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Ppillccopichiu, which signifies a certain mountain bird highly esteemed for its beautiful plumage.'
These facts leave no reasonable doubt that this tribe was of the Quechuan stock.
The Juris (Quechua, suri, ostrich') had their habitations in the foothills about S. latitude 27° (“ near the sierra of Anconquija,' Lafone Quevedo). They are classed by D'Orbigny and Waitz among the Guaranis, but Lafone Quevedo believes they spoke a dialect of the Chaco. I included them (American Race, p. 316) among the Lule-Vilelas, from their location, but believe that it is somewhat probable that they belonged to the Quechua stock.
THE LULE STOCK.
In my former classification of the Chaco tongues I placed the Lule (of Machoni) and the Vilela under one group.: This has in a measure been substantiated by Lafone Quevedo, though he believes the latter to be more of a jargon (mezcla) of a number of tongues.
This is, indeed, probable, as from their wandering habits Pelleschi calls them “the Jews of the Chaco." For this reason some have included them with the Matacos. There are lexical analogies, but the pronouns and the method of affixing them differ, the Vilela suffixing the possessive.
For the present, it seems necessary to leave them together and separate from others. But the Tonocotes whom I grouped with them are no doubt Matacos, the term being a corruption of Noctenes or Octeneei, modifications of their own name Huenneyei, "Men" (Thouar, i, p. 56).
GROUPS OF UNCERTAIN AFFINITIES.
The above-mentioned eight stocks are clearly recognized, there being sufficient linguistic material to distinguish and classify them.
1 Historia Provincia Paraquaria, Lib. ii, cap. 7.
2 Suri was also the general name given by the Quechuas to the Province of Tucuman ; so it would have no ethnic significance applied to a tribe.
3 The American Race, p. 316.
4• Se ha podido establecer el hecho que (la Vilela) tiene bastante afinidad con el Lule de Machoni" (ii, p. 40). On the Lules of Barcena see under Cacanas. Elsewhere Lafone Quevedo says, “ Vilela, ó Chulupi , Chunupi es un co-dialecto del Lule de Machoni” (Boletin del Inst. Geog. Argent., 1894, p.
But there remain a number of tribes about whom there are much confusion and uncertainty. In some instances the same name has been applied to groups speaking radically distinct languages, and the identity of the name has led authors to suppose them of one origin. I shall mention some of the more prominent examples and attempt to diminish the difficulties which they present.
THE LENGUAS (TIMBUES).
Few tribes have contributed more to the confusion of the ethnography of the Chaco region than those known as the Lenguas. Dr. Colini (i, pp. 291, 292) inserts a long note upon them, but it fails to clear up the obscurity about them, or to reconcile the contradictory statements of authors.
These contradictions are materially lessened when we learn that the Spanish term lengua, tongue, was applied indiscriminately by the early colonists to any tribe who had the custom of inserting a labret, barbote, in the lower lip, causing it to project and resemble an outstretched tongue.' It has, therefore, no signification as a proper name.
In the Tupi-Guarani tongue this ornament is called tembeta, from tembe, the lower lip. This explains the name applied to various tribes, Timbues, or Timbois. It is in signification the same as Lengua, and refers to the same use of the labret ornament.”
Neither Lengua nor Timbue, therefore, is a nomen gentile. This is evident from the discrepancies of authors about their locations and amply explains those discrepancies.
Father Azara describes them as a subtribe of the Abipons, and in entire conformity with this D'Orbigny* found them in 1828 living about latitude 27°, longitude 62°, in the midst of the territory of
1 A good illustration of its use is shown in the portrait of a Suya in Von den Steinen's Durch Central Brasilien, p. 204. Another form is where a labret several inches in length was thrust outward and downward through the lower lip.
2 Ruiz de Montoya, Vocabulario de la Lengua Tupi, s. v.
3 Not to the perforation of the nose, the nariz horadada, as Lafone Quevedo states (ix, p. 4). The tembeta is the sign of virility and probably a personal and totemic sign of life. When a warrior is killed in battle his slayer carries off the tembeta from his lip and presents it to his own wife (Thouar, i, p. 51). It is made of wood or metal, and varies in diameter.
* D'Orbigny, L'Homme Américain, Vol. ii, pp. 116, 120, 121.
that tribe. He thought their language differed “quant au fond, but apparently did not examine it closely, and considered them of the same stock. This means simply that some of the Abipons wore the labret.
Another tribe of Lenguas lived and still live on the right bank of the river Paraguay, about latitude 21°. They wear the labret, and have been recently visited by several travelers. Some of these speak a Guaycuru dialect, according to Boggiani and Colini, though Cardus reports authority that some are Guaranis. Possibly two tribes residing in the same region, though of diverse stocks, may wear the tembeta.
Further down stream, in the angle of the R. Paraguay and R. Pilcomayo near Asuncion, is another group of Lenguas. Mr. Lafone Quevedo states that they belong to the Mataco (Enimaga) stock; and this is confirmed by their numerals quoted by Father Cardus, as the following comparison illustrates :
The Lenguas whom M. Demersay found in this locality (1860) lived north of the Rio Pilcomayo, near the Quartel del Cerrito, and were fast disappearing.1
Under the Tupi appellative, Timbues, tribes wearing the labret were reported by Pedro Mendoza on the Paraguay about where the Mataco Lenguas were later found, and doubtless were the same.?
Others were on the lower Parana in early times (located latitude 33°, longitude 62° by Lafone Quevedo, ix, pp. 9-11 and 35). Their language is unknown, and they are long since extinct in that locality.
The same name, Timbois, Tembetas, always for the same reason, was applied to a tribe in the northern Chaco, speaking either Tupi or Chiquito (Lafone Quevedo, ix, p. 11), and to a band of the Chiriguanos (Cardus, i, p. 242).
1 Le Tour du Monde, Tome iv, p. 108.
· Coleti, Diccionario Storico-geografico dell'America Meridionale, s. v. (Venice, 1771).
Some of the Chiquitos were certainly called Lenguas. Father Fernandez mentions a tribe so named, speaking Chiquito, who dwelt near Lake Nengetures, thirty leagues from the Rio Piray.?
A horde of the “ Payaguas” (about latitude 27°, longitude 58°) seems also to have received the name Lenguas; as a “ Lengua” vocabulary collected by Cerviño has been shown by Lafone Quevedo to be really Payagua, that is, Guaycuru (Tavolini i, App., p. 21). Doubtless they, too, made use of the labret, (see also Lafone Quevedo, xi, p. xxix).
From the above it is evident that neither of the names Lenguas” or “ Timbues" has any ethnic significance and they cause confusion ; so I have omitted them from the map. Believing the so-called Lenguas between the Pilcomayo and the Paraguay to be or to have been Matacos, I extend that stock to the latter river, differing in this from the map of Pelleschi.
THE CHANAS (CHANASES).
This is another general term which has led to ethnographic errors. It is a Tupi word compounded of anê, blood relation, with the pronominal prefix, che, my, = my relations.
Cardus, on his map, has correctly placed one of the tribes so named about latitude 22°, longitude 65°, south of the Chiriguanos, to whom they are affined, both being of Tupi blood.
D'Orbigny located an early nation of this name “on the island of the Uruguay, opposite the mouth of the Rio Negro.
Lafone Quevedo has recently devoted an article to the latter horde (ix). He places them on the mainland, latitude 34°, longitude 59o. He also offers some interesting specimens of their language from the MSS. of Father Larrañaga. It appears to be morphologically related to the eastern Chaco tongues, but the information about it is too slight to be decisive. It shows clearly, however, that these “ Chanas" were not relations of the Tupis.
Other Chaneses are located by Thouar on his map of the R. Pilcomayo, on that river about longitude 64°, latitude 22' 30°.
1 Relacion historial, p. 158. 2 « Orejones,” • Big-Eared,” is another descriptive term applied by the Spaniards to any tribe who expanded the lobes of the ears by artificial means. It also has no ethnic significance.
3 L'Homme Américain, Tome, ii, p. 84.
These must have been a band of the Chiriguanos who have recently wandered there.
The Ara-chanes (uara-che-ana, men our cousins”), located by early writers on the Paraguay about south latitude 30°-31°, were obviously a Guarani horde. Ameghino quotes authorities to show that there were “reductions" of Chanas who were pure Guaranis on the Rio Carcarañal and the Rio Arecife.1
In spite of the identity in appearance and language of the Chaneses among the Chiriguanos, there is a tradition that they are of a different stock, all their adults having been slain and the children adopted by the Chiriguanos. For this reason the latter call them tapiii, slaves, while the Chaneses addresses a Chiriguano as cheya, “my master.
THE CHARUAS AND QUERANDIES.
Acarete du Biscay, writing in 1658, says, “ The country on the north side of the river de la Plata is inhabited by none but savages called Charruas."'s
A wild, nomadic, equestrian nation of this name roamed over the same territory a century later and are described by Father Gaetano Cattaneo as intractable to the best efforts of the missionaries.
Finally, about 1832, they were destroyed, as a tribe, by the whites, though probably individuals of them survived the assaults.
They appear to have extended north as far as 30° and to have occupied most of the area of Uruguay and parts of the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul.
The linguistic affiliation of this extended people has not been discovered.
They are believed by Lafone Quevedo to have belonged to the Guaycuru stock, but their name, which is Guarani (che, my,
1 F. Ameghino, La Antiguedad del Hombre en el Plata, Tome i, Cap. viii. Other evidence is in the « Repartimiento,” of 1582, published by Outes ; op. cit. App. 3; but I do not signify this distribution of the Guaranis, as it seems to have been effected by the Spaniards, 2 El Colegio Franciscano de Tarija y sus Misiones, p. 54 (Queracchi, 1884).
Voyage to Buenos Aires, p. 28. + His letters are appended to Muratori's Il Cristianesimo Felice nel Paraguai (Venice, 1743).
5 In Boletin del Instituto Geografico Argentino, 1894, p. 524.