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which have not before appeared in the biographical narratives of that learned prelate. The church, it seems, was indebted for so valuable an ornament to the assiduous instructions of his mother; who, at the hazard of the displeasure of General Lord Fairfax, the intimate friend of her husband, and a frequent inmate in their family, contrived to elude all the searches which were made for Common Prayer books in every house, and preserved those of her family; one of which she put into the hands of her son, instructing him to love and value ít. The child was particularly delighted with the Litany; but we are not informed what his father, who was a zealous puritan, said upon the occasion. The fervour of his father's devotions, however, added to the orthodox churchmanship of his mother, seems to have early and deeply impressed the mind of this eminent prelate, whose conduct throughout life was marked by great piety, disinterestedness, and benevolence. Long before he was a bishop himself, the Lord Chancellor Finch entrusted him with the entire charge of recommending proper persons for the numerous preferments in his Lordship’s gift; and among the names of those who rose by his influence were Archbishop (then Dean) Tillotson, Bishops Bull and Beveridge, Dr. Prideaux, Dr. Bentley, Dr. Potter, Dr. Mill, Dr. Hales, and Dr. Grube, all men of great eminence as divines and scholars. The Archbishop never altered his principles or practices with the frequent changes in those unhappy times; he censured the Romish religion before James II, and prayed for that monarch before the Prince of Orange and the House of Commons, till the service was altered by due authority. He accepted the archbishoprick of York only because Tillotson informed him that the King was displeased with his frequent rejection of preferment, thinking it a sort of personal affront to himself.

Thomas, the youngest son of the Archbishop, and the father of Granville, was made Archdeacon of Northumberland in 1722, and was distinguished for his integrity, piety, and indefatigable exertion in the discharge of his important duties. His printed works amount to six volumes. He was deeply versed in ecclesiastical studies, and was highly successful in his controversy with Hutchinson the Hebraist. With an enlightened zeal beyond the spirit of the times in which he lived, he supported five or more schools at his own expense, into which he admitted the children of Roman Catholics and sectaries, and thus promoted, in a surprising degree, the good order, diligence, and peace

of his parishes.

Of the five sons of this excellent man who arrived at maturity, Granville was the youngest. John, the eldest, succeeded to most of his father's dignities in the church, and is honourably known

as the munificent patron of the singular charitable establishment at Bamburgh Castle. The castle is situated on an almost perpendicular rock close to the sea, on a spot where once, it is said, stood the palace of the kings of Northumberland, built by Ida, about the year 560. The rock in modern times was only known as the terror of seamen. Dr. Sharp, partly at his own expense, and partly as a trustee of Lord Crewe's charity, cleared out and roofed the great tower, dividing its ample extent into a hospital for the sick and incurable ; apartments for granaries for the distribution of corn in times of scarcity to the indigent; halls for manor-courts; schools for the poor; cold and warm baths, and other well-meant charitable establishments. But the protection of mariners on that dangerous shore being the chief object of the foundation, a constant watch was kept, a flag was hoisted, guns were regularly fired morning and evening, rockets sent up in the night, and a bell tolled in foggy - weather, while assistants on horseback patrolled the shore during every violent storm; and premiums were distributed among those who brought the first intelligence of a vessel in danger, or who succeeded in conveying succour.

Thomas, the second son, was an accomplished scholar and exemplary parish priest. William raised himself to great repu-tation as a skilful


and James to affluence as a man of business. Our author has presented his readers with a parallel between William and his brother Granville, which will serve to show the character of the latter. " When

you addressed yourself to William, you waked at once the attention of a benevolent and affectionate spirit, that anxiously bent towards you, with the desire of contributing instantly to your relief; of one who felt, no less than the sufferer, the pain he witnessed; who strove to soothe the irksome sense of human infirmity, and to reconcile the afflicted to themselves. His looks spoke the compassion of his Jheart, and his presence brought comfort, even (though that was rare) where his skill failed to afford relief. In Granville, benevolence and charity were not less prominently conspicuous, but they appeared divested of that keenness of sensibility which so quickly and irresistibly endeared the character of William. Granville's benevolence was pure .and complacent, without anxiety,—without other motion than that of an upright and generous spirit, steadily and actively discharging his Maker's commission. The expression of his sentiments was wholly free from disguise. Although his habitual charity of mind taught him to love the man whose opinion he chastised, he did not palliate error, nor veil the severest truth: what he spoke, you might at all times be sure was from the consent of his whole heart; all was simple, all was sterling.–Such were the nice features of distinction, in two men eminently united in every amiable and friendly quality, eminently pure, religious, charitable, and useful to mankind." (P. 20.)

Granville was born at Durham, November 10, in the year 1735. His father's fortune having been principally expended upon his elder brothers, Granville's share was employed in apprenticing him in London, to the business of a linen-draper. He had here an unusual opportunity of seeing the habits of different sects, which was of great utility to him in the sequel of his life, by enabling him to apply his arguments in the manner most likely to conciliate and persuade the minds of the various parties with whom he became connected in the prosecution of his benevolent projects. His father, though a dignified clergyman, had bound him to one Halsey, a Quaker; the Quaker dying in three years, he was transferred to a Mr. Willoughby, a Presbyterian or Independent; after which he lived with an Irish

papist; and lastly with a master who had “no religion at all.” A series of controversies with an inmate of his master's house, who happened to be a Socinian, led him to study Greek, his opponent constantly alleging, when Granville quoted the New Testament, that the original would not admit of his interpretation. He acquired Hebrew from a similar motive, in order to confute a Jew, who also resided under the same roof.

During his apprenticeship, he had the good fortune to raise his presbyterian employer (Justice Willoughby) to the honours of the peerage; for having discovered that that gentleman, who had treated him with great kindness, had a rightful claim to the title of Baron de Parham, he exerted himself so successfully, that Mr. Willoughby's claim was admitted by the House of Lords, in which assembly he sat for the remainder of his life.

The death of his father having left Mr. Sharp at liberty, he quitted business, and procured, in 1758, a subordinate appointment in the ordnance office. Of the next six years of his life we hear little, except that he attended diligently to the duties of his station, and completed his great attainments in languages; his hours of study being chiefly snatched from sleep. Soon after this period his character began to unfold itself. The learned Dr. Kennicott had published proposals, in the year 1760, for printing, by subscription, a new edition of the Hebrew Bible, conformably to one of the best editions then extant, with a design to insert in the margin, or at the foot of the page, the various readings of other editions, and such corrections of the text as appeared to him to be necessary. But during the progress of the subscription, the learned critic appears so far to have changed his design, as to have contemplated the more hazardous project of printing a Hebrew Bible, in which the conjectural and other emendations were to be admitted into the body of the text. With a view to show the necessity for such a castigatory process, he printed and handed about å paper, entitled, “ A catalogue of the sacred vessels restored by Cyrus, and of the chief Jews who returned from the captivity: together with the names of the returning families, and the number of the persons at that time in each family, disposed in such a manner as to show most clearly the great corruption of proper names and numbers in the present text of the Old Testament." Alarmed at the project of Dr. Kennicott, as being fatal to the integrity of the sacred text, and calculated to weaken the faith of unlearned Christians, Mr. Sharp, whom his uncle jocosely compared to David attacking and wounding Goliath, drew up in reply a tractate, in which he questioned his learned opponent's authorities and deductions, examining them by the test of numerous Hebrew names and roots, and boldly accusing that celebrated Hebraist of drawing his instances of textual corruption from the English version only, without reference to the original. The progress and the result of this affair were equally honourable to Mr. Sharp. His aim being not to show his own learning, or to gain reputation as an author, but solely to prevent what he considered a serious evil in sacred literature, he did not publish his tract, but distributed it gratuitously, and to such persons only as could produce a copy of Dr. Kennicott's own printed proposals. The issue was, that Dr. Kennicott was obliged to confine himself to his original plan, of publishing the text entire, and throwing his variorum readings into the margin; upon hearing which, remarks Mr. Sharp, “ I gave up all thoughts of printing what I had prepared to oppose him, and subscribed to his work.” That Mr. Sharp's youthful contest with this literary veteran did not disturb that amicable spirit which distinguished him on all occasions, we may learn from the following entry in his memoranda during a temporary leave of absence from the ordnance office: “August 20, 1775, Sunday, Oxford : went to church at Saint Mary's—went to visit Dr. Kennicott-drank tea with Dr. Kennicott."

The delicacy and pecuniary disinterestedness shown by Mr. Sharp in this transaction, extended to his numerous other publications, of which only two, out of more than fifty, were printed by himself for sale. His usual plan was to distribute his writings gratuitously in those quarters in which he considered it desirable for them to circulate ; and to this object he devoted a considerable part of his little stipend, after supplying his own very few wants and fewer wishes, and relieving to the utmost of his power, and often, perhaps, beyond the measure of prudence, the necessities of others. The spirit in which he both drew up and distributed his writings, appears from his confidential letters to his friends. He says, for example, to his brother William, “ I have finished my · Warning to the Quakers,

a copy of which is inclosed in this parcel for you; but you must not part with it to


because I am under promise to the Quakers not to give it to any persons but members of their society, except occasionally to a Roman Catholic or a Swedenborgian.” A similar remark occurs in his papers respecting the Roman Catholics themselves, against whose principles he evinced extraordinary zeal, while to the individuals he behaved with the utmost kindness and urbanity. The two tracts, above excepted, were, one on “ The Injustice of tolerating Slavery in Great Britain,” the public nature and great importance of which probably induced him to consider it as a proper exception to his rule ; and his work on “ The Greek Article,” which he says, in one of his private manuscripts,

was postponed or neglected from 1778 to 1798, and would not even then have been published if my very worthy and learned friend, Dr. Burgess, now Bishop of Saint David's, had not undertaken to be the editor of it. He printed two different editions of it; and the bitter objections of some scurrilous Socinians spurred me up at last to answer them in a : · third edition.” · About the period of Mr. Sharp's friendly controversy with Dr. Kennicott, his attention was first directed to that great subject which engrossed so much of his future life, the amelioration, and, if possible, the ultimate abolition of slavery. In this connexion the name of Granville Sharp will be handed down to posterity, with the eulogies of men of every sect and party. The dissenter will not admire his strict attachment to the church, nor the man of the world his earnest piety; the statesman may feel suspicious of some of his political speculations, and the sober divine of his prophetical conjectures; but his exertions on the subject of the slave trade and slavery will endear him to all who have not an unworthy interest in the enormities which it was the effort of his valuable life to abolish. The panegyrist of Granville Sharp might be well content to sink his other claims; he might forbear to mention that he threw around both the sacred languages a new beam of light which has been of essential service in rescuing the Scriptures from the misinterpretations of heretical minds; he might pass over his benevolent labours in the cause of depressed and suffering humanity; he might omit his successful efforts for the introduction of episcopacy into the United States of North America ; he might forget that his name stood first in the list of those who convened the meeting (of which meeting also he was the chairman) for forming that eminently useful institution, which has since ramified itself throughout the Christian world, and carried the sacred treasures of revealed wisdom, unentan

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