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Adam Smith advantage agricultural products agriculturists branches of industry cities civilization colonies commerce commodities competition condition consume consumption continental continental system cosmopolite cotton cultivated culture degree demand division of labor doctrine Economists employed England English established exchangeable values exports facturing favor foreign trade France free trade furnish Germany Holland human idea important improvement increase independence Indies individuals influence intellectual interests J. B. Say J. S. Mill land laws less liberty manu manufac manufactured articles manufactured products manufacturing industry maritime material capital means merchants millions moral nations nature navigation North America physiocrats Political Economy population Portugal possession principle productive forces productive power progress proportion prosperity protective duties protective system purely agricultural raw materials regard rent restrictions rich Russia School secure social society soil surplus theory things tion treaty turing United wealth Wealth of Nations whilst whole
Сторінка 57 - I" comprises the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and the District of Columbia; (c) "Districts II-IV" means all of the States of the United States except those States within District I and District V; (d) "Districts I-IV...
Сторінка 244 - The statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention but assume an authority which could safely be trusted not only to no single person but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy...
Сторінка 244 - But it is only for the sake of profit that any man employs a capital in the support of industry ; and he will always, therefore, endeavour to employ it in the support of that industry of which the produce is likely to be of the greatest value, or to exchange for the greatest quantity either of money or of other goods.
Сторінка lix - For practical purposes, political economy is inseparably intertwined with many other branches of social philosophy. Except on matters of mere detail, there are perhaps no practical questions, even among those which approach nearest to the character of purely economical questions, which admit of being decided on economical premises alone.
Сторінка xxi - The conclusions of Political Economy, consequently, like those of geometry, are only true, as the common phrase is, in the abstract ; that is, they are only true under certain suppositions, in which none but general causes— causes common to the whole class of cases under consideration — are taken into the account.
Сторінка xlix - To determine the laws which regulate this distribution, is the principal problem in Political Economy : much as the science has been improved by the writings of Turgot, Stuart, Smith, Say, Sismondi, and others, they afford very little satisfactory information respecting the natural course of rent, profit, and wages.
Сторінка xlix - The produce of the earth— all that is derived from its surface by the united application of labour, machinery and capital, is divided among three classes of the community, namely the proprietor of the land, the owner of the stock or capital necessary for its cultivation, and the labourers by whose industry it is cultivated.
Сторінка 101 - A merchant, it has been I said very properly, is not necessarily the citizen of any particular country. It is in a great measure indifferent to him from what place he carries on his trade; and a very trifling disgust will make him remove his capital, and together with it all the industiy which it supports, from one country to another.
Сторінка 398 - To expect, indeed, that the freedom of trade should ever be entirely restored in Great Britain, is as absurd as to expect that an Oceana or Utopia should ever be established in it.