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its final shape in Shakespeare, and to indicate its relations to the Vilkina saga, the poem of King Orendel, the chanson of Jourdain de Blaivies, the Solomon-Markolf cycle, and the Antheia and Habrokomes of Xenophon of Ephesus. For ten years I have followed the story through the libraries of Europe, collating MSS. and examining incunabula from Copenhagen to Constantinople. And I have observed with satisfaction in that time a growing sense of the importance of this saga in the history of literature. Various literary tasks have interfered with the completion and publication of my study, a delay which has not been without its advantages; for in consequence of it I have seen certain rare and important texts and codices edited and given to the world by far worthier hands than mine. A few years ago I edited the unique manuscript of the

Anglo-Saxon Apollonius in the library of Corpus Christi College, . Cambridge, and should have embodied it in this publication, but

that my friend, Prof. Julius Zupitza, has happily forestalled me and edited the text? with erudition, judgment and skill that leave nothing to be desired.

The full text of the story, according to the version in the Gesta Romanorum, will be found printed in an Appendix to this paper, and to that the reader should refer as to an authoritative source. The story as it is found in Historia Apollonii regis Tyri (Alex. Riese, Lipsiæ, 1871; iterum recensuit, 1893) may be briefly summarized as follows:


King Antiochus, the founder of Antioch, having one only daughter, fell in unnatural love with her; and that he might keep her for himself he made a law that whoso presumed to desire her in marriage and could not unfold the meaning of certain riddles which the king proposed should lose his life, and his head should be placed over the palace door as a warning. Among many other rich and powerful princes and lords who adventured came Apollonius of Tyre, who interpreted the riddle in which the king had artfully concealed, as he thought, his illicit love for his daughter. Terrified at his discovery, Apollonius returned secretly to Tyre, freighted a ship with necessaries, with wheat and with treasure, and in the night departed upon a sea-voyage. Antiochus

Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Litteraturen, 1896. PROC. AMER. PHILOS. Soc. XXXVII. 158. N. PRINTED DEC. 15, 1898.


dispatched a slave to Tyre with poison for the prince, only to learn from his messenger that Apollonius had fled. While he was thus sought for, Apollonius had arrived at Tarsus in Cilicia, where a citizen, Stranguillio, informed him of the famine that prevailed in the city. With his wheat he relieved the distress of the people, and out of gratitude they erected a bronze statue of him in the market-place. After a little while the vessel again put to sea, and, in a great tempest, was wrecked, and Apollonius alone, of all the ship's company, was cast ashore at Cyrene. An old fisherman who discovered him pitied his misfortune, clothed him with part of his own garments, and directed him to the city (Pentapolis of Cyrene). Upon his arrival there he found the youth of the land engaged in ball-play (Eriozupos)' before Archistrates, the king. Apollonius took part in the game and won the king's approval and the prize of competition by his skill and strength. He was commanded to sit by the king at supper, and the king's daughter begged him to relate his adventures. Apollonius, having gone outside, put on a robe of state (status) and a crown’ and taking a lyre went into the triclinium. Delighted with his playing, the princess besought the king that she might learn from the stranger, who, by permission of the king, became her teacher. One day the king was encountered in his walk by three young men (prince's sons) who declared their love for his daughter. Archistrates required each of them to write a letter setting forth his name, his parentage and his wealth, and sent the letters by the hand of Apollonius to the princess, who confessed the great love that had grown in her for Apollonius. With the royal consent they were married. After a time a vessel from Tyre put into port bringing the news that Antiochus and his daughter had been killed by a lightning stroke, and that Apollonius was heir to the city of Antioch, with all its riches, and the whole kingdom. With his consort he immediately set sail, with the best wishes of Archistrates for a prosperous journey. Hardly were they two days old at sea when a tempest arose, during which the princess was delivered of a daughter. The mother directly after appeared as one dead, whereupon the captain of the vessel came to Apollonius saying that the sailors would not permit the body to remain in the ship. A chest was

See Marquardt, Römisches Altertum, v, ii, 425. ? This robe, or long flowing gown-statum lyricum- appears to indicate the costume of the Citharists,

made with much care, and the supposed corpse of the princess was laid within it, with treasure at the head and at the feet, and so committed to the deep. On the third day the chest was cast ashore on the coast of Ephesus, and was found by Cerimon, a physician, who, with his scholars, was walking upon the shore. When the chest was opened, and the body found and marveled at by all, it was observed by one of the scholars (Machaon) that some sparks of life yet lingered. He ordered a fire to be kindled, and chafed the body until the blood again began to flow freely and the lady to awaken from her trance. By her own request she was placed in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, "for aye to be in shady cloister mewed.”

The sorrowful Apollonius came, by fortunate winds, to Tarsus, where he left his daughter and her nurse, Lycoris, in the care of Stranguillio and his wife, Dionysias, to be brought up with their daughter. And he swore an oath that he would not cut his hair, nor his beard, nor his nails until his daughter's marriage. He then departed into Egypt. The daughter, whose name was Tharsia, grew up in Tarsus, comely ard well schooled. At fourteen years of

age she learned from her dying nurse the names of her parents and the story of her birth in the tempest.

Dionysias, jealous of the child's beauty, and that she was so much in the heart of the people that her own child was altogether misprised, ordered her slave (Theophilus) to murder Tharsia, instructing him to wait by the tomb of Lycoris, whither it was the wont of Tharsia each day to repair and to pray, and there to seize and slay the child and to throw the body into the sea. The murderous in. tent was frustrated by the sudden appearance of some pirates, who carried Tharsia to their ships and departed with her. The slave returned to Dionysias and announced that the deed that she had ordered was done, whereupon the family put on mourning and a monument was erected by the people with this inscription “Unto the virgin Tharsia in lieu of her father's benefits, the citizens of Tarsus have erected this monument.

The pirates landed at Mitylene and sold Tharsia to a brothel. In this loathsome place she still preserved her honor, drawing tears from those who sought her company by her moving recital of her painful adventures. Athenagoras, “the first in the city," visited her and was moved with compassion and pity.

1. D. M. Cives Tharsi Tharsiæ Virgini Beneficiis Tyrii Apollonii” (Codex Parasinus, 4955).

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After fourteen years Apollonius returned to Tarsus only to learn that his daughter was dead, and after he had seen her monument he returned to his ship where he lay lonely and sad. Again driven by a tempest, the vessel chanced upon the coast of Mitylene, upon the birthday of Apollonius. Athenagoras walking toward the sea-shore saw Apollonius' tall ship riding at anchor and praised her stately appearance to the mariners, who invited him to come aboard and to partake of their feast. Upon inquiring after the owner of the ship, he learned that he was ill and weak with sorrow, that he had lost his wife upon the sea and his daughter in a strange land. Athenagoras offered two pieces of gold to the servant who would go down and tell his master that the Prince of the City desired him to come up out of darkness into light, but the servant replied that he could not buy new thighs with gold and that his master had said that whoever troubled him should have his thighs broken. Athenagoras then went in person, but in vain. Upon being told that the name of the master of the ship was Apollonius, he remembered that he had heard Tharsia call her father so. It occurred to him to send for Tharsia, whom he desired to comfort the lord of the vessel with her song. Apollonius wondered at her song, requited her with a hundred pieces of gold and bade her depart. Upon the demand of Athenagoras, she returned again to the despairing father and attempted to cheer him with riddles. Apollonius solved the riddles, but, vexed by her importunity, as it seemed to him, he rose up suddenly and struck her on the face so that she fell to the ground. Weeping, she lamented her unhappy fate, and at last Apollonius recognized his daughter.

The bawd who had purchased Tharsia was burned; the citizens of Mitylene erected two statues of brass in the market-place, “Unto Apollonius, prince of Tyrus, the preserver of our houses; and unto his virtuous daughter Tharsia ;' and Tharsia was given as wife unto Athenagoras.

Upon his return to Tyre, in company with his daughter and sonin-law, Apollonius had a dream in which he was commanded of an angel to sail unto Ephesus and to go to the Temple of Diana and there with a loud voice to declare all his adventures. This he did, and was recognized by his wife, and the reunited family journeyed to Antioch, where Apollonius was crowned king. Thence he sailed to Tyre, where he found his kingdom governed in good order. He left his son-in-law as lieutenant at Tyre, and took ship for Tarsus,

and denounced Stranguillio and Dionysias, who were thereupon stoned to death by the people, who would also have slain the slave Theophilus had not Tharsia interposed, and at whose intercession his life was spared. After three months the family departed for Cyrene, where they were received with great joy. The old king, Archistrates, died in the arms of his children; the fisherman who had befriended the naked Apollonius was richly rewarded, as was also Hellenicus, who had brought to him the news of the malice of Antiochus. So Apollonius reigned over Antioch, Tyre and Cyrene, and in happy union with his wife reached a great age. The history of his adventures he wrote in two volumes; one he sent to the Temple of Diana at Ephesus and the other he placed in his own library (Oxon. Magdal., 50).


It is clear that the narrative exhibits the familiar mannerism of the Greek sophistic romance. The circle of adventures in the Babylonian histories of lamblichus, the Ethiopian histories of Heliodorus,' the Ephesian histories of Xenophon, the history of Leucippe and Klitophon, etc., is the same in all instances. The writers of this cycle had contrived a universal apparatus of romance upon which they drew liberally and upon equal terms—pirates, sea-storms, dreams, apparent death, reunited lovers, etc., were the materials out of which the romances were made.

No Greek original of the Apollonius story has been discovered, but it is hardly believable that no such original existed. Riese (Historia Apollonii regis Tyri), Rohde (Der griechische Roman), W. Christ (Sitzungsberichte der München. Philol. Cl., 1872, S. 4), W. Teuffel (Rh. Mus., xxvii, 104), W. Meyer (Abhandlung über den lateinischen Text der Geschichte des Apollonius von

Tyrus," in Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch., philolog. u. historischen Classe d. König-Bayer. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu München, 1872, Heft i, S. 3–29), E. Bährens (Fleckeisens Jahrbuch, 103, pp. 856-858), W. Härtel (Oestreich. Wochenschrift f. Kunst und Wissenschaft, 1872, pp. 161-172), and J. G. von Hahn (Griechische und Albanesische Märchen, ii, 250), have searched

1Ηελιοδώρου Αιθιοπικής Ιστορίας Βιβλία δέκα, Heliodori Historia Ethiopicæ libri decem, nunquam antea in lucem editi (ed. by V. Obsopaeus). Basiliæ, 1534.

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