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,איש I found the word translated nail was


be the wicked dead exclusively,

" I saw no temple therein ;' while Ezekiel which violates the consistency of

treats largely of the temple. But when I the passage:

drew the plan of the city according to We conclude with the following

Ezekiel, I found them both agree. There

was “no temple therein," for it was about interesting extract upon DIFFI- twenty-five miles north of the city.

Still there is one difficulty about the " I do not pretend that my view of the measurement of the city, as described prophecies is unconnected with difficulties; by John, which is not so easily solved. but they are very few, and these, for the

After I had written all but the conmost part, pertain to the resurrection and cluding chapter, I obtained a book on this the New Jerusalem.

One passage ap

subject, written by Mr J. A. Begg, who peared to me, for a long time, strongly gives the following solution of the difficulty opposed to the resurrection of the saints at page 203 : “ In all the works which we at the commencement of the Millennium have seen on this point, a great discrepthat is, Job xiv, 12, “So man lieth down,


is supposed to exist between the and riseth not till the heavens be no more ; Prophet and the Apostle. But this mistake they shall not awake, nor be raised out of has arisen from an oversight of the fact, , their sleep." I turned to the original,

that while the one states the circumference, and hoped to find the word translated the other informs us of the square measure. man to be wyk,-a poor, weak, sickly Ezekiel says, “It was round about eightmortal, ---often used with reference to een thousand measures,' of the angel's the wicked; and if it had been so, I reed, which was six great cubits' long should have concluded that the whole of twenty two inches each. Being a square, passage might relate to the wicked, ex

each side' was four thousand and five clusive of the just. But, to my surprise,

hundred measures of the reed, Ezek. xlviii, I man ,

32. But John does not specify its length which is more frequently applied to

or breadth ; but having mentioned that it good man, and sometimes to the Lord was square he gives the measurement achimself. My next inquiry was, What is cordingly: ' And the city lieth four square, to be understood by the heavens ? and in and the length is as large as the breadth. looking into Robertson's Thesaurus, under And he (the angel) measured the city with the word be, bal, I met with a reference the reed twelve thousand furlongs. The to Job xiv, 6, which answers to the 12th length and the breadth and height of it are in our translation, D'puinha ny, dum equal,' Rev. xxi, 16, 17. It was not the non sit cælum ; quum Deus cælum novum length, or breadth, or height which the faciet, et cælum quod nunc est abolebit;" angel measured. These he declares to be " Until the heavens shall not be; when equal;' but the 'twelve thousand furlongs' God shall make new heaven, and the hea- are not the dimensions of each or any of its ven which now is shall be abolished." sides, as is commonly supposed, but of Now this is perfectly consistent with the


' the city' four square. Considering this, view I have taken of the subject ; namely, therefore, as neither the length nor the that the righteous will not rise until the breadth, but as the measurement of the creation of the new heaven and the new area of the city; and reckoning by the earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness,

Jewish furlong of 2603 cubits as stated by " For the first heaven and the first earth Maimonides, on extracting the square of were passed away," Rev. xxi, 1. At the

the measurement of the circumference of coming of Christ the pious dead will be THE CITY, given by Ezekiel, we obtain a raised, and the first heaven and the first view by which the statements of the Proearth will pass away, and thus the words phet and Apostle are found to correspond of Job will be verified, chap. xiv, 12 ; very nearly ;--and which would probably xix, 25—27.

correspond exactly, if Maimonides standI could mention a number of texts ard were perfectly accurate, thus confirm which at first appeared opposed to these ing the view of identity.

Most of the difficulties will vanish be. sentiments, but which, after mature deliberation, I found strongly to support

fore men, who study the prophecies with them. I will cite only one instance. the disposition of little children.” Pp,

214-217. John, describing the new Jerusalem, says

*** New Publications, fc. in our next.


--BY H.


Interpreters, who agree in viewing

the seals and trumpets as synAlthough these Essays originated chronous, differ materially from in dissatisfaction at the statements each other in the selection of their of the more eminent Commentators, events and dates; and those who whose respective views appear to

accord in the arrangement of the be warped more or less into ac- series, vary nevertheless in the incordance with their chronological termediate particulars and periods. systems; yet is not the Writer Messrs. Scott and Frere likewise without serious apprehension, that pass by many verses of the text; as formidable objections will be brought being inexplicable according to the. against the exposition now offered. spiritualizing plan of the former, and

Messrs. Frere and Cuninghame not comporting with the limited exinsist, that the seals and trumpets plication of the latter : a mode of are synchronous; and relate to events seeking the truth of holy Writ, which in the eastern and western divisions is by no means satisfactory.* of the Roman empire, occurring not Before we enter on the subject of together, but within limits arbitrarily what is often termed the sealed assigned as the dates of each seal book," I will endeavour to describe and trumpet. The Writer has not those Hebrew customs which seem had leisure to examine Mr. Faber's to have furnished the imagery, by last work; but believes the outline means of which the outline of proof his system continues to be, that phetic history was by anticipation the series of seals was previous to exhibited to the Hebrew Apostle, so the seven trumpets, which he in- far as it concerned the Church of God. cludes in the seventh seal. But he Deut, xxxi, 26, informs us, the also explains the seals as relating to book, or roll of the law, was put in specific periods of the western the side of the ark of the covenant." empire; and thus, equally with The Jews now keep it within the others, renders the interpretation of chest which takes the place of that the sixth and seventh chapters con- ark in their synagogues; where it is fused, --contradictory to the obvious a subject of deliberation, contest and meaning of many words and of the barter, who shall open it and bring general imagery, and inconsistent forth the sacred roll. Whoever

pays with parallel prophecies : at least the highest price (not blood, but as it appears to the Writer of these corruptible silver or gold,) proceeds essays; who views “the Jew as in state with the key. The congrethe master-key to the Apocalypse.” gation, with eager looks, watch till

* There is much unquestionably of great importance and worthy of consideration in all these Writers ; and among other things it is curious to notice 2 Esdras xii, (instanced by Mr. Frere,) which describes the Millennium as the period in which the earth is made joyful until the coming of the day of judgement. The view taken by him indicates his having been gifted with spiritual insight into the whole scheme of prophecy beyond any of the uninspired ancients; and while one deprecates his words being viewed beside those of inspiration, as of equal authority, it would be well to study this only remaining transcript of the opinions of wise Israelites, drawn from their own prophets alone, previous to any part of the historical fulfilment. INVESTIGATOR, No. XII.

July, 1832.

3 B

he opens the chest; when at the

verses of chap. vi, seems to be to sight of the roll of the law, they lay the territorial platform of the shout aloud, chant a verse of thanks- prophetic history about to be degiving, and follow him in procession livered. For this purpose three of three times round the Reader's table, the chief empires, with which the each in turn advancing to touch the Church has been connected, are on covering with his little finger, which that account briefly exhibited by he afterwards kisses. The roll is their ancient and most marked charemoved from his shoulder and one racteristics: and no further referred end of the pole is rested on the min- to, previous to the representation of ister's knee, as he sits in the place the all-engrossing Roman empire, of honor ; and he holds it by the east and west; which formed that other end, while the purchaser of platform from before John's day to the privilege unties the string and this; and will form it, till it passes removes the veil, (alas! the material under the dominion of the Lord of covering only,) replaces the roll on the whole earth. his shoulder, and conveys it to the As man can apprehend objects desk. The Reader with a silver only in succession, the next seal pointer unrols it till he reaches the discloses the state of separate spirits, portion appointed for the day, which waiting for the adoption, to wit, he calls most of those present suc- the redemption of the body;" which cessively to mutter with himself. will take place in coincidence with

The sealed volume of prophecy the vengeance decreed against their consisted of seven distinct rolls on persecutors.a The last seal exhibits a similar ferule or rod; the inner the events which will gradually acone sealed, and so on in succession, complish their desire. each enveloping the other; hence Subsequent delineations in the rethe outermost one was opened first. maining chapters describe the sevThe Jews' phylactery box conveys eral particulars of this prophetic an idea of these rolls, but not of outline; as is usual in Old Testament each roll enclosing each other.* prophecies: the whole period or They were opened in succession; scene being first glanced at in its and thus so much of the represen- boldest points, and then each part tation of the preceding roll was being repeated with the needful received by John, as he was to

minutiæ. Thus, when the record.

arises, his first rays illumine only The chief design of the first eight the projecting cliff, the loftier trees,


* It is square ; one is fastened to the forehead, another to the thumb of the right hand by a fillet of leather, which hangs down to the waist, after encircling the head or arm while prayer is repeated. These little boxes, about an inch square, are stitched up and never opened by the possessor ; but annually by the appointed investigator. They contain four rolls, tightly wound up, on each of wbich is written in the sacred characters a Hebrew text. The Writer has seen silk bags of the eastern Jews, tied tight, and sealed with a broad signet ; the bag containing a manuscript, plain or illuminated, rolled round a pin of metal or wood from two to six inches broad, and of various lengths, with occasional breaks in the writing, to show the beginning and end of each subject. Each of these rolls was alone in its bag; and the roll itself was not sealed, but seemed to have been slightly cemented at the edge. The rolls of the Pentateuch, preserved by the ancient tribe of Black Jews of Cochin, were of goat skins dyed red and sewed together : one roll was about 48 feet long.–See Dr. Buchanan's Researches.

a Isa. lxiii, 4.

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and general outlines; but as he tra- the angel declares that “there are vels onward, the rest of the scene is seven kings; five are fallen, one is, gradually enlightened, its colouring and the other is not yet come:" almade apparent, and the landscape though from chap. iv, the revelation presented to the eye in its complete- was to concern "things which must

Thus too the artist first be hereafter.sketches his design, and lays the 2dly. It is objected, that as three ground on which his figures are to empires had passed away, they were be grouped ; and at every sitting the subject of history and not of fills up each several part till the pic- revelation.

revelation. This is granted, as to ture is finished. Thus also (though their several revolutions and outfrom habit we are scarcely conscious ward circumstances; but not as to of the act,) each part of his pic- the fact of their dominions forming ture must be separately and suc- part of the scene of future processively examined, before we can phetic action. In this respect was it take in the whole of the design and likely, that the scene of the call of its accompaniments. Probably all Abraham, and the captivity of his the prophecies would be more easily posterity should be omitted ? espeapprehended, were this process re- cially since by their means the membered, and followed up in its head of the first great empire was peculiar circumstantials; keeping als brought from heathenism to the acways in view Israel's concern in it. knowledgement of the one true God

Two objections, which have been of heaven and earth. Or could that raised against the scheme of inter- empire be forgotten, whose ruler pretation of others, will affect that (himself the subject of prophecy) which the Writer adopts. First, that made the same recognition on reas the word "

apocalypsesignifies storing Judah to Immanuel's land? revelation, or discovery, it must refer Would the theatre of one of the erlusively to things subsequent to two apostacies, which occupy so the period of the vision.--But must important a part of the visions of not all spiritual objects be the sub- Daniel and John, be passed by, beject of revelation before they can cause previous to its appearance be comprehended? John's natural that empire had been vanquished, eye had seen his Master in humilia- and made only a division of the tion and suffering ; but it was only fourth empire, the seat of its coteniby revelation of the Spirit that the porary apostacy, whose final catasmystery and value of these things trophe it is to share ?-It is in were afterwards discovered to him. respects which no secular history Revelation was also necessary to notices, and which no uninspired discover to him the Judge's view of historian could apprehend, that the the then existing state of the seven first three

briefly churches, as also of their destiny. brought before the eye. The objection may also be answered No attempt will be made in by a reference to the parallel pro- these essays to ascertain chronophecy of Daniel, chap. vii

, 17. The logical accuracies; but it ought to angel declares, that “these great be borne in mind, that this grand beasts, which are four, are four period, which includes the whole kings which shall arise out of the prophetic scenery, must equally earth :” and yet the Babylonian correspond with the word of God, empire was then existing. In this as delivered by each prophet who Revelation also (chap. xvii, 9, 10,) treats of it. Thus Mr. Faber justly

three empires


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remarks, that the Apocalypse is speaking to them in his wrath, • spreads over the same great pro- and vexing them in his sore disphetic calendar as that which con- pleasure;"-until, when they shall ‘stitutes the guage and measure of have filled up the measure of their Daniel's predictions. Commencing iniquities, he executes the unalterwith the appearance of the Baby- able decree, " Yet will I set* My lonian empire in the calendar, it King upon my holy hill of Zion, passes through the entire times of and make his enemies his footstool, the Roman empire, and conducts 'that he may break them with a us to the final consummation of rod of iron, and dash them in the universe.”

'pieces like a potter's vessel.” The internal structure of the first In Daniel the four living creatures eight verses, exhibits what is called are of a complex appearance, symhomogeneity, or consistency, in the bolizing the four empires in their character of the first four seals. For persecuting character : but in John the four living creatures, already con- they represent the Church called out sidered, successively call John's at- of those empires, and therefore the tention to that which each of the first characteristic of each is the simple four rolls exhibited, when unsealed mystic symbol assigned to them in and unfurled. By striking character- the heavenly courts.

the heavenly courts. (See the diaistic emblems, (which Mr.Faber pro- gram page 360.) And so of the perly calls“hieroglyphic paintings,") four horses and chariots in Zech. they describe, I repeat, the territorial vi, also symbols of the same emplatform of the prophetic scenery pires; the angel told him (v. 5) about to be presented to him ; in that they represent “the four spirits order to show the locality of the ac- of the heavens which go forth from tion of the whole drama, (if I may standing before the Lord of all the so express my idea of it,)--the earth.” Ezekiel indeed sees the stage on which the contest between four emblematic creatures combined the Sovereign and the usurpers of his in one symbol, and that apparently dignities and offices occurs, and on in relation to Israel exclusively : which he achieves the victory. but though the general body of the

How sublime is the thought! that faithful was composed chiefly of all which forms the history of this Israelites, yet were there Gentile world's empires,—the news of each proselytes, 1st out of the Babylonpassing hour, the anxious objects of ian empire, in the time of Daniel earthly politics, the designs and in- and Nebuchadnezzar : 2dly, out of terests of rulers and people, the the Persian empire, when Cyrus revolutions of states, are but the honoured the Lord of heaven ; 3dly, history and details of the judgements out of the Grecian empire, when of that BEING, who (while the Alexander and his army venerated rulers take counsel together against the God of the Jews; and 4thly, Jehovah and against his anointed, as all know, out of the Roman saying, “let us break their bands empire. Israel is therefore stili asunder! and cast away their cords chiefly represented; but with the from us !") sitteth in the heavens mixed multitude, their adherents, and hath them all in derision ;—who also encamped with them. All form

* A Christian Jew remarked, that this verb restricted the sense to Messiah ; for the original is ; " yet have I anointed, &c." But David was not anointed on Mount Zion


and to the peaceful character of Solomon's reign the latter verses of the second Psalm cannot apply.


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