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greatest possible inclination to be I arrived in time to hear the debate merry at their expense. I understand on Mr Michael Angelo Taylor's mothat even Mr Brougham is exceedinge tion about the L.250,000 which the ly ashamed of thein, and his late ab- Treasury lent out of the surplus of stinence from exertion in the House, the moncy the French sent us at the arises not from any meditations about close of the war, to the Commissioners changing his politics—a report which of Woods and Forests, for the purpose some of the very lowest of the Libe- of proceeding with

Buckingham House rals were the most industrious in dis- improvements. There were grand seminating—but merely through dis. hopes formed about this affair. It gust at the folly of the party with was considered quite a mare's nest by which he has been connected, which the Opposition, and mis-statements operated upon him like sea-sickness the most outrageous were flying about whenever he went into the House. It the town. The solemnity with which is probable, however, that a little time Mr Angelo Taylor opened the matter will wear this off. Alas! for Huskis. was extremely edifying ; his pauses son, and his dolorific strains upon the and his cadences gave fearful note of pertinacious “ misunderstanding” of the drcadful tale he was about to the Duke" præcipe lugubres cantus, communicate, and which at length he Melpomene." Yet no; you have als did communicate in a manner so tedia ready given him his due, and he may ous and so—Why has not the old now rest in quiet upon his pension, gentleman some one to take care of happy if his leisure will give him time him, and put him to bed early? He to contemplate the real effect of the is doubtless a pleasant enough person commercial policy, he has pursued, at home, but it is too bad that the and that contemplation lead him to House of Commons should be so taassist in undoing the mischief he has ken up. Well, the whole affair was done. The world has now excellent the least worthy of a fuss that could authority for believing that Mr Hus- possibly be. Parliament had by one kisson is a “man of sense;" if he use act recognised the expenses of Buckthat sense, he must soon perceive what ingham House, and appropriated ina vast deal of mischief he has done, definite funds towards it. Parliament and in his declining days, when a bete had also recognised a surplus of the ter system shall have taken place of his, fund sent here by France to pay Engit would be pleasant to hear him speaké lish claims, and had expressly

provided ing, like Æneas from his lofty couch, in the act that the surplus should be commending the return to the old at the disposal of the Treasury. prosperous rules, and contrasting the The funds appropriated to the rea consequences, with the state of things pair of Buckinghain House were found which he in his error had brought insufficient, and the Treasury, in pure about

suance of the act of Parliament, which -“ Quæque ipse miserrima vidi, they recited in their warrant, did disEt quorum pars magna fui.”

pose, as they were therein authorized . As to the Stanleys and Normanbys to do, of a part of the surplus fund the Preston Woods and Dover Thompa sent here to defray English claims on sons, and such like small fry, who put France, in the way of loan to the themselves in a passion, and endeavour Commissioners whose funds had been to talk big in opposition—I really know appropriated by Parliament to the re not what to say of such sour skimmed pairs of Buckingham House. It is clear milk. Hume has more sense than they, then that the Treasury did nothing and magnanimously puts his objections but what Parliament had plainly au. to the candour of Ministers, protesting thorized them to do; and if the thing he has more confidence in them than were wrong, it was the error of Para in the House-(of course he means liament in giving the permission, and that part of the House who do not vote not of the Treasury in acting under with the Ministers.) I am sorry that the permission. poor Joseph brought upon himself the A good deal was said about the viocastigation about the palaces; he does lated principle of no money being apnot himself perceive the gross impro- plied to any purpose without the conpriety of the things he says, and there- sent of Parliament; but every one fore I think it would be but common knows that this principle applies to humanity to receive his animadversions the monies which have been raised by with some grains of allowance. the consent and authority of Parlia

ment, and that this is the full extent something interesting to a man who to which the constitutional principle reads reviews in the speech with which goes. Now this surplus money never Mr Horton favoured the House. It was raised from the people by the au- is not quite new to the House to allude thority of Parliament, and therefore to these publications, but there was the principle does not apply to it at all, some novelty in regular citations, as and accordingly the Parliament had authorities, from three of them. placed it at the discretionary disposal That Mr Horton should quote the of the Treasury, without appropriation Quarterly, and particularly an article to any particular service. It is easy to which is, I believe, correctly attribugive a false colouring to any matter by ted to Mr Southey, is very reasonable, only stating part of a cáse, and as it is on account of the high character of not regular to meet a public charge by the reviewer, and the great attainany official statement till it is made in ments of the author of the particular Parliament, an advantage is thereby article, which must both deserve and gained for a time, which, as in the obtain respect any where. To the present case, is completely overthrown Edinburgh, too, some respect is due; when the Parliamentary statement nor would I now, in the weakness of comes round.

its declining years, seek to deprive it One excellent effect of the late chan- of the weight which its bygone viges, is, that Mr Peel seems to meet gour and early talent obtained for it the impertinences of the left side of in the world of letters. But I cannot the House, with more vigour and spic conceive what Mr Horton expected to rit, than in the early part of the Sese gain in the House of Commons by sion. I mentioned in a letter to you quoting “ The Westminster." He early in the year, that he was doing might as well, when he was about it, wrong, in dealing softly with these have quoted the various dead walls, people. That is a part of the concili- and beplastered gates about the me ation trash, and will never do; they tropolis, where, in company with the must be scourged, for their respect is celebrated names of Mr Hunt and Dr always very nearly allied to fear. The Eady, may be found, “ Horton and impertinences, however, are only trou- Emigration," in good chalk characblesome for the instant, and not in the ters, which I suppose must be taken least dangerous ; but there is another as a succinct expression of admiration and quite an opposite line of tactics of the Emigration System, and its adopted by the outs, which is really champion. For my own part, I should dangerous, and which should be vigi- consider these same eulogies of the lantly guarded against. It is that “ine wall and gate, much more important, sidious eulogy”, of which your last more read, and more influential, than Maga speaks, which is nothing but a those of The Westminster. However, vile method of crawling into confie Mr Horton has had the credit of its dende ; it succeeded before, and it will approbation in the House, of the which be tried again, but it ought, and I trust I wish him much joy. it will be scornfully repelled. If Mr Up to this date, every thing goes on Peel, or if any other Tory Minister, in the most satisfactory manner that find any of these people crawling about a good Tory could desire. The King his feet, creeping like adders out of is in excellent health and spirits. The their dunghill, I hope they will be quarter's revenue presents a most faused like adders, which the startled vourable aspect. The divisions, night husbandman perceiving, strikes with after night, in the House of Commons, his fork, and dashes them against the shew the overwhelming strength of wall in anger and disgust.

the Tories in that assembly. The Mr W. Horton has been again at weather is most propitious for the his emigration. This matter is now harvest; and altogether we get on treated by the House as an “ amiable most amazingly well. weakness" of the Right Hon. Gentle- Long live the King to reign over man. It is certain that he means us, and the Duke of Wellington to be well, and if upon this particular sub- his Prime Minister ! ject, he seems a little out of his right Ever, my dear North, mind, it is but courteous to let him

Most sincerely yours, down easy, and in this respect I shall

A WHIG-HATER. imitate the example of the Honour- London, July 7, 1828. able House. There was, however, Vol. XXIV.

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ZUINGLIUS, THE SWISS REFORMER.

We live in an age which pre-emi- The command was given for all nently affects the title of philosophic, times, as well as for the apostolic age. inquiring, and enlightened, and pro- While it declared, that the great work ceeds to establish its

claim by sixpenny of God was not to owe its triumph to treatises on science, unworthy of even any vanity of man, it declared, that the sixpence; by insolently scorning simplicity, sincerity, and moral cou.and traducing every principle and in- rage, qualities that may be found in stitution valuable to our country; and every rank of man, however divested by putting out the lights of moral ex- of the more showy gifts of nature or perience with the one hand, and the fortune, are enough to achieve the lights of religion with the other. Who hallowed and immortal successes of are the heroes of popularity among us the Gospel. No Christian can be sufnow, and what are their expedients fered to shelter his indolence under for fame? The men who run from the pretext, that he has not the brilthe public assembly to the hovel, look liant faculties which influence the ing only for the means of public con- world. The mightiest changes that vulsion in both; turning with the the earth has ever seen, were made by speech of party-contumely and con- men whose chief talents were love of victed baseness on their lips, to in truth, love of man, and love of God. flame the paltry irritations of the poor The life of the first Reformer of Switzagainst their betters, into furious vina erland is an illustrious example. dictiveness against the whole consti- Ulric Zuinglius was the son of a tution of civil society - who cannot peasant of the Swiss valley of Tockenplan a Mechanics' Institution, with burg. He was destined for the church, out publicly applauding themselves and was sent successively to Basil, on having prepared a new bed of riot Bern, and Vienna, where he acquired and disordered dreams for the popu. the meagre literature usual in the fiflace; nor harangue their audience of teenth century, in the eighty-fourth boors and blacksmiths, defrauded as year of which, on the 1st of January, they are of their time, money, and un- he was born. After four years residerstanding, in listening to this non- dence at Basil he was ordained by the sense, without telling them, in the Bishop of Constance, on being chosen gall of the most livid Jacobinism, that by the burghers of Glaris as their "their toe shall tread upon the heel pastor. From this epoch commenced of the noble.”

his religious knowledge. It occurred But the great object of their attacks to him, still in the darkness of Pope is Christianity; and this they attack ry, that to be master of the true docthrough its most perfect form among trines of Christianity, he should look ourselves. The hideous superstitions for them, in the first instance, not in of Popery, that compel man to shut the writings of the doctors, nor in the up his Bible, bow down to a stock or decrees of councils, but in the Scripa stone, and be the slave of a priest, tures themselves. He began to study adverse as all such restraints are to the New Testament, and found, what the vaunted love of universal freedom all men will find who study it in a in the mouths of those traitors, become sincere desire of the truth, and in an instantly entitled to their protection, earnest and humble supplication to when, through them, they can shake the God of all light and knowledge the Protestant Church. To shew by for wisdom, that in it was wisdom not what struggles that church was erects to be taught by man. ed, we shall give, from time to time, In this study he pursued a system brief narratives of some of the found essential to the right perception of the ers of the Reformation. The Apostles Scriptures. He was not content with were commanded to go forth, not in reading over the text, he laboured to the strength of human powers, not investigate its difficulties. He studied relying upon genius, eloquence, or it in the original, and with so much authority, but in the strength of the diligence, that, to render its language gospel; and they conquered, where familiar to his memory, he wrote out the noblest powers of man would have the entire Greek of St Paul's Epistles, been but as the dust of the balance. and crowded the margin of his manuscript with potes of his own, and conquerors, rulers of all nations," was observations from the Fathers. As his the maxim of those who declared that knowledge grew, he was astonished to they held their right in virtue of St find, that some of those doctrines of Peter's supremacy. “ The servant of. the Romish Church, which he con- the Lord must not strive,” said the ceived fixed as fate, were not disco. Scriptures. “The servant of the verable in the New Testament. To Lord must strive, and hunt down, clear up his perplexing doubts, he pe- and chain, and massacre those who culiarly examined the texts on which will not believe that he is the Supreme the Canon of the Mass was declared Depository of the Wisdom of God, the to be founded; but by adopting the Vicar of God on earth, the Spiritual natural rule, of making Scripture its Lord of mankind, the Opener of the own interpreter, he convinced himself Gates of heaven, the Sentencer of Eterof the feebleness of the foundation. He nal Misery to whom he will." now passed from discovery to discovery. It is one of the most admirable feaHe exannined the writings of the pric tures in the character of Zuingle, that mitive Fathers, the immediate follow. nothing could urge him into precipia ers of the apostolicage, and ascertained, tancy. Those truths were irresistible, that they differed in a singular degree yet he knew the hazard even to truth from the prevalent doctrines of Rome. from rashness. He had a double disFrom the Fathers he passed down to a trust, first of his own mind, next of general study of the later theologians, that of the multitude. He felt, that and found in some, denounced by the eagerness to throw off prejudices Rome as heretics, the very opinions has sometimes been itself a prejudice ; which he had been taught by his soli- and he determined to abstain from all tary labour of the Scriptures. In the public declarations of his sentiments works of Bertram on the Eucharist, until they were unchangeable. To he found opinions in the ninth cena try them by every test, he kept up tury opposed to those of the Papacy. a private theological correspondence In Wickliffe's writings he found fatal with a large circle of learned men; arguments against the Inyocation of but in his sermons he avoided all disSaints, and Conventual Vows; and in pute, and by a course which is perthose of Huss the Martyr, open and haps, after all, the true way to shake resistless reprobation of the tyranny error from its strongholds, the simple of the Papal power, and the temporal preaching of the uncontradicted and ambition of the Romish priesthood. essential doctrines of Christianity, he To eyes once opened by the Book of gradually softened the repugnance, all holiness and wisdom, the delusion and purified the corruption, of the rapidly gave way on all sidés. From public mind. In this course he conseeing that the doctrines of the Ro- tinued for ten years. mish Church were grounded on per- But his career was at length to reverted interpretations or imperfect ceive a more vigorous and defined di. knowledge, he turned to its practices. rection. It would be presumptuous In unaccountable contrast with the in, to conceive, that Providence always spired denunciations of the worship overrules the common chances of life of idols, he saw the people bowing in favour of its distinguished servants ; down to images, and attributing the but the chief circumstances of Zuinpower of miracles to pictures, statues, gle's life were among the most fortuand fragments of the dead. He saw nate that a preacher of the Gospel the Scriptures, on one hand, proclaim could have chosen. ing ONE MEDIATOR, and one alone. The direction of the opulent and He saw Papacy, on the other, pro- highly privileged abbey of Ginsieclaiming hundreds and thousands in deln, in the canton of Schweitz, had saints, statues, and bones. One sacri. been lately given to Theobald, Baron fice, once offered for all, “ without of Geroldseck, a man of noble birth, money or without price," was the lan- who, after receiving an education more guage of inspiration. A thousand, a fitted to the noble and the soldier million sacrifices every day, and for than to the churchman, had become a the individual who purchased them, monk. He brought with him from was the act of Popery: “ Be not lords the world ideas superior to the cloisover God's heritage," were the dying ter, and one of his first purposes was words of the Apostle, “Be kings, to make his community entitled to

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literary distinction. Zuingle's characement to come. Thus, without offende
ter for intelligence and study reached ing their prejudices, he enlightened
him, and he offered the pastor of Gla- their understandings, and having dis-
ris the preachership of the convent. closed the pure and visible beauty of
Its opportunities of knowledge and the truths of God, safely left his hear-
literary association were so obvious, ers to sentence for themselves the hu.
that Zuingle accepted the offer, though miliating observances, groundless doc-
the people of Glaris were so much at. trines, and tyrannical assumptions, of
tached to him, that they kept their Rome.
pulpit open for two years, in the hope With the force of his clear and sine
that he might change his mind and cere mind turned to the great subjects
return.

of Christianity, he must have been in
At Ginsiedlen, Zuingle found alb a constant advance to a more vigorous
that was still necessary to invigorate conviction of the errors of the Popishr
and accomplish his mind for the great system, and the time must arrive
work that lay before him. The li- when that conviction would declare
brary contained the chief theological itself. But the piety of Zuingle was
labours of the church, a large collec- the direct reverse of the desire of ex-
tion of the Fathers, and the volames of citing popular passion. It has been
the leading restorers of learning in remarked, by one who knew buman
Germany. Among the monks were nature well, that a reformer who
some active and zealous minds, whose seeks only in provement, applies to the
names are still distinguished among higher ranks; but that he who seeks
the Reformers. And at their head was only innovation, applies to the lower.
a candid and high-spirited noble, who, By the course of society, all benefi-
in an age of papal violence, had the cial reform must be transmitted from
manliness to encourge their inquiries, the possessors of property, knowledge,
the sincerity to follow the truth, and and public experience, to their infe-
the singular intrepidity to reduce it to riors; with the educated the instru-
practice. Zuingle had no sooner pro- ment must be reason, with the unedu.
ved that it was unscriptural to believe cated the instrument is always vio-
in the pardon of sins for money, than lence.
Geroldseck ordered the effacing of the The first appeal of the Swiss Re
inscription over the Abbey gate, “Here former, was to his ecclesiastical supe-
plenary remission of all sins is to be riors. His addresses to the Bishop of
obtained.” It was no sooner proved Constance, and the Cardinal of Sion,
to him that the worship of relics was pointed out for their correction the
unholy, than he ordered the relics to errors which it was in their power
be taken from the altars and buried. safely to extinguish, but which could
The nuns had hitherto read only the not, without public danger, be left to
Romish liturgy; he ordered that they be extinguished by the people.
should be supplied with the New “The revival of letters,” said some
Testament. Their vows had hitherto of those manly documents, “ bas less-
been irrevocable ; be ordered that all ened the popular credulity. The peo-
conventual license should be strictly ple begin to blame the idleness of the
restrained, but that every nun should monks, the ignorance of the priest-
be at liberty to leave the walls, and hood, and the misconduct of the pre-
marry if she so willed. Under such a lates."
governor, prudenee alone was neces- “ If care be not taken, the multi-
sary to solid success, and prudence tude will soon lose the only curb ca.
was one of the finest attributes of pable of restraining its passions, and
Zuingle. In his twofold office of will go on from disorder to disorder."
preacher and confessor, a rash or am- “ A reformation ought to be begun
bitious spirit might have had great immediately, but it ought to begin
means of disturbing the general peace with superiors, and spread from them
by irritating public opinion. He wise to their inferiors.
ly abstained from this hazardous and “ If bishops were no longer seen to
fruitless course ; left the prominent handle the sword instead of the cro-
superstitions to be detected by the in- sier; and ecclesiastics of all kinds to
creasing intelligence of the people, and dissipate in scandalous debauchery the
holily laboured to convince them only revenues of their benefices, then we
of righteousness, temperance, and judg- might raise our voices against the

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