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his own daughter and she kills herself upon her mother's grave, and is transformed into a pomegranate tree, and her father into a buzzard (see Grimm, Deut. Sagen,'483 (ii, 182), and Rohde, p. 420, note, for references to Servian and Persian folk-tales).'

So much for Prof. Rohde's riddle-guessing. This much of good is in it, that it has pointed out the incongruities and the weaknesses of the tale as we have it. The whole episode of the first sojourn at Tarsus might be spared, nor is there any explanation of the sudden departure for the Pentapolitan region of Cyrene. The words of the author are “Interpositis mensibus sive diebus paucis, hortante Stranguillione et Dionysiade et premente fortuna ad Pentapolitanas Cyrenæorum regiones adfirmabatur navigare ut ibi latere posset." The monument erected to Apollonius is referred to by Lycoris who advises Tharsia when in need to take refuge by the statue of her father; and Hellenicus, too, reappears at the end of all to remind Apollonius of his fidelity.

THE ANTIQUITY OF THE STORY.

Moritz Haupt, of Berlin, wrote to Tycho Mommsen in 1857, that he knew of more than one hundred manuscripts of the Latin Apollonius. They are widely distributed, a dozen MSS. are in England, seven in Vienna (Nos. 226, 362, 480, 510, 3126, 3129, 3332), two in Breslau, three in Munich, and others in Paris, Rome, Stuttgart (fol. 411), Berne (228), Leipsic, Göttingen, Basle and BudaPesth. The oldest is a Florentine Codex of the ninth or tenth century. The earliest publication of the Latin text seems to have been about 1470. The unique copy of it in the Vienna Hofbibliothek lacks the title page, and the volume remained undescribed until

1 If the Latin scribe followed the opinion of Mallalas that Antioch was named after the son of Seleucis, he may have had a dark recollection of that particular Antiochus' love for his mother-in-law.

20. Riemann has collated two MSS. in Rome; the one is in the Minerva Library (A. I., 21), the other in the Library of the Vatican (foundation of Queen Christina, No. 905). Both are of the thirteenth century. The collation of chapters 28–31 (where the Laurentian is at fault), is published in Revue de Philologie, Tome vii, 1883 (“ Note sur deux Manuscrits de l'Historia Apollonii Regis Tyri). Still another MS. in the Vatican (7666) is described by Bethmann. It is of the fifteenth century and resembles Sloan, 1619 (Cf. Pertz, Archiv 12: 402).

* Riese says circa 1471; Brunet “ antérieure à 1480;" Grässe “vers 1470." See Hain, 1293.

it was collated by S. Singer and its readings quoted in his Apollonius von Tyrus (1895). The next edition was made by Marcus Velser in 1595 from an Augsburg MS. which is now lost. It is entitled “ Narratio eorum quae contigerunt Apollonio Tyrio, ex membranis vetustis. Augustae Vindelicorum ad insigne pinus, anno 1595." This edition consisted of twenty-three quarto leaves. It was reprinted in Velseri Opera, 1682 (p. 677).

In 1856 appeared Erotici Scriptores, ex nova recensione, G. A. Hirschig, Parisiis, ed. Didot, in which between pp. 611 and 628 is found “ Eroticam de Apollonio Tyrio Fabulam ex codice Parasino emendatius edidit et præfatiuncula notulisque instruxit. J. Lepaume Lingonensis.” The edition is a poor one. The præfatiuncula occupies pp. 601-608, and is dated August, 1855.

An edition in Latin verse was edited by Dümmler in 1877– Gesta Apollonii Regis Tyri metrica, ex codice Gandensi," edidit E. Dümmler, pp. 20, Berolini, 1877, 4°. It appeared again in “ Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, edidit Societas Aperiendis Fontibus Rerum Germanicarum medii ævi,” Berolini, 1884; it is found in the second volume—“ Pætæ Latini ævi Carolini, Recensuit Ernestus Dümmler." It occupies pp. 483-506, is in leonine verse, with Virgilian reminiscences, and is printed from an eleventh-century MS. preserved in Ghent: “Codex membranaceus, sæculi XI, bibliothecæ universitatis Gandensis, Nr. 169, signatus constat 229 foliis. Scriptum autem eum esse in monasterio hujus civitatis sancti Petri testatur paginæ 454 subscriptio liber sancti Petri Gandensis ecclesie .. servanto benedictio ... tollente maledictio

qui folium ex eo tulerit uel certauerit Anathema sit.'' Dümmler in his præfatio says,

" Pæta noster fabulam suam omnem ex historia Apollonii regis Tyrii pedestri oratione conscripta mutuatus dilatando copiosiorem ornatioremque reddidit. Utrum ad finem eam perduxerit necne ignoramus, quia fortuito duo tantum codicis folia cæteris deletis ad nostram usque ætatem pervenerunt."

Tycho Mommsen, who has spent many years of his long and learned life in the study of the Apollonius story, gave his collations of MSS. to Alexander Riese in 1871, who published in the Teubner Classics in that year a volume, Historia Apollonii Regis Tyri. A few years later Michael Ring edited the previously unknown Paris Codex, and published Historia Apollonii Regis Tyri e codice Parasino 4955, edidit et commentario critico instruxit, Michael Ring, pp. 20, Posonii et Lipsiæ, 1887. Riese reviewed Ring's

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edition in Berliner Philolog. Wochenschrift, 1888, p. 561, and decided that the new text was of such importance as to render it necessary that his own publication should be recast. Accordingly he issued Historia Apollonii Regis Tyri, iterum recensuit, Alexander Riese, Lipsie, in ædibus B. G. Teubneri, mdccclxxxxiii, with an entirely new Preface, in which he repeats his acknowledgments to Tycho Mommsen, and confesses his obligation to Maximilian Bonnet, who carefully collated anew the Paris Codex after the appearance of Ring's volume. This final work of Riese was completed at Frankfurt-am-Main, December, 1892.

So far as the MSS. have been examined, they are found to differ widely in language and construction, but to cling rather persistently to the type of the story. An account of such of the MSS. as have been collated may be found in Georg Penon, Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde, 1880; W. Meyer, handlung über den lateinischen Text der Geschichte des Apollonius von Tyrus” (in Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch und hist. Cl. d. kön.-bay. Akad. d. Wissen. zu München, 1872, Heft I); A. Ri ese, præfatio to Historia Apollonii Regis 7yri ; Carl Schroeder, Griseldis, S. xii, xiii ; Mauricii Hauptii, Opuscula, Lipsiæ, iii, 4, 5 and 6; Piper, Höfische Epik, iii, 376; Zupitza, Roman. For., iii, 269; Hermann Hagen, Der Roman vom König Apollonius von Tyrus in seinen verschiedenen Bearbeitungen, Berlin, 1878, and S. Singer, Apollonius von Tyrus, Halle, 1895.

The MSS. in the British Museum have been carefully studied and catalogued by L. H. D. Ward, Catalogue of Romances, i, 161171. He enumerates Sloane 1619 (early thirteenth century); Arundel 292, (late thirteenth century); Arundel 123 (early fourteenth century); Cotton, Vespasian A, xiii (fifteenth century); Sloane 2233 (seventeenth century); Royal 20, C. ii (fifteenth century); Additional 4857 (A.D. 1669-1670); Add. 4864 (1770), Cotton, Titus, D. iii (early fourteenth century); Royal 14, C. xi (early fourteenth century).

The editio princeps is Laurentianus lxvi, of the ninth or tenth century, in Lombardy characters. It is fairly free from grave faults and misconstructions, and would have been followed by Mommsen had it been complete, but certain parts are missing (see Riese, 1893, p. iv). The Paris Codex which M. Ring edited is next in value to the Laurentian, which it resembles, though it is much more recent, belonging to the fourteenth century. These

two MSS. Riese now assigns to the first class, and by their aid he remodeled his earlier version.

In the second class he places Oxoniensis collegii Magdalenai 50, which contains the entire story (pp. 80-108) in a handwriting of the eleventh century. Vaticanus 1869, was examined by W. Meyer and pronounced similar to Oxon. Magdal. (Sitzungs. d. Mün. Akad., 1872, p. 8). Vossianus 113, of the ninth or tenth century (pp. 1-78), agrees with the above.

The Tegernsee MS., now Munich 19148, although mutilated it consists of only nine and one-half leaves), is of much value, and its readings were admitted into Riese's first edition. It coincides more often with the Oxon. than with the Laurentian or Parisian codex. I have examined the MS. and agree with Riese that Meyer has exaggerated the importance of its unique features (cf. Riese, vii). Even when Riese has adopted the Tegernsee readings without comment he does not wish his silence to be interpreted as evidence of the genuineness of the passages (“cave autem ne ex silentio meo lectiones eorum pro certo constituas "').

The Vindobonensis (Vienna), twelfth century, Meyer says agrees with Tegernsee.

Riese's third class of MSS. contains a great number of versions, more boldly and more recently tampered with. To this class he relegates Sloanianus 1619;' Bodleianus 247 (Laud. H. 39) (twelfth or thirteenth century); Monacensis 215 (anno 1462),' and Bernensis 208 (saec xiii).

As the MSS. have come to be better known, a change of opinion has taken place as to their relative value. Teuffel believed the third class which I have just cited to contain the best versions (see

1 Cf. L. Traube, Neues Archiv. d. Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, 10, 1884, p. 382.

Riese drew so liberally from the different MSS. in preparing his edition that Rohde described his method as “ eine wunderliche eklektische Vermischung der Texte” (Der griechische Roman, 418). Riese's first edition is reviewed in Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, 2, 1839-1840; Literarisches Centralblatt, No. 50, 1872, p. 1370; Philologischer Anzeiger, iii, 1871, 536-539; Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik, 1871, Vol. 103, p. 854; Philologus, xxxi, 56a.

2 Riese believes Sloan 1619 to belong to the eleventh century; Ward dates it in the thirteenth century; it is impossible that it should be of the eleventh century.

* This MS. I have collated; it is a bold paraphrase, without linguistic or literary value.

* The Berne MS. was collated by H. Hagen. Cf. Philol. Anz., ed. Leutsch,

his account of Sloan 1619, in Rh. Mus. 1872, p. 103). Haupt also believed the Velser codex to be preferable to those out of which Riese composed his first edition. And Velser's Augsburg MS. belonged very clearly to the same class as Sloan and Berne. For proof that Velser's text was corrupted, cf. Riese, 1893, pp. xi, xii.

The earliest reference to Apollonius that has been discovered is in the sacred lyrics of Venantius Fortunatus,' bishop of Poitiers, (inter annos 566 et 568) where he compares his own sad, exiled wanderings in Gaul with those of the shipwrecked Apollonius

“ Tristius erro nimis, patriis vagus exsul ab oris,

Quam sit Apolloniis naufragus hospes aquis." Another reference is found in the Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, written about 750 A.D. In the thirteenth chapter, entitled “Gesta Wandonis abbatis cornobii Fontanellensis,” occurs the following: “Wando presbyter a patre Baldrico nomine progenitus territorio Tellau ortus, regimen assumpsit cornobii ab anno dominicæ incarnationis 742." Among the books belonging to this abbot is cited, “ Item historiam Apollonii regis Tyri in codice uno” (see Monumenta Germaniæ historica, edidit G. H. Pertz. Scriptorum. Tomus ii, Hannover, 1829, p. 287).

A still earlier reference than the former is in “ Tractat de dubiis nominibus," a grammatical index found in a Vienna MS. of the seventh century. The latest writer cited in it is the poet Dynamius, a Gaul of the sixth century. It seems clearly made out that the "index" was compiled in the Merovingian times, or, as Haupt says, “In einer Zeit wo im Uebergang des Lateins in die romanischen Sprachen durch Erhebung der Accusative zu Nominativen und durch andere Vermischungen und Entstellungen von denen besonders Urkunden vielfache Beispiele darbieten, das Geschlecht der Wörter unkenntlich wurde, später als die romanische Sprachniedersetzung

1 Venantius Fortunatus, Miscellanea Lib. vi, cap. 10, lines 5 and 6. The lines are cited as above in Migne's Patrologiæ T. 88, and Migne reprints the best edition of Fortunatus, that of the Benedictine, Mich. Ang. Luschi. Luschi notices the variants “ Apollonius” and “ Apollonia," but prefers “ Apolloniis,” as above. Fortunatus is venerated in the diocese of Poitiers as a saint, his feast being celebrated December 14.

2 Dynamius, Governor of Marseilles, was born at Arles, and lived at the end of the sixth century. See Moreri, Dict. Hist., 1725, iii, 646, and Biographie Universelle, Vol. 12.

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