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uara, men), may indicate that they were of that tongue. They wore a peculiar labret. Following D'Orbigny and others, I placed them in The American Race as a separate stock; but now doubt that this was correct. No authentic texts of their language is known to me, but the elements of their culture, the place names of their area, and the local appellations of plants and animals are derived from the Tupi Guarani.?

In a monograph recently published, Señor Felix F. Outes has urgently argued that Charuas of the left bank of the La Plata and the Querandies (Carandies of the right bank (near where the city of Buenos Aires is now situated) both belonged to the Guaycuru stock. The latter extended as far north as the Rio Carcaraña (south latitude 32° 30'), where they adjoined the Quiloazas (Quilvazas). They wore the tembeta, and at the close of the sixteenth century were allied with the Guaranis, after which period their name disappears. Ameghino places them in the Guarani stock, while Lafone Quevedo (ix) prefers to attach them to the Guaycurus.

The only linguistic evidence extant lies in the proper names which have been preserved. A notable peculiarity is the frequent termination of the names of chieftains in the syllable pén; thus Cæspén, Pacaospén, Allapén, Quemumpen, etc. This termination does not occur in the Guaycuru, but is not uncommon in the Aucanian (Araucanian) dialects, which also were spoken by the Pampean tribes.

In these the word pen ineans estate or property. It is probably allied to gen, a suffix signifying rule, control or ownership.

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1 Lafone Quevedo (ix, p. 12) prefers to derive it from che, my, or to me, and haru, hurtful, (cherárua, “lo que me hace daño,” Ruiz), which would be applicable to enemies. He inclines to attach them to the Chaco stocks, although he quotes Hervas, who had a catechism in it, to the effect that their tongue was not related to the “idioms of the Paraguay.”

2 See Von Ihering, in Verhandlungen der Berliner Anthrop. Gesell., 1889, Pp. 655-659.

3 Los Querandies, Contribucion al Estudio de la Etnografia Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1897).

* F. Ameghino, op. cit., Tom. i., Cap. xi.

5 Comp. Febres, Diccionario Araucano, s.v., and Haverstadt, Chilidugu, Section 285. The latter gives the example, inche-gen ovicha .gen. owner or master of these sheep.” It is both a suffix and prefix. As a suffix, it often conveys the abstract sense of property or quality. Cf. Valdivia, Arte y Gramatica de la lengua del Reyno de Chile, pp. 41, 42.

“ I am

Moreover, when in 1580 the Spaniards routed the Querandies, they fled not to the Guaycurus, but to the Ranqueles, whom they must have regarded as their kinsmen. The Ranqueles, however, are of Aucanian lineage and language.

I believe, therefore, that I was right in the American Race (p. 323) in placing the Querandies in the Aucanian stock, an opinion strengthened by the arguments of Burmeister from historic and archæologic grounds.?

THE PAYAGUAS.

In my American Race I have counted this as one of the irreducible stocks of the Chaco, represented by the following tribes :

Agaces, on the Rio Paraguay.
Payaguas, near Santa Fé.
Sarigues, on middle Paraguay.

Sr. Lafone Quevedo maintains that the Payagua is of the same stock as the Mocovi and Abipon, i. e., the Guaycuru (xi, p. xliii). He bases this on a resemblance which he claims in the pronouns.

Von Martius denies that there was ever any specific tribe so called. The name, he thinks, is from the Tupi, paracuáhygoata, a swimmer of the Paraguay. But I believe it is simply the word given by Ruiz y Montoya, paraguaiguara, “ the people of the

4 That some so called did belong to the Guaycuru stem will be evident from a study of the following comparisons :

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Paraguay."

Comparison of the Payagua with the Guaycuru Dialects.

PAYAGUA.

GUAYCURU.

Beard, hyakä, yaka.
Bread, asya, yacia.
Brother, yagoud, yaguba.
Child, duunat.

Moc., y-acca (my); Toba, yacalaue.
From Moc., asole, maize.
Toba, yacaya (my).
Mbaya, niaani (my).

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1 See his article in the Verhandlungen of the Berlin Anthropological Society, Bd. vii, p. 59. 2 The American Race, p. 316.

Ethnographie und Sprachenkunde Amerikas, Bd. ii, p. 225. • Vocabulario de la Lengua Guarani, sub voce Paragua. On Arrowsmith's map (1810), the Payaguas are located on the left bank of the Rio Paraguay at the entrance of the Rio Pilcomayo; but I have found the locations of tribes on that map of small value.

GUAYCURU.

Cad.,

PAYAGUA.
Ear, hyaheguada, yaigua.
Eye, yatiqui.
Face, iguechógra.

Finger, hychanga, igutsån, ygchan.
Foot, hyboro, seuó, bo, ybagro.
Girl, luganára.
Hand, sumajya, imajà, inagchiar.
Head, yamagra.
Home, yaggo.
Moon, a pajsa.
Mother, yoja-usa.
Mouth, hyachaldi, yajalqui.
Sun, iscabala.
Thigh, yejegà, yesigud.
Water, naaac, ueigh, guayaque.
Women, emjira, elommi.

na-pagate.
Abip., yatoete.
Abip., y-agic; Moc., y-schih (my), ca.

ssigui (thy).
Toba, y-oganta, gohantá.
Moc., y-ppia (my).
Cad., yonara (daughter).
Toba, emach, emak (left hand).
Abipon, yemag, nemag.
Abipon, yecqui (my); Cad., nilagadi.
Moc., appé (night) : Cad., aipainahi.
Moc., eyodo.
Cad., joladi.
Abip., nalá.

Moc., uasayac, eva-gayacca.
Moc., aló (female).

But this identification must not be applied to all the Payaguas. On various maps they will be found located along the great river anywhere from S. latitude 18° to 32° ; and it is evident that tribes of widely different linguistic affiliations were called by this generic appellation.

For instance, in 1703, Father Neumann met the Payaguas on the river ahout forty leagues above Asuncion, and these spoke Guarani, as they called out to him :

"Peě pěmomba ore camarada Buenos Aires viarupi(You were with those who destroyed our friends at Buenos Aires "').

At that time they extended north as far as the Rio Tobati, where they adjoined the Sinamecas.

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THE CACANAS AND CALCHIQUIS.

Near the southwest corner of the map, I have placed within the Quechua territory, the Cacanas and Dieguitas. In The American Race (p. 320), I have included these under the hypothetical “Catamareña” linguistic stock.

We have the positive statement of the early missionary, Alonso de Barcena, that Calchaquis, Diaguitas and Cacanas, spoke the same tongue, and that it was quite different from its neighbors ; but it

1 P. Juan P. Fernandez, Relacion Historial de los Indios Chiquitos, pp. 154, 158 (Madrid, 1726).

has long been extinct and no specimen of it seems to have been preserved.

At the time I wrote there was not a word positively identified as of this stock; and I must say the same now in spite of Lafone Quevedo's interesting essay (iii).

From various writers he collects the following as probably derived from the Cacana tongue :

•ă, or -aa, or -ao, village, a locative termination.
-aquin, ruler, chief,
caylle, a serpent-like tracing on copper, an amulet.
co, termination meaning water, or watery.
-cocavi, pounded maize.
enja misajo, “ bad head;" perhaps, enjam, head.
is, good, aco, not (Mataco, isajia, “not good ”).
gasta, village, a locative termination.
tu, fire, light.
vil, locative termination.

y, his, their, pronominal suffix. Of these words, the frequent termination gasta I believe, in spite of the opinion of von Tschudi," is the Quechua llacta, in a Spanish corruption; and -ă, or ao, resembles much the Quechuan locative termination aui. The word cocavi, cooked or prepared maize, reminds one of the Quechua chucuca, which means the same. The idol or tracing of a serpent, caylle, may well have been that of the old or big serpent, machu kay, of the Quechuas.”

Again, the title with which the Indians of Calchaqui saluted the impostor, Inca Pedro Chamijo, was, according to Lozano, titaquin, from which aquin in the above list is taken. But this is pure Quechua, as Holguin gives chapaqquen as “Señor de Indios."'s

There is not sufficient evidence that this list offers any Cacana

1 Von Tschudi, in Verhand, der Berliner Anthrop. Gesellschaft, 1885, p. 184. A proof that it is from Quechua is that the same corruption is found in Chile, for instance, Antofagasta. I have discussed this question at some length in my Studies in South American Native Languages, pp. 54, 55 (Philadelphia, 1892).

2 See Holguin, Vocabulario de la Lengua Qquichua, s. v. “Culebra" and Serpiente.” Ambrosetti also is inclined to regard this symbol as of Peruvian origin, representing the lightning snake and connected with the rains. See his article, “ El Simbolo de la Serpiente en la Alfareria funeraria de la region Calchaqui,” Bol. Inst. Geog. Argentino, 1896, pp. 219 sq.

Elsewhere (xii, Sec. 12) Lafone Quevedo says, “ Yo siempre he atribuido el mismo origen etnico-linguistico los Cacanes, Lules de Barcena y GuaycuruAbipones."

words, and the problem of the tongue is still unsolved, unless we agree, as I now incline, with the conclusion of Waitz, that it was merely a corrupt dialect of the widely extended Quechua stock.

The evidence collected a third of a century ago by Vicente G. Quesada points strongly in this direction. The Quechua was then still spoken in the valleys of Catamarca and around Santiago del Estero, Salta and Jujuy. Seven leagues from the city of Salta was still pointed out the “ great walls of the Inca,” the remains of the Inca huasi, the house of the Inca,” about which in 1658 Acarete du Biscay recorded the legend : “In the valley of Calchaqui was the house of the last Incas of Peru, which was called the White House ; and there was a great deal of treasure there which the natives kept as a mark of their antient grandeur."'s

While it is possible that at the Conquest some relics of an earlier tongue remained, that generally spoken was Quechua. This was said in so many words of the neighborhood of Cordova, in 1583, by the Licentiate Cepeda, “La gente de esta tierra hablan una lengua que llaman Comechingona, y otra Zanavirona, aunque los mas que sirven y entran y van hablando en la lengua general de Piru.""

OTHER UNIDENTIFIED Tribes.

There remain a number of tribes mentioned as populous and important by the early writers, of some of whose idioms grammars and dictionaries were constructed, whom we cannot with certainty assign to the stocks I have mentioned.

Thus, Father del Techo in his list of the Chaco tribes as known in 1628, names the Taimvia, who once occupied one hundred and eighty-eight villages; the Teutæ, and the Agoiæ. We have no knowledge that the grammars of various of these tribes prepared by Father Gaspar Osorius (mentioned by Techo) have been preserved.

1 Anthropologie der Naturvölker, Bd. iv, p. 380.

2 See his article, “Apuntes sobre el origen de la lengua quichua en Santiago del Estero,” printed in his volume, Estudios Historicos, Buenos Aires, 1863.

3 Acarete du Biscay, Voyage to Buenos Aires, p. 54 (London, 1716).

* Relaciones Geograficas de Indias, Peru, Tom. ii, App., p. x (Madrid, 1885).

5 Historia Provincia Paraquaride, Lib. viii, Cap. 5.

6 René Moreno mentions in his Biblioteca Boliviana, p. 599, that at the beginning of this century there existed in the library of the Pueblo de San Ignacio, Province of Chiquito, an Arte de la lengua Guaycuru, one volume quarto, MS. Possibly this is one of the works referred to in the text.

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