Lectures on history, and general policy; to which is prefixed, An essay on a course of liberal education for civil and active life, and an additional lecture on the constitution of the United States. 1st Amer. ed, Том 2
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able acquired advantage ages alſo ancient appear arms army arts attended better body called caſe cauſe circumſtances civil commerce common conduct conſequence conſidered conſtitution debt depend effect empire employed England equal Europe expense favour feudal fighting firſt foreign France gain give given greater greateſt hands hiſtory human importance improvements increaſe induſtry influence inhabitants intereſt Italy kind king labour land laws LECTURE leſs liberty live lords mankind manner manufactures means ment method moſt muſt nations nature never object obliged observed particular perſons populous preſent princes produce proper proportion raised reaſon received religion reſpect riches Roman ſame ſays ſeveral ſhould ſociety soldiers ſome ſtate ſubject ſuch taxes themſelves theſe things thoſe tion trade uſe wars wealth whereas whole
Сторінка 247 - No regulation of commerce can increase the quantity of industry in any society beyond what its capital can maintain. It can only divert a part of it into a direction into which it might not otherwise have gone...
Сторінка 348 - The accounts of all travellers, inconsistent in many other respects, agree in the low wages of labour, and in the difficulty which a labourer finds in bringing up a family in China. If by digging the ground a whole day he can get what will purchase a small quantity of rice in the evening, he is contented. The condition of artificers is, if possible, still worse.
Сторінка 348 - The subsistence which they find there is so scanty, that they are eager to fish up the nastiest garbage thrown overboard from any European ship. Any carrion, the carcase of a dead dog or cat, for example, though half putrid and stinking, is as welcome to them as the most wholesome food to the people of other countries.
Сторінка 349 - Workmen, on the contrary, when they are liberally paid by the piece, are very apt to overwork themselves, and to ruin their health and constitution in a few years. A carpenter in London, and in some other places, is not supposed to last in his utmost vigour above eight years.
Сторінка 215 - It appears, accordingly, from the experience of all ages and nations, I believe, that the work done by freemen comes cheaper in the end than that performed by slaves.
Сторінка 410 - The greatest abuses which arise in France, the most perfect model of pure monarchy, proceed not from the number or weight of the taxes, beyond what are to be met with in free countries ; but from the expensive, unequal, arbitrary, and intricate method of levying them, by which the industry of the poor, especially of the peasants and farmers, is in a great measure discouraged, and agriculture rendered a beggarly and slavish employment. But to whose advantage do these abuses tend ? If to that of the...
Сторінка 348 - ... the rivers and canals. The subsistence which they find there is so scanty, that they are eager to fish up the nastiest garbage thrown overboard from any European ship.
Сторінка 239 - ... the industry of the towns, he was willing even to depress and keep down that of the country. In order to render provisions cheap to the inhabitants of the towns, and thereby to encourage manufactures and...
Сторінка 348 - ... food to the people of other countries. Marriage is encouraged in China, not by the profitableness of children, but by the liberty of destroying them. In all great towns several are every night exposed in the street, or drowned like puppies in the water. The performance of this horrid office is even said to be the avowed business by which some people earn their subsistence.
Сторінка 399 - Moderate taxes operate like a constant spur and obligation to labour, and thereby greatly contribute to the flourishing state of a people, particularly if they be laid on gradually. Then, the only consequence of taxes is, that the poor increase their industry, perform more work, and live as well as before, without demanding more for their labour. This is agreeable to what is constantly observed, that in years of scarcity, if it be not extreme, the poor labour more, and live better, than in years...