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TITLES OF HONOUR are words or phrases which cer- of honour is that of knighthood. This dignity is of very tain persons are entitled to claim as their right, in con- antient origin, and, in the form in which we now see it, sequence of certain dignities being inherent in them. may be traced far into the depths of the middle ages, if it They vary in a manner corresponding to the variety of be not, as some suppose, a continuation of the Equites of the dignities, or, in other words, with the rank of the pos- Rome. Persons on whom this honour is conferred take

Thus Emperor, King, Czar, Prince, are titles of rank above the gentlemen and esquires, and are entitled honour, and the possessors of the high dignities represented to the prefix Sir to their former name and surname. Their by these words are, by the common consent of the civilized wives also are entitled to prefix the word Dame, and to be world, entitled to be so denominated, and to be addressed addressed by the compellation Your Ladyship or My Lady. by such terms as Your Majesty and Your Royal Highness. The Knights of particular Orders, as of the Garter, the These are the terms used in England, and the phrases in Thistle, St. Patrick, the Bath, are a kind of select number use in other countries of Europe do not much differ from of the body of the knighthood, and the name of the Order them. In fact one European nation seems to have bor- to which they belong is ordinarily used by and of them, rowed from another, or all to have taken their titles of and thus becomes of the nature of a title of honour. The honour for this exalted rank from a common original ; sọ Bannerets of former ages were a class of knights superior that little of the peculiar genius of the European nations to the ordinary knight-bachelor, forming in fact an Order can be traced in the terms by which they show their intermediate between the knight, in its ordinary sense, and respect for the persons of highest dignity. But it is dif- the baron. The Baronet, which is quite a new dignity, ferent when we come to compare them with the Oriental not having been known before the reign of James 1, has, nations. In those seats of antient civilization the most besides its name, which is placed after the name and surextravagant terms of compliment are in use, and a little name of the person spoken of, the privilege of prefixing sovereign of a wandering tribe rejoices in titles of honour Sir; and their wives are entitled to the prefix of Dame, and numerous and inflated in the highest degree. In the series to be addressed as My Lady and Your Ladyship: of Roman emperors, the word Cæsar, originally the name Besides these, there are the ecclesiastical dignities of of a family, became a title of honour; Augustus was ano- Bishop and Archbishop, which bring with them the right ther; and Pater Patriæ a third.

to certain titles of honour besides the phrases by which the The five orders of nobility in England are distin- dignity itself is designated. And custom seems to have zuished by the titles of honour, Duke, Marquis, Earl, sanctioned the claim of the persons who possess inferior Viscount, and Baron : and the persons in whom the dignities in the church to certain honourable titles or dignity of the peerage inheres are entitled to be de- compellations, and it is usual to bestow on all persons who signated by these words; and if in any legal proceedings are admitted into the clericas order the title of Reverend. they should be otherwise designated, there would be a There are also academical distinctions which are of the misnomer by which the proceedings would be vitiated, just nature of titles of honour, although they are not usually 23 when a private person is wrongly described in an indict- considered to fall under the denomination. Municipal ment; that is, the law or the custom of the realm offices have also titles accompanying them; and in the guarantees to them the possession of these terms of honour, law there are very eminent offices the names of which beas it does of the dignities to which they correspond. They come titles of honour to the possessors of them, and which are also entitled to be addressed by such phrases as My bring with them the right to certain terms of distinction. Lord, My Lord Marquis, My Lord Duke, and they have Ai titles of honour appear to have been originally usually prefixed to their titles, properly so called, certain names of office. The earl in England had in former ages phrases, as High and Mighty Prince, Most Noble, Right substantial duties to perform in his county, as the Honourable, varying with the kind and degree of the dig- sheriff (the Vice-Comes or Vice-Earl) has now; but the nity possessed by them. The other members of the fami- name has remained cow that the peculiar duties are gone, res of peers have also their titles of honour. Thus the and so it is with rxpect to other dignities. The emperor lady of a peer has rank and titles corresponding with those or king, the highest dignity known in Europe, still perof the husband. All the sons and daughters of peers are forms the duties which originally belonged to the office, or Honourable, but the daughters of earls and peers of a at least the most important of them, as well as enjoys the Higher dignity are entitled to the distinction of being rank, dignity, and honours; and on the Continent there tailed Lady, and the younger sons of dukes and marquises are dukes and earls who have still an important political are by custom addressed as My Lord.

character. The orders of nobility in other European countries differ Some of these dignities and the titles correspondent little from our own. They have their Dukes, Marquises, to them are hereditary: So were the eminent offices Counts, Viscounts, and Barons. We cannot enter into the which they designate in the remote ages, when there were nice distinctions in the dignities of foreign nations, or in duties to be performed. Hence hereditary titles. the titles of honour which correspond to them.

The distinction which the possession of titles of Another dignity which brings with it the right to a title honour gives in society has always made them objects of P.C., No. 1552.

You. XXV..B


ambition; and it may be questioned whether, as far as I with the hard-billed and granivorcus birds, where they are there has been any feeling in operation besides that of a generally stationed. “Here,' says Mr. Vigors in continuasense of duty, the great exertions which are made in the tion, it may also be observed that they form part of one service of the country are not stimulated less by the ex- of the extreme families of the tribe, and are immediately pectation of pecuniary reward, than by the hope of receiv- connected with a group of the preceding family of the ing one of these titles of honour which shall descend to a Sylviada, which passes on to the Conirostres, the sueceedman's posterity. They cost nothing; and hence it is that ing subdivision of the order. They thus are brought into titles of honour have been called the cheap defence of contact with the tribe to which the strength and the coninations.'

cal structure of their bill indicates a conformity; while at Whoever wishes to study this subject in all its details the same time they maintain their station among the will do well to resort to two great works : one, the late groups where their manners and general economy would • Reports of the Lords' Committees on the dignity of the naturally place them. The Pari, which thus introduce us Peerage ;' the other, the large treatise on • Titles of into the present family, lead us on to the more typical Honour,' by the learned Selden. The latter was first groups of the Linnean Pipre, with which they bear an acprinted in 4to., 1614; again,with large additions, folio, 1631. knowledged affinity in manners and general appearance.

TITMICE, Paridæ, a natural family of Perching The genus Pardalotus, Vieill., which is the representative Birds. [INSESSORES.]

of the latter group in Australasia, appears to connect these Linnæus, in his last edition of the Systema Naturæ, placed two allied groups of the Old and the New World, by the genus Parus between Pipra and Hirundo, in his order exhibiting the nearly divided foot of the one, and the parPasseres.

tially curved bill of the other. Here come in the RUPICOLA, Latham arranges

it also at the end of the same order. Briss., and PHIBALURA, Vieill. And here, as I have already Pennant too gives it a place in the Passerine section, observed, when speaking of the Thrushes (MERULIDÆ, vol. between the Warblers and the Swallows.

xv., p. 121], I apprehend that all those groups will be M. de Lacépède places it immediately before the Larks; found to assemble, which, connected with Ampelis, Linn., M. Duméril in the eighth family of the Passeres (Subu- are generally denominated Berry-eaters and Chatterers ; lirostres, or Raphioramphes), in company with the Mana- such as Bombycilla, Briss., the true Ampelis of authors, kins, Larks, and Bec-fins ; M. Meyer, in the third suborder Casmarhinchus, Temm., and Procnias, nl. To these the (Subulatæ) of his fifth order (Oscines), between Alauda and genus Querula of M. Vieillot may, I think, be added. This Regulus ; Illiger, at the head of the Passerini, among the group, the type of which is the Muscicapa rubricollis of Ambulatores, immediately before Alauda ; Cuvier, among Gmelin, is strongly allied by its bill to the foregoing gethe Conirostres, directly after the Larks; Vieillot, in the nera, while its habits equally ally it to the family of Musfamily of Ægithales in the tribe Anisodactyli; Temminck, CICAPIDÆ, which follows. The interval between the present in the order Granivores, between the Larks and Buntings; groups and those of the Pari, where we entered on the and Latreille in the family Conirostres, also between the family, appears to be filled up by a race of birds peculiar Larks and the Buntings. Selby arranges it between the to New Holland, and hitherto uncharacterized, of which same two forms.

the Muscicapa pectoralis, Lath., is the type. These, Mr. Vigors places the genus Parus among the Pipride, uniting many external characters, at least, both of the in his order DENTIROSTRES. In his paper On the Natural Berry-eaters and Fly-catchers, exhibit asso in general apAffinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds,* pearance a considerable resemblance to the Pari, and will he remarks that the true Wrens of the Sylviada, a family be found, I conjecture, to be the connecting bond between which in his arrangement immediately precedes the all these groups. The affinity between this last family of PIPRIDÆ, display in their general appearance and habits so the tribe and the Muscicapidæ, which first met our attenclose a similarity to Parus, Linn., the Titmouse of our tion as we entered it, has already been observed when I naturalists, that we may at once acknowledge the affinity spoke of the separation of the broad-billed Chatterers from between the latter family and that of Pipridæ, upon which the Thrushes. "And thus equally, as in the former tribe, he enters by means of the Pari. “And who is there,' he we may recognise the completion of a circular succession asks, that has not been attracted by the interesting man- of affinities between all the families of the Dentirostres.' ners of both these familiar visitors of our domestic haunts, The uncharacterized group above alluded to was afterand at the same time has not been struck with their resem- wards formed into the genus Pachycephala, Sw. blance ?? The Penduline Titmouse, Parus pendulinus, Mr. Swainson (Classification of Birds) enters among the Linn., with its bill longer and more slender than that of Titmice by the American genus Seiurus, remarkable for the Pari in general, seems to him to be the connecting the motion of its tail. One species, Seiurus aquaticus, link between the families. That species, he observes, is Sw., frequents the sides of streams and runs upon the immediately met by the genus Tyrannulus of M. Vieillot, ground, whilst another, S. aurocapillus, Sw., is, he observes, which in the name of Roitelet Mesange (Titmouse-Wren), confined to damp woods and runs along the low branches conferred by Buffon on the American species of which it of trees. Here Mr. Swainson sees a change of economy, is composed, happily illustrates the affinity which he has which, he says, plainly shows that nature has assumed 'a pointed out. It is pleasing, he remarks, to trace in new form; and as the habit of running along branches of groups which bear a general affinity to each other in their trees is the chief faculty of the Scansorial birds, or of their more essential characters, an affinity also in less consequen- representatives, so, he remarks, we may suppose that the tial particulars, and he calls attention to the fact that this group next in succession to the Motacilline would possess is the case in the conterminous groups of Wrens and Tit- something of the same characters. These he finds mani. mice with respect to their mode of nidification; for the fested in the genus Accentor, and he adverts to an unpubgreater portion of both make their nests in holes of trees, lished notice which he heard read at a meeting of the but those groups which most nearly approach each other, Linnean Society of London, relating to the habits of an viz., Regulus, Tyrannulus, and Parus pendulinus, suspend Accentor which was killed near one of the public buildings theirs from the branches, leaving the orifice at the centre, at Oxford, and which was seen to climb 60 adroitly round and interlacing the materials of which it is composed with the steep abutments of those buildings as to baffle for a corresponding ingenuity and elegance. Mr. Vigors goes considerable time the aim of the person who shot it. He on to remind his readers that the affinity between these also states that he has seen the common Hedge-sparrow birds has been acknowledged by scientific as well as by com- frequently hop along the whole length of a strong oblique mon observers; and yet the former have generally ranked branch, pecking into the crevices of the bark so as to rethe Pari in a different tribe, and some indeed have even mind the observer of a scansorial creeper, or of a Woodarranged them in a different order from the Sylviadæ, in pecker: and he makes the Titmice a subfamily of the consequence of their more conical bill and the absence of SYLVIADÆ, with the genera and subgenera which will be the mandibular notch. A rigid deference to those parti- found in that article. [Vol. xxiii., p. 441.) culars which form the characteristics of the conterminous He remarks that this subsamıly may be said to comsubdivisions would, he admits, certainly exclude the Pari mence with the genus Accentor, which stands at the confrom the tribe of Dentirostres ; but the nature of their food, fines of that group which contains the most scansorial which consists chiefly of insects, and the similarity of their warblers in the family of the Sylviadæ. ' The short, habits, give them, he thinks, a more natural connection stout, and nearly conic bills of these active little climbers.' with the families among which he has placed them, than says Mr. Swainson, are admirably adapted for pecking *. Linn. Trans.,' vol. ziv.

into the bark of buds, and thus extracting the small insects

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