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Mr. E. M. Curr reported that the name Mallera was used on the Belyando and other rivers instead of Yungaroo, and I have found the same name on the Warrego, Thomson and elsewhere.
As every man and woman in the community bears the name of an animal, or some other natural object, it follows that there will be an aggregate of diverse totems known by the collective title of Wootaroo, and a corresponding variety of totems will be distributed under the distinguishing name of Yungaroo or Mallera. The tribes of this organization are so widespread that I shall not at present occupy the space to enumerate the lengthy lists of totem names collected by me in the various districts, but will reserve this task for a future occasion.
Although the section names are practically the same over the vast territory shown as No. 2 on the map, yet the dialects and customs of the people are more or less diverse in different parts of it. Throughout a wide zone of the western end of this nation, all the males are circumcised, and other rites are performed, which have been described by me elsewhere. The line from A to B on the map separates those tribes who practice circumcision from those who do not. Such a boundary would necessarily be varied slightly at different times by conquest, or by the intermarriage of neighboring tribes on either side.
The southwest and west boundaries of Queensland, separating that colony from South Australia, being arbitrary geodetic lines, cannot be expected to coincide with the boundaries of the aboriginal nations. For the sake of simplicity, however, the Queensland boundary has, for the present, been adopted as the southwest limit of the Kogai-Yuipera people. I am preparing a map dealing with
some South Australian tribes, on which the actual boundary between them and the Queensland communities will be shown in its proper place. The northern boundary of the Barkunjee nation, No. 5 on the map hereto annexed, will also be more particularly defined in my forthcoming article.
No. 3. The KOOINMERBURRA NATION. This nation comprises several small tribes, inhabiting the coastal district from Port Curtis via Keppel Bay, Port Bowen, Cape Townshend and Shoalwater Bay to Broad Sound, together with Long Island, Curtis Island and some smaller ones off the coast. On the south they were bounded by the Dippil, and on the west and north by the Kogai-Yuipera nations, as represented by a distinguishing line upon the map, Pl. XIII. The community is divided into two intermarrying groups, having the same names as their western neighbors, but with subdivisions bearing a different nomenclature. The primary group Wootaroo is divided into two sections, called Moonal and Karilburra, and the Yungaroo group into two, called Kooealla and Koorpal.
The names of the groups and sections, showing how they intermarry, and the names of the respective divisions to which the children belong, will be readily understood by referring to the following table :
Moonal and Karilburra are equivalent to Murri-Kubbi, and Kooealla and Koorpal to Kumbo-Ippai, of the Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri communities in New South Wales.
In this community descent is always reckoned on the female side,
the same as in the two adjoining nations, the children of both sexes taking the totem name of their mother. The undermentioned are a few of the totems common to Moonal and Karilburra: curlew, wallaby, rain, russet hawk, bat, yellow-bellied snake. The Kooealla and Koorpal sections have the following totems amongst others: crow, boomerang, jackass, eaglehawk, salt water perch.
The intermarriage of certain totems belonging to the same section, referred to in my explanation of the marriage laws of the Dippil nation, also prevails in the Kooinmerburra community. For example, a Moonal might, under certain restrictions, marry a Moonalan of a totem different to his own.
For the particulars of the social structure of the Kooinmerburra, and their geographic range, I am much indebted to Mr. William H. Flowers, one of my most valued correspondents, who took a deal of trouble in replying to my inquiries. In 1894, in an article treating of another tribe,' I incidentally referred to the Kooinmerburra divisions reported by Mr. Flowers. The divisions of this tribe have also been briefly mentioned by Mr. A. W. Howitt.' The full details given in the present article, and the map defining the boundaries of the tract of country occupied by all the tribes of this organization, have never been published until now.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII.
No. 1. The Dippil nation, at its southern end, extends a little way within the New South Wales frontier—the whole of the remainder being situated in Queensland. Moreton and Stradbroke Islands appertain to this organization.
No. 2. The Kogai-Yuipera nation adjoins the northern boundary of the Barkunjee and Kamilaroi nations of New South Wales, which encroach some distance within Queensland territory. All the tribes occupying the country to the west of the line AB practice the rite of circumcision, but to the east of that line the custom is not in force.
No. 3. The Kooinmerburra nation inhabits a comparatively small territory fronting the sea-coast for some distance north and south of the Fitzroy river.
No. 4 is the northern extremity of the country of the Kamilaroi
i Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.), X, 27. Journ. Anthrop. Inst., xiii, 341.
nation, which crosses the boundary between the colonies of Queensland and New South Wales.
No. 5 represents a portion of the Barkunjee territory, which also overlaps the Queensland frontier.
For particulars of the country occupied by the Kamilaroi and Barkunjee nations, and the eastern limit of the custom of circumcision in New South Wales, the reader is referred to my paper on the “Initiation Ceremonies of Australian Tribes," published in the PROCEEDINGS of this Society, Vol. xxxvii, pp. 54-73, Pl. V.
Ailjourned Meetiny, November 25, 18.98.
Vice-President SELLERS in the Chair.
Present, 21 members, including seven members of the
Officers and Council.
By unanimous consent, Dr. Frazer offered the resolutions of the Committees on the Magellanic Fund and of the Hall (see proceedings of meeting November 4, 1898), and they were unanimously adopted.
Mr. Dickson, on behalf of the Committee on the Rules of Administration and Order, called for the consideration of the same, and, after discussion and amendment, they were adopted in the form entered in the minutes of this date.
On motion of Dr. Frazer, it was unanimously ordered that a ballot be prepared for the coming annual election by the coöperation and with the approval of all the Secretaries, on which shall be printed the names of all the offices for which elections are to be held, and the number of candidates for each office in the order in which they shall be nominated ; that furthermore, a copy of the ballot be sent to every memher who receives notice of the meeting.
There being no further business before the Society, the meeting was adjourned by the presiding officer.