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SIR HENRY HOLLAND, BART., M.D.,

F.R.S., D.C.L., ETC. ETO,

MY DEAR SIR HENRY,

In giving myself the pleasure to dedicate, as I now do, this work to you, it is not my intention to identify you with

any views of my own advocated in it.

I simply avail myself of an opportunity of paying a tribute of esteem and regard to my earliest scientific friend—the first to encourage me in pursuing the study of nature.

I remain,

MY DEAR SIR HENRY,

Ever faithfully yours,

ST. GEORGE MIVART.

7, NORTH BANK, REGENT's Park,

December 8, 1870.

CHAPTER XII.

THEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION.

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Prejudices on the subject.—“Creation ” sometimes denied from prejudice.

— The unknowable.---Mr. Herbert Spencer's objections to theism ; to creation.—Meanings of term “creation.”—Confusion from not distinguishing between “primary' and derivative creation.-Mr. Darwin's objections. — Bearing of Christianity on evolution.-Supposed opposition, the result of a misconception.—Theological authority not opposed to evolution.-St. Augustin.-St. Thomas Aquinas.-C'ertain consequences of want of flexibility of mind.—Reason and imagination.

- The first cause and demonstration.—Parallel between Christianity and natural theology. – What evolution of species is. —- Professor Agassiz.—Innate powers must be recognized. — Bearing of evolution on religious belief.—Professor Huxley.-Professor Owen.—Mr. Wallace.Mr. Darwin.-A priori conception of Divine action.--Origin of man. Absolute creation and dogma. - Mr. Wallace's view.--A supernatural origin for man's body not necessary.—Two orders of being in man.Two modes of origin.--Harmony of the physical, hyperphysical, and supernatural. Reconciliation of science and religion as regards evolution.- Conclusion .

Page 279

4

INDEX

Page 335

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Leaf Butterfly in flight and repose (from Mr. A. Wallace's Malay
Archipelago")

35 Walking-Leaf Insect

40 Pleuronectidæ, with the peculiarly placed eye in different positions

(from Dr. Traquair's paper in Linn. Soc. Trans., 1865) 42, 187 Mouth of Whale (from Professor Owen's Odontography)

45 Four plates of Baleen seen obliquely from within (from Professor Owen’s Odontography)

46 Dugong

47, 197 Echinus, or Sea Urchin ...

49, 188 Pedicellariæ of Echinus very much enlarged ...

50 Rattlesnake

56 Cobra (from Sir Andrew Smith's Southern Africa”)

57 Wingbones of Pterodactyle, Bat, and Bird (from Mr. Andrew

Murray's Geographical Distribution of Mammals ") 72, 147, 177 Skeleton of Flying-Dragon

73, 178 Centipede (from a specimen in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons)

75, 179 Teeth of Urotrichus and Perameles

77 The Archeopteryx (from Professor Oucn's Anatomy of Vertebrata")

82, 149

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PAGE Cuttle-Fish

84, 160 Skeleton of Ichthyosaurus

88, 120, 149, 199 Cytheridea Torosa (froin Messrs. Brady and Robertson's paper in Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., 1870)

89 A Polyzoon, with Bird's-head processes

90 Bird's-head processes greatly enlarged

91 Antechinus Minutissimus and Mus Delicatulus (from Mr. Andrew Murray's Geographical Distribution of Mammals")

93 Outlines of Wings of Butterflies of Celebes compared with those of allied species elsewhere

97 Great Shielded Grasshopper

100 The Six-shafted Bird of Paradise

101 The Long-tailed Bird of Paradise

102 The Red Bird of Paradise

103 Horned Flies

104 The Magnificent Bird of Paradise

104 (The above seven figures are from Mr. A. Wallace's Malay

Archipelago.). Much enlarged horizontal Section of the Tooth of a Labyrinthodon (from Professor Owen's Odontography)

118 Hand of the Potto (from life)

ii., 119 Skeleton of the Plesiosaurus

120, 150, 201 The Aye-Aye (from Trans. of Zool. Soc.)

122 Dentition of Sabre-toothed Tiger (from Professor Owen's Odontography")

125 Trilobite

. 152, 193 Inner side of Lower Jaw of Pleurodont Lizard (from Professor Owen's Odontography)

167 Solenoden (from Berlin Trans.)

168 Tarsal Bones of Galago and Cheirogaleus (from Proc. Zool. Soc.) 179 Squilla

182 Parts of the Skeleton of the Lobster

180

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