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will assume the whole duty of keeping guard, and that he has nothing to fear." (P. 22, 23.)

The preceding account of the Hurons or Iroquois, by Charle, voix, is perfectly in unison with the relations given by the Moravian missionaries, not only concerning the Iroquois, but also of the Lenapes or Delaware Indians, and all the tribes derived from them. It is a part of their religious belief that there are inferior manniltos, to whom the great and good Being has given the rule and command over the elements; that, being so great, he (like their chiefs) must have his attendants to execute his supreme behests; that these subordinate spirits (something in their nature between God and man,) see and report to him what is doing upon earth ; and that they look down particularly upon the Indians, to see whether they are in need of any assistance, and are ready at their call to assist and protect them against danger.

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“ Thus," says Mr. Heckewelder, “ I have frequently witnessed Indians, on the approach of a storm or thunder-gust, address the Mannitto of the air, to avert all danger from them; I have also seen the Chippeways, on the Lakes of Canadá, pray to the Mannitto of the waters, that he might prevent the swells from rising too high, while they were passing over them. In both these instances, they expressed their acknowledgment, or shewed their willingness to be grateful, by throwing tobacco in the air, or strewing it on the waters.

6. There are even some animals, which though they are not considered as invested with power over them, yet are believed to be placed as guardians over their lives, and of course entitled to some notice and to some tokens of gratitude. Thus, when in the night, an owl is heard sounding its note, or calling to its mate, some person in the camp will rise, and taking some Glicanican, or Indian tobacco, will strew it on the fire, thinking that the ascending smoke will reach the bird, and that he will see that they are not unmindful of his services, and of his kindness to them and their ancestors. This custom originated from the following incident, which tradition has handed down to them.

“ It happened at one time, when they were engaged in a war with a distant and powerful nation, that a body of their warriors was in the camp, fast asleep, no kind of danger at that moment being apprehended. Suddenly, the great . Sentinel over mankind,' the owl, sounded the alarm; all the birds of the species were alert at their posts, all at once calling out, as if saying: • Up! up! Danger! Danger!' Obedient to their call, every man jumped up in an instant; when, to their surprise, they found that their enemy was in the very act of surrounding them, and they would all have been killed in their sleep, if the owl had not given them this timely warning.

*** But, amidst all these superstitious notions, the supreme Mannitto, the creator and preserver of heaven and earth, is the great object of

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their adoration. On him they rest their hopes, to him they address their prayers and make their solemn sacrifices.

Similar notions obtain among the Indians who inhabit the country extending from Labrador, across the Continent, to the highlands which divide the waters on Lake Superior from those of Hudson's Bay; as also among the native inhabitants of the West Indian Islands concerning whom we have any authentic accounts preserved. Whence it appears that, throughout this vast extent of country, including nations whose languages are radically different, nations unconnected with, and unknown to each other, the greatest uniformity of belief prevails, with regard to the Supreme Being, and the greatest harmony in their system of polytheism. After this view, Dr. Jarvis observes,

“ It is impossible not to remark, that there is a smaller departure from the original religion among the Indians of America, than among the more civilized nations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The idea of the Divine Unity is much more perfectly preserved ; the subordinate divinities are kept at a much more immeasurable distance from the Great Spirit; and, above all, there has been no attempt among them to degrade to the likeness of men, the invisible and incomprehensible Creator of the universe. In fact, theirs is exactly that milder form of idolatry which prevailed every where from the days of Abraham, his single family excepted,' and which, after the death of that patriarch and of his son Isaac, infected, from time to time, even the chosen family itself.” (P. 29.)

II. The belief of a future state of rewards and punishments has been kept alive among all heathen nations, by its connexion with the sensible enjoyments and sufferings, and the consequent hopes and terrors of men. Its origin must have been in Divine Revelation; for it is impossible to conceive that the mind could attain to it by its own unassisted powers. But the thought, when once communicated, would, in the shipwreck of dissolving nature, be clung to, with the grasp of expiring hope. Hence no nations have yet been found, however rude and barbarous, who have not agreed in the great and general principle of retributive immortality; but, when we descend to detail, and enquire into their peculiar notions, we find that their traditions are .coloured by the nature of their earthly occupations, and by the opinions which they thence entertain on the subject of good and evil. This remark is fully verified by the history of the American Indians, among whom the belief of the immortality of the soul is most firmly established.

“ They suppose, that when separated from the body, it preserves the same inclinations which it had when both were united. For this reason, they bury with the dead all that they had in use when alive. Some imagine that all men have two souls, one of which never leaves the body unless it be to inhabit another. This transmigration, however, is peculiar to the souls of those who die in infancy, and

* Heckewelder's Historical Account of the Indian Nations, pp. 205, 206.

who therefore have the privilege of commencing a second life, because they enjoyed so little of the first. Hence children are buried along the highways, that the women, as they pass, may receive their souls. From this idea of their remaining with the body, arises the duty of placing food upon their graves; and mothers have been seen to draw from their bosoms that nourishment which these little creatures loved when alive, and shed it upon the earth which covered their remains.

" When the time has arrived for the departure of those spirits which leave the body, they pass into a region which is destined to be their eternal abode, and which is therefore called the Country of Souls. This country is at a great distance toward the west, and to go thither costs them a journey of many months. They have many difficulties to surmount, and many perils to encounter. They speak of a stream in which many suffer shipwreck ;-of a dog from which they, with difficulty, defend themselves ;-of a place of suffering where they expiate their faults ;-of another in which the souls of those prisoners who have been tortured are again tormented, and who therefore linger on their course, to delay as long as possible the moment of their arrival. From this idea it proceeds, that after the death of these unhappy victims, for fear their souls may remain around the huts of their tormentors from the thirst of vengeance, the latter are careful to strike every place around them with a staff, and to utter such terrible cries as may oblige them to depart.” (P. 30—32.)

To be put to death as a captive is, therefore, an exclusion from the Indian Paradise : while, on the contrary, to have been a good hunter, brave in war, fortunate in enterprize, and victorious over many enemies, are the only titles to enter their abodes of bliss, the happiness of which depends on the situation and circumstances of the respective tribes or nations. Thus, eternal spring, a never-failing supply of game and fish, and an abundance of every thing which can delight the senses without the labour of procuring it, constitute the paradise of those, who often return weary and hungry from the chace, who are frequently exposed to the inclemencies of a wintery sky, and who look upon all labour as unmanly and degrading employment. On the other hand, the Arrowauks, or natives of Cuba, Hispaniola, Porto Rico, Jamaica, and Trinidad, place their enjoyments in every thing that is opposite to the violence of a tropical climate; while their fierce enemies, the Charaibes, look forward to a paradise, in which the brave will be attended by their wives and captives.

“ Thus the ideas of the savage, with regard to the peculiar nature of future bliss or woe, are always modified by associations arising from

his peculiar situation, his peculiar turn of thought, and the pains and pleasures of the senses. With regard to the question in what their happiness or misery will consist, they differ ; but with regard to the existence of a future state, and that it will be a state of retribution for the deeds done in the body, they agree without exception, and their faith is bright and cloudless. • Whether you are divinities or mortal men,' said an old man of Cuba to Columbus, we know not-but if you are men, subject to mortality like ourselves, you cannot be unapprised, that after this life there is another, wherein a very different portion is allotted to good and bad inen. If, therefore, you expect to die, and believe, with us, that every one is to be rewarded in a future state, according to his conduct in the present, you will do no hurt to those who do none to you.'.

“ This relation is given us by Martyr, and it is sufficient to show, with what exactness the primitive belief has been retained. This man was a savage, but he spoke the language of the purest revelation.” (P. 34, 35.)

III. All who have been conversant with the worship of the American tribes, unite in the assertion that they offer sacrifices and oblations both to the Great Spirit and also to the subordinate or inferior divinities, to propitiate their protection, or to avert calamity, and also eucharistic sacrifices for success in war. In like manner, sacrifices were offered by all the inhabitants of the West Indies; and, among these, the Charaibes were accustomed to immolate some of the captives who had been taken in battle, The Mexicans, it is also known, offered human sacrifices: but of this practice there are no traces among the present Indian tribes, unless the tormenting of their captives may be considered as a sacrifice to the god of war. Dr. Jarvis has substantiated the preceding facts by a variety of evidence, which he closes with the following sensible observations on the origin and extent of expiatory sacrifices.

“ That the practice of sacrifice, as an expiation for sin, formed a prominent feature in the religion of all the nations of the old world, is à truth too well known to require proof. That it formed a part of the patriarchal religion is equally evident; and that it must have been of divine institution will, I think, be admitted, after a very little reflexion. The earliest instance of worship, recorded in the Holy Scriptures, is the sacrifice offered by Cain and Abel, at a period when no permission had

yet been given to eat animal food, and no pretext could have possibly presented itself to the mind of man for taking the life of any of the creatures of God. It is equally inconceivable, that by any deduction of unassisted reason, the mind could have arrived at the conclu. sion, that to destroy a part of creation, could be acceptable to the Creator; much less, that it could be viewed as an act of homage. The difficulty is still greater, when it is considered that this was intended as an expiation for the sins of the offerer. How could the shedding of the blood of an animal be looked upon as an atonement for the offences,

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which man had committed against his Maker? This would have been to make an act, at which nature would at once have involuntarily shuddered, the expiation of another act which might not in itself be so hurtful or so barbarous.

“ This reasoning is further strengthened by the next instance of worship recorded in the Bible. When Noah had descended from the ark, the first act of a religious nature which he performed, was to build an altar and to offer sacrifice. Human reason would have dictated a course of conduct directly opposite; for it would have told him not to diminish the scanty remnant of life; especially when the earth was already covered with the victims which had perished in the mighty waste of waters.

“ But if of divine institution, the question then arises, what was the reason of the institution? Every intelligent being proposes to himself some end-some design to be accomplished by his actions. What, then, with reverence let it be asked, was the design of God?

“ To the Christian the solution of this inquiry is not difficult. He has learned, that in the secret counsels of almighty wisdom, the death of the Messiah was essential for the salvation of man; that in his death, the first of our race was as much interested as he will be, who will listen to the last stroke of departing time; that it was necessary, therefore, to establish a representation of this great event as a sign of the future blessing, in order to keep alive the hopes and the expectations of men ; and that this was effected by the slaughter of an innocent animal, whose Jife was in the blood, and whose blood poured out was the symbol of His death, who offered himself a ransom for the sins of men.

“ Assuming this as the origin and intent of sacrifice, it is easy to account for its universal prevalence among mankind. Noah, as we have seen, offered a burnt offering immediately after he left the Ark. From him, and his three sons, did their posterity derive the practice ; and we find from the Scriptures, that it prevailed among all the nations, which, from their connexion with the family of Israel, are there incidentally mentioned.

“ If we turn to profanė history, we cannot open a volume without meeting every where the record of sacrifice. The Phenicians, the Ethiopians, the Egyptians, the Chinese, the Persians, the nations in the north of Europe and Asia, the Carthaginians, the Greeks, the Romans, the inhabitants of Gaul and Britain-in a word, every heathen nation, of which we have any records remaining, constantly offered sacrifice as an expiation for sin. The gradual corruption of the true religion, while it caused the origin of the rite to be forgotten, made no other alteration in the practice than such as regarded the quality of the victim. Human reason must, at all times, have perceived, how inadequate was the slaughter of animals to atone for the sins of mankind. À nobler victim seemed to be demanded; and it was not to be wondered at, that the blood of men, and even of children, as approaching nearer to innocence, should finally be considered as essential to obtain the grant of pardon.

“ To find the same practice prevailing among all the Indian tribes of America, a practice deriving its origin, not from any dictate of na


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