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EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. The figures are obtained by an improved photographic process. The veins are numbered according to the system RedtenbacherComstock: iii = radius, iv=media, v=cubitus. Vein “ix' of primaries, the principal character of the Papilionides, is numbered in red. The figures are of the natural size.
Fig. 7. Teinopalpus imperialis 0.-Type of genus and family. The neuration is specialized, as compared with the Papilionidæ. The cubital cross vein is represented only by a residual mark. An intermediate type, with the breaking up of media on primaries taking the Parnassian direction, but an isolated offshoot from the Papilionid stem.
Fig. 8. Leptocircus curius.-Type of genus. A specialized form of Papilionidæ with the hind wing inferiorly enormously developed and the cell reduced.
Fig. 9. Pathysa antiphates.-Type of genus. On hind wing the discocellular cross-vein is downwardly bent between ii and iii. Iphiclides agrees with this type, except that the first radial branch is free. In Pathysa the first radial branch fuses with subcosta. Eimer, in his work, does not regard the neurational features of Pathysa.
FIG. 10. Zetides sarpedon.-Type of genus. Agrees in certain structural neurational points with Pathysa, differing by the inferior development and absence of “tails " and by the shorter anal vein of hind wings. This group is specialized by the inferior discontinuance of cubital cross-vein.
Fig. 11. Arisbe similis.-Type of genus. Agrees with Zetides in structui al points, differing by the rounded hind wings. Compare text.
Fig. 12. Eurycus cressida.-Type of genus. Specialization is shown by the shortening of vein vii of hind wings and by the inferior degeneration of cubital cross-vein. Eurycus and Pachlioptera are interesting from the way they reproduce, upon a different type of wing, the specialization of the abdominal margin of the secondaries of Parnassius, a character of convergence, by which the margin becomes inwardly curved and the internal vein shortened. This direction crops out, among otherwise distinct forms, throughout the Papilionides. Again, as a character of convergence we meet it in the Saturniades (Grote, Beitrag sur Class. aer Schm., S. 198, Fig. 1, Callosamia ; S. 204, Fig. 9, Rothschildia ; S. 206, Fig. 11, Samia).
EXPLANATION OF Plate V. The figures are obtained by an improved photographic process. The veins are numbered according to the system RedtenbacherComstock: iii = radius, iv = media, v=cubitus. Vein “ix” of primaries, the principal character of the Papilionides, is numbered in red. The figures are of natural size, except Fig. 15, which is reduced one-half.
Fig. 13. Iphiclides podalirius.-Type of genus, to be compared with figure of Pathysa antiphates. Cubital cross-vein degenerates inferiorly. Between ii and iii of hind wings the discocellular is downwardly bent, as in the Idaides group. Radial branches free to costa, a character which brings this genus into the typical group of Papilio, with vein iiig, the third radial branch, opposite crossvein. Thus the genus is partly intermediate and appears, on the whole, nearer allied to Idaides, or rather to Pathysa, than to Papilio.
Fig. 14. Priamides pompeius.-Type of genus and belonging to typical group of Papilio. Compare text. [Drurya antimachus, mimetic of Acrea, not examined; probably belongs to the Papilio group as a specialized form.
Fig. 15. Ornithoptera priamus Ó -Type of genus. Note position of the third radial branch, which is thrown off before cross-vein. The furcation of iii, and iii, is long, so that the primitive condition which I assume, in which the longitudinal veins were all separate, is nearly attained. The total evidence is that Ornithoptera retains characters of the primitive form of the Papilionides. Compare wing with that of Charaxes, Schm. Hild., Taf. iii, Fig. 17, and Stein d. Weis., x, 282.
Fig. 16. Heliconius antiochus.-Type of genus and family. Belongs to the Hesperiades. Reproduced here to correct omissions in former figure; consult text. A more generalized form than the succeeding. Vein viii of fore wings partially degenerate; compare with figures of Limnas and Libythea in this respect, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., xxxvii, Pl. iii.
Fig. 17. Dione iuno.-Generic type. Vein viii of primaries lost, but traces of cubital cross-vein retained. Belongs apparently to the Nymphalidæ. Consult figure of type in Proc. AM. Phil. Soc., xxxvii, Pl. ir. The open cell and condition of cross-vein on secondaries evidence the grade of specialization. Note that these figures of Hesperiades have two anal veins on hind wings, in contrast with the single vein of the Papilionides.
Fig. 18. Tragonoptera brookeana.–Section of primary wing, showing point of origin of third radial branch just before cross-vein. The position of Papilio has not been quite attained, while that of Ornithoptera has been abandoned.