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Manufactures of brass. The new tion, we find that in all of any mosystem has reduced the duty on them ment the old system was just as free from 50 to 30 per cent; the import from restriction and prohibition, as has risen from the declared value of the new one is. We find that, speak. L.740 in 1821, to that of L.1103 in ing generally, the only change which 1827.

has been made in them is, duties on China or earthen ware. The new them have been, commonly in but a system has reduced the duty from 75 small degree, reduced, which the old per cent to 30, if ornamented, and 15 if system never intended to be either replain : this has raised the import from strictive or prohibitory; and which ihe declared value of L.7418 in 1824, it imposed on them from necessity for to that of L.18,718 in 1827.

the sake of revenue. We find, further, Iron. The new system has reduced that in reducing these duties, the new the duty on foreign iron from L.6, 10s. system, in general, makes such of to L.1, 10s. per ton; this has only them restrictive, as were intended to raised the import from 12,091 tons in be so by the old one. This reduction 1824, to 14,293 tons in 1827.

of duties, upon the whole, has yielded We need not go farther. Our read. no great benefit to general trade ; in ers already know what the difference many cases, it has been too small to be between the two systems is touching felt, it was made when the country gloves, silks, &c.

was flourishing, and needed no reduce And now what restrictions and pro- tion ; and it has greatly injured the hibitions have Mr Huskisson and Mr financial concerns of the state. It has Grant abolished, and what freedom been chiefly owing to it, that our enorhave they established in the general mous public debt has not for some trade of this country?

years undergone any diminution of When we look at exports, we find moment. It has injured the country that they have merely permitted the more on the one hand, than it has bee export of wool, sheep, machinery, are nefited it on the other. tizans, and mechanics; an export And now, we ask again, what are which in pecuniary amount is of tri- we to think of the calumnies which Aling importance, and which in its na- are heaped on the old system, and the ture is calculated to injure greatly adulation which is lavished on them., general exports. While they have selves and their new one, by Mr Husa. done this on the one hand, they have, kisson and Mr Grant? on the other, by the diminution of When we look at the manufactured bounties, drawbacks, transit duties on articles which this country can proforeign manufactures, &c., and by the duce to any extent, we find that the opening of the colonial market, done new system gives to some precisely the material direct injury to general ex- same monopoly, in both form and efports. Every exportable article, im- fect, which was given them by the old portant and unimportant, with two one-that it gives to others a monoor three petty exceptions, was actually poly different

in form from that given and practically as free from restriction them by the old one, but exactly the and prohibition under the old system, same in operation that to a further as it now is ; and many of them prac- portion of them it gives a monopoly, tically enjoyed much more of such but takes from the capital and labour freedom than they enjoy at present. employed in their production a large In respect of general exports, the new part of their profits and wages-and system is in effect far more restrictive that it takes from a certain number and prohibitory, than the old one was more their monopoly, subjects them to the trade of this country.

to unfair competition, and not only What then are we to think of the prevents the capital and labour emcalumnies which are heaped on the ployed in their production from obold system, and the adulation which taining adequate profits and wages, is lavished on themselves and their but to a wide extent destroys the one new one, by Mr Huskisson and Mr and deprives the other of bread. We Grant ?

find that in doing this it avoids inju. When, in turning to imports, we ring the capital and industry of some look at the articles not produced in portions of the community, while it this country, or not produced in it in visits others with confiscation, ruin, sufficient quantity for its consump, and starvation ; and we find further,

that it makes these unjust and iniquie nearly all brought from France, which tous distinctions between the different country practically takes nothing in portions of the community, rather payment for them but money; she from ignorant conjecture, wild caprice, rigidly excludes our manufactures, and personal favour and animosity, and there is every reason to believe than from fixed rule and principle. that her purchases of us in other comWe perceive, in various instances, that modities would not be diminished, in two trades, which both charge should her sales to us of gloves and higher prices for their productions silks wholly cease. Our conviction is, than are charged by foreigners, it that if British silks were a shilling fully protects the one, while it sub- per yard dearer than French ones, and jects the other to grievous injury; there were a proportionate difference and that while it gives to one part of of price in the gloves of the two coun. the community a prohibitory duty on tries, it would still be in reality cheapthe score of taxation and protection, er for the community to buy British it refuses to another part, which is silks and gloves, than French ones. equally burdened with taxation, and It would give in barter for British alike entitled to protection, all pro- ones, corn, labour, manufactures, and tection whatever. We see conclusive taxed commodities of all kinds, from proofs that this system, in all this, which it would draw a great profit; fetters and injures in the most grie- while it would give in barter for vous manner the trade of vast portions French ones, that which would affect of the community, without benefiting the exchanges, in all probability to that of the remainder ; and that it cause it loss, but certainly not to gain greatly fetters and injures the general it profit. trade of the country. On comparison, We will, however, put this entirely we find that it here differs from the out of the question. The Economists old system to this extent; the latter themselves must own, that their foprotected all portions of the commu- reign cheapness ought to be regular nity alike, gave the same encourage- and permanent; they must confess, ment and immunities to all, preserved that if foreign silks and gloves be the trade of all from real fetters and cheaper than British ones for a few restrictions, and kept general trade in years, and then be for a few years a course of boundless freedom, gigan- dearer, it must be at any rate about tic improvement and increase, and un- as cheap to the community to buy Briexampled prosperity and happiness. tish silks and gloves, as to buy foreign

And now we ask once more, what ones. They must admit this, because are we to think of the calumnies which it is matter of arithmetical demonare heaped on the old system, and the stration. They must likewise own, adulation which is lavished on them that the import of foreign ones cona selves and their new one, by Mr Huse stantly operates against this country kisson and Mr Grant?

on the exchanges; and that if at any The glove trade, the silk trade, the time they contribute, in any great dea shipping interest, and agriculture, are gree, to cause an export of gold, they the important interests which are di- will bring more loss on the communia rectly injured by the new system; ty in a single year, than they will now we will ask, why, when it would yield it profit in ten years. This canbe as easy to give prohibitory duties not be questioned. Now, what is the to the two former, as to the cotton or fact? During peace, French silks and any other trade, are such duties refu- gloves may be cheaper than British sed them? Why are not these two ones; and during war, they must be, trades allowed to have the same pro- from circuitous transit, irregular suphibition, which is enjoyed by other ply, and other causes, dearer, unless trades? We have already disposed of they be smuggled: when this is lookthe pleas of improvement and smug, ed at in connexion with the exchangling. Because, the Economists will ges, it must be manifest to all, that reply, they cannot sell at so cheap a British silks and gloves for the term rate as foreigners; and each prohibic of years, whatever they may be for tion would compel the community to the moment, must be as cheap to the buy of them at a higher price than it community as French ones. can buy at of foreigners.

When this is established, it irresistThe foreign gloves and silks are ibly follows, that the silk and glove Vol. XXIV.

3 D

manufacturers, on every principle of from them? Only injury. Other naa right and justice, ought to have the tions have increased their restrictions same protection, profits, and wages, and prohibitions as you have abolished which are enjoyed by other manufac- yours; and you cannot find that the turers. The protection ought to be abolition has yielded a single benefit the same in effect. They ought to to put into the scale against the evils have the same monopoly which is en- you have reaped from it. Will not joyed by other manufacturers; and if, your principles and system admit of from any cause, duty will not give exceptions ? You avowedly made the them it, they are entitled to direct linen trade an exception to them, and prohibition. They have an undoubt- you have made the exclusion of Amea ed right to be placed on an equality rican ships from your colonies an exwith the rest of the community, not ception to them, why then cannot you only in form, but in reality; when it admit of more exceptions ? Restore is manifest that their trades, for na- the prohibition, and you will still have tional interest, should be kept in ex- your principles and system, subject, istence.

like all other principles and systems, In plain English, the language of to exceptions. the free trade people to the silk and The reasons on which the silk and glove trades is this:—Because you glove trades are treated as they are, cannot sell at as cheap a rate as fo- would, in respect of wisdom, disgrace reigners, you ought to be ruined and a schoolboy; in other matters they starved Because foreign workmen are a disgrace to the Ministry, Parlive on food different in kind from liament, and the country. that of English ones, as well as much The length to which Mr Huskischeaper, you English workmen ought son, MrGrant, and their partizans, carto be denied a sufficiency of necessa- ry their misrepresentations and boastries-Because foreign workmen are in 'ing, is almost incredible. They have penury and distress, you English ones abolished various custom-house regu. ought to be so-Because you do not lations, which were never intended to possess natural and accidental advanta- be restrictions on trade, and which had ges which it is physically impossible for their object to prevent fraud and for you to possess, you ought to be smuggling, things which these genconsigned to ruin and want, while tlemen profess to detest ; many of other trades ought to enjoy prosperity them had become a dead letter. Neand comfort.

vertheless, the swaggerers actually We do not exaggerate: we merely proclaim that in this they have estastrip the base and atrocious doctrines blished a new system ! of their disguise, and exhibit themin The reduction of mere duties of retheir real form and nature.

venue, they trumpet forth as part of a Now, granting that the silk and new system ! glove trades had their old prohibition Incredible as it may appear, they restored, what would follow? Would confound the monopolies enjoyed by the empire be ruined ? No one fears the East India Company and the Bank it. Would general war ensue? There of England, with the monopolies enis no danger of it. Would France at- joyed by the nation at large against tack our trade with retaliatory mea, foreign nations. They actually can see sures ? She could not. What then no difference between a monopoly would follow? The two trades would which is enjoyed by a company of inregain their prosperity- silks and dividuals against the rest of the comgloves might be made a trifle dearer, munity; and one enjoyed by the inbut the community would gain more habitants of this country as a whole from the prosperity of the trade than against the inhabitants of other nait would lose from the advance-hun- tions. In consequence, they are calle dreds of thousands of people would ing for the abolition of the monopolies be raised from want and suffering, to enjoyed by the East India Company competence and comfort, to the great and the Bank, for the sake of free benefit of the whole community. trade and the new system! We need

But then it would be the abandone not say that these monopolies have ment of free trade and the new sys- nothing to do with the principles of tem. Well, what have you gained either, and that they differ essentials

ly and wholly from national mono- We have abolished fetters and repoly.

strictions, which prevented foreign While these gentlemen profess that nations from ruining your shipping it is as pernicious to give to the mem- and naval power ; this is our new sysbers of a manufacture or trade, who are tem. scattered throughout the country, and We have abolished fetters and rewho, instead of acting in concert, rival strictions, which kept in prosperity and compete with each other to the the trade of your glove and silk manuutmost, a monopoly against foreigners, facturers, shipowners, farmers, &c.; as it is to give to a company of indivi- we have plunged the trade of these duals a monopoly against the rest of into distress, and we have grievously the community; and while they loud- injured the trade of the whole com, ly denounce all restrictions which give munity. This is our system. to the inhabitants of this country a More we need not say to enable our monopoly against foreigners, while readers to judge correctly of the new they do all this, they profess to be system and its panegyrists. We must, anxious that this nation should enjoy however, repeat, that according to what monopoly against foreign ones. They was originally intended, the country make it a matter of boast, when their has yet only had the beginning of the new system brings no foreign manu. system. The existing protecting dufactures into the country, and does ties are to be lowered into extinction, not injure the monopoly of our manu- or, at least, until they cease to exclude facturers.

foreign manufactures and produce. While they are anxious on the score The sugar monopoly has to be aboof national benefit, to supply foreign lished. The prohibition of the export nations with machinery and every of machinery has to be wholly destroything necessary for enabling them to ed. In the next year the duty on foreign rival us in manufactures, they bewail silks is to be greatly reduced. A great the improvement of such nations in reduction in the duty on foreign butmanufactures, and the increase of com- ter and cheese has been for some time petition to which the improvement promised. Mr F. Lewis, in the last subjects this country, as matters of Session of Parliament, stated, that the national evil.

present duties on corn might after a To describe their system truly in certain period be reduced ; and the plain language, Mr Huskisson and Mr Marquis of Lansdowne said, that it Grant should speak as follows: would soon be necessary to reduce

We have substituted one direct pro- them. All protections are to be swept hibition for another ; this is our new away until we are reduced as far as system.

possible to the standard of the cheapWe have replaced one prohibitory est, the poorest, and the most wretched duty with another; this is our new of foreign nations. This must take system.

place if the system be persevered in. We have abolished fetters and re- For three years this system has kept strictions, which prevented foreign the country in a state of uncertainty, nations from injuring your export embarrassment, loss, and suffering; trade; this is our new system. and if public ruin can be so long de

We have abolished fetters and re- ferred, it must keep it in a similar strictions, which prevented foreign state for perhaps four years longer ; nations from rivalling you in manu- then the system will receive the finishfactures, and merely taking from you , ing touch, and the destruction of the your markets; this is our new sys- British empire will be completed. tem.

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