Milton's works; and throughout the whole Mr. lost the sight of one eye, and the physicians de-
Philips treats Bishop Bramhall with great severity clared to him, that if he undertook that work, he
as the author of the Apology, thinking probably would also lose the sight of the other: but he was
that so considerable an adversary would make the nothing discouraged, and chose rather to lose beth
Szuwer more considerable.


than desert what he thought his duty. It Sir Robert Filmer likewise published some ani- was the sight of his left eye that he lost first: and madversions upon Milton's Defence of the people, at the desire of his friend Leonard Philaras, the in a piece printed in 1652, and entitled Observa- Duke of Parma's minister at Paris, he sent him a tions concerning the original of government, upon particular account of his case, and of the manner Mr. Hobbes' Leviathan, Mr. Milton against Sal- of his growing blind, for him to consult Thevenot masius, and Hugo Grotius de Jure belli: but I do the physician, who was reckoned famous in cases Dit find that Milton or any of his friends took any of the eyes. The letter is the fifteenth of his famiintice of it; but Milton's quarrel was afterwards liar epistles, is dated September 28th, 1654; and sufficiently avenged by Mr. Locke, who wrote is thus translated by Mr. Richardson. kunst Sir Robert Filmer's principles of governPirot, more I suppose in condescension to the pre "Since you advise me not to fling away all judices of the age, than out of any regard to the hopes of recovering my sight, for that you have a weighit or importance of Filmer's arguments.

friend at Paris, Thevenot the physician, particuIt is probable that Milton, when he was first larly famous for the eyes, whom you offer to conmaile Latin Secretary, removed from his house in sult in my behalf if you receive from me an account Hizb Holborn to be nearer Whitehall: and for by which he may judge of the causes and sympkame time he had lodgings at one Thomson's, next toms of my disease, I will do what you advice mno door to the Bull-head tavern at Charing Cross, to, that I may not seem to refuse any assistar.ca Janing into Spring-garden, till the apartment, that is offered, perhaps from God. printed for him in Scotland-Yard, could be got "I think it is about ten years, more or less since teady for his reception. He then removed thither; I began to perceive that my eye-sight grew weak

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