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tleman has shewn, by the most irre looking acres, is as unbecoming as to fragable evidence, that all the evils wear a shabby thread-bare coat, and which the Emigration Committee ate that to have their estates inhabited by tribute to over-populousness, existed hungry half-clothed wretches, is not in a much greater degree “ when the less disgraceful than a crowd of rage inhabitants

were wholly inadequate to ged menials would be about their doors possess, or cultivate, a quarter of the in the squares of London. soil that they do at the present mo- But landlords will say, " There is ment.” The fact is, or, at all events, already a great outcry against those it was, in Ireland, that the land was who are turning the pauper tenantry chiefly in the hands of poor creatures, off their estates, and we feel it to be a with a few acres, who were utterly cruel thing to order these people to be destitute of the means to employ la- turned adrift upon the world." Unbourers, and when one pauper failed doubtedly so it is, and we would join to pay his rent, and was expelled from in the exclamations against those who his holding, another, in not a whit suddenly disorganize an established better circumstances, got possession of system, without at all providing for it, who was, from sheer poverty, quite the consequences. The evil has grown unable to make any improvement, or up through the culpable carelessness give employment to any but his own of proprietors, and they cannot expect family, and he paid his rent, if he to get rid of it without considerable paid it at all, not by making the land trouble. Not personal trouble, unless productive, but by living himself, on they choose it themselves, but trouble the smallest possible quantity of the which they may delegate to others—to produce that would sustain life, while judicious practical agriculturists, who the rent swallowed up all the rest. The know how to divide estates advantageejected man then became one of the ously—to select the most deserving idle “ redundant population;" and as of the tenantry for larger holdings idleness is the fruitful parent of crime, to assist them with some capital, and he, perhaps, after a little time, set fire a great deal of instruction--and to to the new tenant's thatch, or houghed adopt every means which prudence his cow, whereas if the new tenant had and charity can devise to succour the the capital which he ought to have had, ejected tenantry, while they are seeka he would have employed this man upon ing for other employment. Common his half-tilled ground, and would have prudence, and the simplest views of found ample profit in so doing. their own interest, dictate to landlords

This is the true history of a great the necessity of improving their estates part of the redundant population - by removing the pauper tenantry; they are redundant, it is true, and while humanity commands that it starving, in many instances, but the should be done cautiously—sbewing land lies before them, which requires mercy to the poor people who are to only their labour to produce abundance be put out of house and home. The for them; yet they who are willing to common method of " forgiving them work, must look idly on, pining in the half-year's rent,” which is due want, because the owners of the land when they are turned adrift, is not the will not consult their own interest by way to do this. It is merely saying, improving it. The owners of land in “I will not send you to jail for what Ireland, have to answer to God and you owe,” because it is notorious that their country, for an enormous deal of with these people the rent is always evil, of which, actively or passively, half-a-year in advance of the means of they have been the occasion. We wish paying it. we could arouse in them that sense of It is absolutely necessary that those shame, which should make any landed who would improve their estates, gentleman blush to see his estate in should lay out a considerable portion the beggarly condition in which the of capital upon them; and if they greater part of Irish estates are to be have not money to do so, they should found. We wish we could make them sell some of their acres, and improve feel, that to have bare, scald, starved- the rest, with the purchase-money.

* Mr Nimmo says, that men of this description are abundant in Ireland. Sce 3d Re. port on Emigration, p. 350.

There is in Ireland, a paltry pride of system of crops, all that is yet to be poor gentility, which Englishmen done in the part of Ireland that he is scorn and laugh at, that makes a man in.” Is it any wonder, that under such rather be called the lord of a thousand circumstances the population should wretched starved acres, than of the be found redundant Or, can we more valuable property of five hun- marvel at the wildness and uncouthdred acres well cultivated ; and this is ness of a peasantry, amongst whom an absurdity which often stands in the commonest arts of civilization are the way of improvement. Landlords not even attempted ? must get capital, and lay it out, if they Whoever has travelled in Ireland expect to improve. In fact, if they do must have been struck with the vast not, they will not receive so much fields of bog, or peat moss, which rent from the estate when set in large meet and offend the eye by their dreadivisions, as they do from the small ry sameness. These tracts alone, not tenants, for these latter look for such including mountain wastes, constitute an exceedingly small portion for them- more than two millions of acres of selves, that they pay more rent than waste land, which might, every acre the respectable tenants of larger pore of it, be made into arable or pasture tions could pay.* Except, however, land, by the application of capital, upon the very narrowest principles of and the labour of the redundant pogain, this should not induce a lande pulation. At present it is of so little lord to prefer small tenants. The pro- value, that large tracts of it are held prietor of a house in London would as mere appendages to the neighboura probably get more rent by letting it ing lands, and pay no rent. Indeed, in separate rooms, than by letting it so careless have the proprietors been altogether; but he would have a dise about these bogs, and so loose and ingraceful troublesome tenantry, who definite in their grants of them, that would soon wear out his house; and the uncertainty about the boundaries so far, what is true of a house, is also and limitations of different properties, true of the divisions of an estate. It is adduced as one of the reasons which is really wonderful how well the rents prevents the reclaiming of them being are paid in some districts, by the very undertaken ; but this could soon be poorest of the people. Along the settled by Parliamentary CommissionLongford and Roscommon line of ers, were gentlemen to set about emcountry, for example, where the pea- ploying the people, instead of come santry present a great contrast to the plaining of their abundance. fierce inhabitants of Tipperary and Nature seems to invite them to the Limerick, the rents are paid with a task, having provided calcareous mapatience and regularity which, under nure in the immediate vicinity of althe circumstances of their extreme most all the great bogs,t and expea privation, is surprising. In his evi- rience has shown how very profitable dence before the Emigration Com- the undertaking would be. Those who mittee Mr Strickland describes these have read the Emigration Report, or people as possessing small holdings, the article on Ireland, in the Quarterly the produce of which is no more than Review, No. 75, may recollect the sufficient to feed their families with pleasing account which Mr Nimmo potatoes. The men come to England gives of his success in reclaiming a for work during the harvest time, and part of Lord Palmerston's bog. We carefully hoarding all the money they like very much the triumphant way can procure, they bring it home, and in which he states the result of his expay it almost all away for the high periment. We know of no achieverent of their little potatoe ground. ment, the recollection of which has a Were it not for the wages they receive right to make a man's breast glow with in England, they could not possibly the strongest feelings of satisfaction, pay rent, for they could get no one to more than that of having turned a employ them at home ; yet Mr Strick. waste and howling wilderness into a land says, “as to farm buildings, feuces, fruitful garden-of having converted drainages, and introducing a proper a sterile waste, fit for little else than

* See Evidence of Mr Strickland, 3d Report of Emigration Committee, p. 333. + Emigration Report. Mr Nimmo's Evidence.

the retreat of robbers, into a good land, with either, and hence the difference bearing grass for cattle, and herbs for between them and the superiority of the service of man. But suppose there Ulster. It is no party or political feel. were no such feeling of honest exulta- ing, but simple truth, which dictates tion attached to it-suppose it had no- the observation, that in Ireland, wherething but the mere gain-nothing but ever Protestantism is found, there is the “shekels” to recommend it, it is a corresponding attention to domestic enough to rouse the enthusiasm of a improvement and outward decency, man whose soul never travelled be much beyond what is to be found with yond the balance of a profit and loss the same class of Roman Catholics. sheet.

We must now take leave of the land, The sum laid out by Mr Nimmo that we may turn to another very ima was £7 per acre, and for this outlay, portant branch of our subject; un. the land, which was previously worth willing, certainly, to leave so impornothing at all, became worth 30s. an tant a matter so lightly touched upon, acre per annum !

yet happy if we have said that, which We regret that the Jews are not may be practically useful, to those who prone to agriculture in these latter make the affairs of Ireland their study. days, nor given, like their forefathers, We must add one word, however, lest to make riches by the propagation of we should be misunderstood in what flocks and herds ; if they were, we we have said about clearing the land doubt not they would soon take ad- of the poorer description of tenantry: vantage of the sources of wealth which The writer of this paper is not one of the uncultivated lands of Ireland pre- those who think there can be no agrisent, and find abundance of work for cultural prosperity, unless farmers what is called the redundant popu- count their acres by the hundred. We lation.”

like not the policy of those," who join Once for all, as to this Population house to house, and lay field to field, question,-We admit, that under pre- till there be no place, that they may sent circumstances, there is an exces- be placed alone in the midst of the sive surplus, but we deny that there earth.” We think that, with a care. is a population beyond the means ful landlord, or agent, who would look of the country to support, if these diligently after the tenantry, farms of means were taken advantage of as they 40 or 50 acres would best suit the might, and ought to be. In Munster, means, and the people, of the south of where there are 1,935,612 persons to

Ireland. Farms of 30 acres should, 3,777,150 Irish acres, the redund. we think, however, be the minimum, ancy is complained of. In Ulster, as, while they are destitute of manu. where there are 1,998,494 persons to factures, this is the least quantity 3,143,000 acres, it is not, except in which will maintain a peasant's family times of severe depression of trade; with decency, and pay rent. In the and the land is better in Munster than north of Ireland, there are many comin Ulster. This fact is in itself suffi- fortable people who have only three cient proof of our position. In the acres, but in that case their ground latter province, to be sure, manufac- may be considered as their garden for tures and the Protestant religion are domestic suppiy, for they eat all the pretty generally diffused among the produce; the rent is paid by labour common people, while Munster is un. at the spinning wheel and the loom, fortunately but very partially blessed within the house.

CHAPTER VI.

MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE.

NOTWITHSTANDING the political capital in manufactures or commerce and local disturbances with which Ire in Ireland. land is so frequently afflicted, we have Orators of all sorts continually magno hesitation in saying, that a most nify this danger, for purposes of their groundless degree of alarm exists in own; practical people know nothing Great Britain, about the danger to about it. Let those who have not been those who may venture to embark their in Ireland, look at the evidence given by Mr Griffith, the mining engineer, bread ; and if he come to set up a before the Parliamentary Committee manufactory, which will employ the in 1825. During the violent disturbe people, not only will they not injure ances of Ireland which immediately him, but the whole neighbourhood preceded this period, he lived in the would fight to the last man, sooner very spot, where the savage sway of than that a hair of his head should be Captain Rock was most despotic, and touched. There is but little prejudice most terrible in its effects. Every even against machinery in Ireland. night, he says, he could see houses in They know, and feel, that at least some the distance burning round about him, additional employment, and some adthe work of the incendiary Rockites, ditional circulation of money, must re« yet he never dreamt of danger, nor sult from the establishment of any did he think it necessary to bolt his manufacture, and they hail any

such doors at night. His protection was establishment, or any purchaser of the simply this-he employed the people. commodities they have for sale, with Mr Griffith is a sensible, practical man, joyful acclamation. We have thought who knows the people well; his opi- it right to say thus much at the outset, nion ought to be of more avail than concerning this prejudice, so importa that of a wilderness of orators, and he ant, and so pernicious, in its effects. distinctly says, that there is no dana To those who feel deeply interested ger for those who employ the people, for the prosperity and greatness of the and pay them fairly. It is not, howe Empire, the consideration of Ireland's ever, upon Mr Griffith's evidence mere- backwardness in manufactures and ly, but upon our own observation also, commerce, is a cheerless and dispiritthat we found our opinion. It will, ing task. It is a mournful thing to bewe suppose, be readily admitted, that hold a kingdom-blessed by Providence Scotchmen are not usually the most with every requisite for the production forward to hazard their capital at an of wealth, and all that waits upon it extraordinary, risk, yet many, and to improve and adorn society, and shrewd Scotchmen, trade in Ireland. forming an integral part of that empire Of the distillers, and buyers up of corn which stands conspicuous throughout for exportation, resident at almost all the whole world for its riches and inthe outports, and of the proprietors of dustry,—still struggling on, disgraced such manufactories as do exist in Ire- by the poverty of its population, and land, the proportion of Scotchmen is unable to defray its proportion of the very great, and neither have they ever national expenses. Period after pehitherto found their property molest- riod, the anomalous condition of Ireed, nor do they entertain any dread land in this respect, has engaged the that it is likely to be so. In fact, the attention of the most able and patrie general feeling, or rather absence of otic statesmen, until legislators are feeling, on this subject, is such, that weary of the subject, and yet contiif one questions any trader long resie nually obliged, from the pressing nadent in the country upon it, he answers ture of the evil, to recur to it. Ima with the same appearance of surprise, mediate remedy ceases to be deemed and slowness of apprehending what possible, and the most influential of danger you are talking about, as might the modern statesmen who have turnbe reasonably expected in a manuface ed their attention to the affairs of Ireturer here. If a man were taking a land, has given his opinion, “ that small farm, from which another had the difficulties and evils which enbeen ejected, he might perhaps fairly compass that country, form a gordian entertain some apprehension of the knot, which cannot be cut, and which perils of cold iron, though not the only the gradual lapse of time can unmore, nor perhaps quite so much, ravel.” that he happened not to be a native; More than a century and a half ago, but if he come, to turn merchant, he Sir William Temple wrote an Essay will be seen with gladness, because he upon the Trade of Ireland, in which he will spend some money, and interfere gives a very melancholy account of it. with no other man's means of getting He seems to think that the great cause

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Mr Peel's Speech on Sir J. Newport's motion for inquiring into the state of Ireland, 1826. Vol. XXIV.

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of its backwardness at that time, was and tear, and consumption, by a sin. Absentee-ship, and amongst the minor gle individual ; and we rather suspect, causes, he places one, which forms a that the L.10,000 worth of commodisingular contrast to the present current ties are consumed by the proprietor's of opinion, namely, the thinness of the establishment-by his man servants population, which had been greatly and his maid servants, his cattle, and is wasted in the late wars."

the strangers that are within his gates, “ These circumstances,” he says, and by sundry others to whom on the “so prejudicial to the increase of trade principle of reciprocity of favours he and riches in a country, seem natural, must also dispense a little-such as · or at least have ever been incident to tailors, shoemakers, grocers, wine mer. the government here ; and without chants, coachmakers, and a thousand them the native fertility of the soil more. Now, when this crowd of perand seas in so many rich commodities, sons and trade is taken into considerimproved by multitudes of people, and ation, we think we can see quite industry, with the advantage of so plainly how seriously it may affect the many excellent havens, and a situation manufactures of Ireland, that a great so commodious for all sorts of foreign number of proprietors should spend trade, must needs have rendered this their ten, or their twenty thousand kingdom one of the richest in Europe, pounds worth of commodities out of and made a mighty increase both of the country, instead of in it; and as strength and revenue to the crown of trade is but another name for an exEngland; whereas it has hitherto been change of commodities, we cannot rather esteemed, and found to be our avoid thinking, that if a landlord resiweak side, and to have cost us more ded at home, when his corn, beef, and blood and treasure than it is worth." linen, were sent over to England,

How very lamentable it is, that these which they certainly would be, because remarks should be so applicable to we want them here, and when he got Ireland, even at this day, and that back tea, woollens, and hardware, in while the Emigration Committee of lieu of them, it would be an accession 1827 overturns one of Sir W. Temple's to the trade of that country, which pre-disposing causes, and Doctor M'. now sends the corn, beef, and linen, Culloch annihilates the other, with a and does not get any thing back in respell muttered from the mystic legends turn. of modern political economy, the effect But, besides this monstrous evil of remains almost similar!

Absenteeism, (for there is no use in purIt is our opinion, that at this day, Ab- suing Mr M'Culloch’s nonsense any senteeism, and the peculiar character further,) the character of the Irish of the people of Ireland, are the causes people has always been unfavourable to which operate to retard the progress of their advancement in manufacturing manufactures and commerce; the ten- and commercial greatness, to which dency of both being to prevent the ac- frugality, patience, perseverance, incumulation of capital in the country.dustry, and strict attention, are very If, indeed, we could believe with Mr requisite; and for the possession of M'Culloch, that the difference between which good qualities, the Irish are by the cases of an Irish proprietor of no means remarkable. While an Eng L.10,000 a-year, living on his estate, lish tradesman or shopkeeper would or at Paris, was just this—that in the be up early at his business, dine in the first case, he would eat and wear middle of the day, and work hard af. L.J0,000 worth of Irish commodities terwards, and hardly ever bestow a at home; and in the second he would thought on any thing but his business ; eat or wear them in Paris*—if we an Irishman, without the tenth-part could believe any thing so strange as of the means, would endeavour to this, we know not what we should combine the life of the gentleman venture to disbelieve afterwards ; but with that of the tradesman ; make notwithstanding our belief in the po- his appearance in his shop after breaktency of Irishmen's capabilities in the fast, attend to business till five or six arts of eating and wearing, we are yet in the evening, and be no more seen incredulous about this enormous wear till the morning. If, notwithstand

• Comm. Rep. 1825. p. 815. Mr M‘Culloch's evidence.

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