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The problem of the genesis of species stated.—Nature of its probable
solution.— Importance of the question.—Position here defended. —
Statement of the DARWINIAN Theory—Its applicability to details of
geographical distribution ; to rudimentary structures ; to homology ; to
mimicry, &c.—Consequent utility of the theory—Its wide acceptance.
– Reasons for this other than, and in addition to, its scientific value-
Its simplicity-Its bearing on religious questions.—Odium theologicum
and odium antitheologicum.— The antagonism supposed by many to
exist between it and theology neither necessary nor universal. –
Christian authorities in favour of evolution.—Mr. Darwin's “ Animals
and Plants under Domestication.”_Difficulties of the Darwinian
THE INCOMPETENCY OF “NATURAL SELECTION" TO ACCOUNT FOR
THE INCIPIENT STAGES OF USEFUL STRUCTURES.
Mr. Darwin supposes that Natural Selection acts by slight variations---
These must be useful at once.—Difficulties as to the giraffe ; as to
mimicry; as to the heads of flat-fishes; as to the origin and constancy
of the vertebrate limbs ; as to whalebone ; as to the young kangaroo ; as
to sea-urchins ; as to certain processes of metamorphosis; as to the
mammary gland; as to certain ape characters; as to the rattlesnake
and cobra ; as to the process of formation of the eye and ear; as to
the fully developed condition of the eye and ear; as to the voice ; as
to shell-fish ; as to orchids ; as to ants. — The necessity for the simulta-
neous modification of many individuals. -Summary and conclusion.
THE CO-EXISTENCE OF CLOSELY SIMILAR STRUCTURES OF
Chances against concordant variations-Examples of discordant ones.-
Concordant variations not unlikely on a non-Darwinian evolutionary
hypothesis. —Placental and implacental mammals.—Birds and reptiles.
· Independent origins of similar sense organs. — The ear. — The eye. -
Other coincidences.--Causes besides "Natural Selection” produce con-
cordant variations, in certain geographical regions. --Causes besides
“Natural Selection” produce concordant variations, in certain zoological
and botanical groups. — There are homologous parts not genetically
related. --Harmony in respect of the organic and inorganic worlds.-
Summary and conclusion .
MINUTE AND GRIDUAL MODIFICATIONS.
There are difficulties as to minute modifications, even if not fortuitous. -
Examples of sudden and considerable modifications of different kinds.-
Professor Owen's view.- Mr. Wallace.- Professor Huxley.-Objections
to sudden changes. - Labyrinthodont.-Potto.-Cetacea.—As to origin
of bird's wing. — Tendrils of climbing plants. --Animals once supposed
to be connecting links.- Early specialization of structure. — Macrau-
chenia. – Glyptodon.-Sabre-toothed tiger.—Conclusion Page 109
AS TO SPECIFIC STABILITY.
What is meant by the phrase "specific stability;" such stability to be
expected a priori, or else considerable changes at once.--Increasing
difficulty of intensifying race characters ; alleged causes of this pheno-
menon ; probably an internal cause co-operates. -A certain definiteness
in variations.—Mr. Darwin admits the principle of specific stability in
certain cases of unequal variability. The goose. — The peacock. - The
guinea-fowl.—Exceptional causes of variation under domestication. —
Alleged tendency to reversion.—Instances.-Sterility of hybrids. -
Prepotency of pollen of same species, but of different race.-Mortality
in young gallinaceous hybrids. —A bar to intermixture exists some-
where. ---Guinea-pigs.---Summary and conclusion
SPECIES AND TIME.
Two relations of species to time.- No evidence of past existence of minutely
graduated intermediate forms when such might be expected a priori. -
Bats, Pterodactyles, Dinosauria, and Birds.—Ichthyosauria, Chelonia,
and Anoura.—Horse ancestry.—Labyrinthodonts and Trilobites.—Two
subdivisions of the second relation of species to time.—Sir Wm. Thom-
son's views.—Probable period required for ultimate specific evolution
from primitive ancestral forms.—Geometrical increase of time required
for rapidly multiplying increase of structural differences.- Proboscis
monkey.-Time required for deposition of strata necessary for Dar-
winian evolution.--High organization of Silurian forms of life. —
Absence of fossils in oldest rocks.—Summary and conclusion.
SPECIES AND SPACE.
The geographical distribution of animals presents difficulties. These not
insurmountable in themselves; harmonize with other difficulties.- Fresh-water fishes.-Fornis common to Africa and India ; to Africa and
South America ; to China and Australia ; to North America and China ;
to New Zealand and South America; to South America and Tas-
mania ; to South America and Australia.- Pleurodont lizards.- Insec-
tivorous mammals. —Similarity of European and South American frogs.
- Analogy between European salmon and fishes of New Zealand, &c. -
An ancient Antarctic continent probable.—Other modes of accounting
for facts of distribution.—Independent origin of closely similar forms.
Animals made up of parts mutually related in various ways.—What homo-
logy is-Its various kinds. -Serial homology.-Lateral homology.-
Vertical homology.--Mr. Herbert Spencer's explanations. -An internal
power necessary, as shown by facts of comparative anatomy.–Of ter-
atology.-M. St. Hilaire.- Professor Burt Wilder. - Foot-wings.-Facts
of pathology.—Mr. James Paget.—Dr. William Budd.— The existence
of such an internal power of individual development diminishes the
improbability of an analogous law of specific origination Page 175
EVOLUTION AND ETHICS.
The origin of morals an inquiry not foreign to the subject of this book.-
Modern utilitarian view as to that origin. – Mr. Darwin's speculation
as to the origin of the abhorrence of incest. —Cause assigned by him
insufficient. -Care of the aged and infirm opposed by “Natural Selec-
tion ;” also self-abnegation and asceticism.--Distinctness of the ideas
right” and “useful.”—Mr. John Stuart Mill.-Insufficiency of
“Natural Selection” to account for the origin of the distinction
between duty and profit. —Distinction of moral acts into “material”
and “formal.”—No ground for believing that formal morality exists in
brutes.—Evidence that it does exist in savages. Facility with which
savages may be misunderstood.—Objections as to diversity of customs.-
Mr. Hutton's review of Mr. Herbert Spencer. — Anticipatory character of
morals. —Sir John Lubbock's explanation.-Summary and conclusion.
PA NG EN ESI S.
A “provisional hypothesis” supplementing “ Natural Selection.”—State.
ment of the hypothesis. – Difficulty as to multitude of gemmules ; as to
certain modes of reproduction; as to formations without the requisite
gemmules. —Mr. Lewes and Professor Delpino. -Difficulty as to de-
velopmental force of geminules ; as to their spontaneous fission.-
Pangenesis and Vitalism. —Paradoxical reality.—Pangenesis scarcely
superior to anterior hypotheses.—Buffon.—Owen.—Herbert Spencer.
-Gemmules as mysterious as “physiological units.”—Conclusion.
Review of the statements and arguments of preceding chapters.--Cumu-
lative argument against predominant action of “Natural Selection.”
Whether anything positive as well as negative can be enunciated. —
Constancy of laws of nature does not necessarily imply constancy of
specific evolution.— Possible exceptional stability of existing epoch.
Probability that an internal cause of change exists.-Innate powers
somewhere must be accepted.-Symbolism of molecular action under
vibrating impulses. —Professor Owen's statement.—Statement of the
author's view — It avoids the difficulties which oppose “Natural
Selection”—It harmonizes apparently conflicting conceptions. -Sum-
mary and conclusion .