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The personal and possessive pronouns in the Chiamococo are as follows: I, eio'c.
Mine, a inseparable prefix).
The syllable os is prefixed to parts of the human body, articles of use and to verbs which are reflexive or intransitive. Boggiani considers it a generic pronoun referring to human beings. It seems akin to the numeral for “two,” ossia, and therefore I should think it signifies “the other's,” or “another's," which is the primary sense of the binary numeral.
The above pronouns are not those of the Arawack stock, except that the Ande uses the pronominal prefix a in the first person plural, which Adam thinks is an abbreviation of aba."
The signs of negation in Chiamococo giu'a, gio'; or the prefix iề, iêt. This differs entirely from the Arawack stock, where the negative is conveyed by the prefix ma-, mo-, with great uniformity.
These and other grammatical differences are too formidable to admit the opinion that the Samucu is a substock of the Arawack; while the lexical similarities are too numerous and striking to be overlooked. Very many words from Arawack dialects have been incorporated into the tongue spoken by the Chiamococos and their affined hordes.
The Chamococos bravos, who occasionally appear on the shores of the Rio Paraguay a few leagues south of Fort Olimpo, speak the same tongue, and their separation from the main stock is still remembered in tradition (Boggiani, iv, p. 170).
The proper name of the united tribe appears to be Tumanahá or Timinaha, which recurs in documents of the eighteenth century (Boggiani, id.); although this may be a modification of the not uncommon Tupi tribal term, temymynó, grandson or descendant, often used in a conventional, metaphorical sense.?
Father Fernandez, whose observations were made at the commencement of the last century, says that the Samucu tongue was spoken by the Morotocos, the Careras of the Reduccion de San Juan Bautista, the Ugoroños to the south and the Coroinos, a branch of
1 Lucien Adam, Arte de la Lengua de los Indios Antis ó Campas, p. 8 (Paris, 1890).
2 Cf. Martius, Ethnographie und Sprachenkunde, Bd. ii, p. 172.
the Morotocos. Muratori adds that it was one of the three native languages officially taught in the Paraguay missions.
THE ENNIMA STOCK.
Since the publication of my American Race, a new linguistic stock has been discovered in the Chaco region. The first vocabulary of it was published by M. de Brettes, in 1892, containing about 130 words collected in 1887. In the same year a posthumous work by Señor Juan de Cominges was printed in Buenos Aires, containing a list collected in 1879; and in 1895, Señor Guido Boggiani published in Rome a careful collection of terms he had formed in 1889, republishing the vocabulary of Cominges, but apparently not being aware of that of de Brettes. This last differs notably from the others, introducing various Samucu and Guaycuru terms, but well representing the groundwork of the tongue.
The name first given to this stock was Guaná. This is a common noun in the Tupi-Guarani language, a term of respect, something equivalent to "fine" or "learned people," and was applied by them to various nations whose cultural condition impressed them favorably. Later Sr. Boggiani has proposed the more acceptable term Ennimá, a designation applied to them by their neighbors to the north and which may as well be adopted.
The location of the stock is on the right bank of the Paraguay, 21° 30' to 23° and westward nearly to the Bolivian line. Boggiani includes in it the tribes known as Guanas, Sanapanas, Sapuquis, Angaites and “Lenguas." To these must be added the Machicuys and the Chaco tribes mentioned by de Brettes as speaking “Guaná," the Néenssemakas, the Kamananghas and the Banghis.
Hervas located the Machicuys on a branch of the Rio Pilcomayo in the centre of the Chaco. They numbered about 1200 warriors
i Relacion historial de los Indios Chiquitos, pp. 316, 371, 394.
211 Cristianesimo felice nel Paraguay, p. 132. The others were that of the “ Guananis ” (Guarani) and of the Chiquitos.
3 Mallat de Bassilan, L'Amérique Inconnue, Appendix. 4 Reale Academia dei Lincei, Roma, 1895.
5« Edles Volk," "die Gelehrten," Martius, Ethnog, und Sprachenkunde, Bd. ii, pp. 172, 788. An abbreviation of Guayana.
6 See Boggiani, “Etnografia del alto Paraguay,” in Boletin del Instituto Geografico Argentino, 1898, p. II.
and were divided into nineteen subtribes. Their language was consonantal, nasal and guttural. The names of the subtribes were of formidable length, as :
They were characterized by wearing the barbote or labret, and were tall and warlike. About 1862, Demersay found them few in number, located at the
artel del Cerrito, five leagues from Asuncion, and obtained from them the vocabulary mentioned below."
Father Azara asserted that the Machicuys spoke a tongue of their own; but D'Orbigny insisted that they were closely related to the Tobas, and hence belonged in the Guaycuru stock. He observes : “The termination in their tongue of ith, ac and op prove this beyond contradiction."
M. Demersay, in his Histoire du Paraguay (1860), gives a short vocabulary of the “ Machicuy” as follows:
1. Eyes, hartec.
4. Thigh, hehihohoc. 2. Feet, hemenec.
5. Tobacco, hequena. 3. Fingers, heptehec, 6. Fire, tahasla,
7. Yes, tahase.
Lafone Quevedo remarks of this (Tavolini, i, App., p. 19) that he has found no affinities in these words to the Abipon except in one (No. 3).
A comparison even of these few terms indicates, however, that they are not from the Guaycuru stock, but belong with the Ennima,
Another proof is the terminal c (ec, oc), which is doubtless a pro
1 Le Tour du Monde, Vol. iv, pp. 108, 11.
PRINTED DEC. 14, 1898.
nominal suffix, and which appears also in one of the tribal names of the Machicuy given by Hervas. This relationship has been accepted by Boggiani (v).
No connection of this with any other tongue has yet been shown. There are a few similarities to the Tsoneca of Patagonia, but not sufficient to establish a relationship."
ia-pelek. ia-põlk. sätsa. ahoike, tsöge. Pgit. kina.
The word pehec or pe'ec seems a general term in both tongues for the leg and foot.
THE ARAWACK STOCK. One of the various hordes called Guanás dwells north of Corumba, in the province of Mato Grasso. They are also spoken of as Chualas, which is merely a variant, and Layanas, another variant. The Terenos on the river Miranda are their neighbors and relatives. These belong to the Arawack stock, which extended its various branches in an unbroken line from the Bahama Islands, off the coast of Florida, nearly to the river Pilcomayo of the Chaco.
The relationship of this remote southern branch to the main stem is illustrated in the following comparisons :
WATER. Guana, incu,
huna, kombai poi, onguei. Layana,
ongheh. Arawack dialects, yucú.
une, tuna, hida, ito, nu-uqui. 1 The Tsoneca words are from H. Hale, Ethnography and Philology of the U. S. Exploring Expedition.
In the southwestern portion of the map is marked the area at one time included under the government of the Incas. Their authority extended eastward to the Rio Salado, including the valley of Catamarca, and as far north as the upper tributaries of the Rio Vermejo, where they were in contact with the Chiriguanos.
This is a greater area for the Incasic power in this region than has generally been assigned it; but I am convinced that the evidence is sufficient to justify it.
I include among the Quechuas the tribe of Omaguas or Omaguacas who occupied an extended territory about Jujuy. Dr. Waitz, for various reasons, not linguistic, believed that they were a branch of the Tupi-Guarani stock, and related to the Chiriguanos.
My grounds for dissenting from this and placing them with the Quechuas are the following:
1. The name Omagua is undoubtedly the Quechua, umayaccha, from uma, head, and yachay, to know, understand, and means, “intelligent, superior people." It was applied by the Quechuas to various tribes whose culture or ability they respected.
2. Acarete du Biscay, who was among them in 1658, records that they called their chiefs curaca, which is the Quechua term for the head of a clan or village."
3. Nicholas del Techo gives the personal name of one of their principal chiefs as “ Piltipico." This is certainly the Quechua
1 Anthropologie der Naturvölker, Bd. iii, pp. 432, 433.
2 See von Tschudi, Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Alten Peru, p. 139. Martius. thought it a hybrid of Quechua and Tupi. Ethnographie und Sprachenkunde Amerikas, Bd. i, S. 436.
3 Voyage to Buenos Aires, p. 58 (London, 1716). At that time their principal town had 200 houses. Their immediate neighbors to the west were the Chichas, who were Quechuas.