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able Adam Smith advantage afford agriculture Australia average bank Bank of England bankers bullion capital capitalists cause cent circulation classes commodities corn Corn Laws cultivation demand desire diminished discoveries division of labour Economists effect employed employers employment enable engaged England English equal exchange expense explain exported fact fall farmers favourable formerly France give gold coin Government greater hectolitres higher improvement induce industry kilogramme land landlords large number latter less labour maintained manufactures means metal mines necessary notes object obtain paid payment persons Political Economy possess present procure produce proportion purchase quantity of food quantity of labour question raise rate of profit rate of wages raw produce receive reduced rent Ricardo rise seigniorage silver coin society sufficient supply supposed theory things trade value of gold value of money wants wealth wheat whole workmen yield
Сторінка 96 - Equal quantities of labour, at all times and places, may be said to be of equal value to the labourer. In his ordinary state of health, strength and spirits; in the ordinary degree of his skill and dexterity, he must always lay down the same portion of his ease, his liberty, and his happiness.
Сторінка 104 - The word VALUE, it is to be observed, has two different meanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particular object, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods which the possession of that object conveys. The one may be called ' value in use;' the other, * value in exchange.
Сторінка 96 - Labour alone therefore, never varying in its own value, is alone the ultimate and real standard by which the value of all commodities can at all times and places be estimated and compared.
Сторінка 520 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Сторінка 143 - ... first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves ; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expence of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Сторінка 89 - Happily, there is nothing in the laws of Value which remains for the present or any future writer to clear up; the theory of the subject is complete...
Сторінка 91 - The real price of everything, what everything really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it. What everything is really worth to the man who has acquired it, and who wants to dispose of it or exchange it for something else, is the toil and trouble which it can save to himself, and which it can impose upon other people.
Сторінка 499 - As defence, however, is of much more importance than opulence, the act of navigation is, perhaps, the wisest of all the commercial regulations of England.
Сторінка 124 - A competition will immediately begin among them, and the market price will rise more or less above the natural price, according as either the greatness of the deficiency, or the wealth and wanton luxury of the competitors, happen to animate more or less the eagerness of the competition.