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sisting chiefly of sand, the decomposition of sandy, micaceous, and slaty stones, mixed with a considerable proportion of decayed vegetables.

“ The instruments used in manual labour are equally simple and in, efficient. A stick crossed at right angles, one end of which is shod with iron, resembling a miserable and broken sort of pickaxe, seems to be the principal one. But whatever their implements may be, or whether the fields are worked by the plough or by the hand, they do assuredly bring them to a high degree of tilth.” (P. 115, 116.)

Two crops are reaped within the year ; the first crop consists of wheat and barley. A few fields of a species of oats were observed : poppy, and certain kinds of oily seeds, a species of purslane, with curiously variegated red and green leaves; and a few poor inferior grains, filled the list. The opium is gathered from the poppy in July, and is an article of considerable traffic with the plains, whither the chief part is carried by the petty merchants who come to the hills for trade. The second crop consists chiefly of rice, but about the same time tobacco is planted, and a little cotton is sown.

“ The rice of the hills is said to be peculiarly fine. Particular situations only will answer for this description of cultivation, and more than ordinary care is taken to bring it to perfection. All those spots of land, which lie near the banks of streams and in the bottoms of valleys, are selected, where a great command of water may securely be relied on. The whole extent of the terraces is carefully levelled, and very well worked with the plough, for which purpose they lay each under water, and plough them in this state.

“ The parapets are put in order, and small ledges of earth are raised on the brink to retain the water let in upon the soil long enough to saturate it, when it runs off over a flat stone to the ledge below. The water-courses are also arranged so as not to receive a quantity that would deluge the fields, and yet to yield a secure supply. When all is ready, the plants, which have been previously raised from seed, as in Bengal, are planted out by hand, as in that province, while the water lies on the land.

“ Irrigation is kept up from time to time as the plants require it, but water is not continually retained on the soil.

“ A large tract of rice, thus in ledges and under water, has a singular but pleasing appearance when observed from a height. The bright green of the plant, shining through the water, gives a strange transparency to the strips, which being

exactly level

, rise in regular succession over each other, and suggest the idea of a collection of small green mirrors thus placed in order.

“ The period for planting rice is during the months of May and June, in expectation of the rains which commence during the latter month, but it is protracted in the more northern districts to part of July. It usually ripens in about four months, but the time of reaping it depends much on situation and climate.

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“ Tobacco is an article of general cultivation in the hills, and its quality is considered fine : it is exported both to the plains and to Bootan in considerable quantities. It is planted about May and June, for the benefit of the rains, and grows readily and luxuriant!y, although it requires nice attention and much manure.

“ The herb bhang (a well known species of hemp), also grows spontaneously in great abundance throughout this country, and is likewise cultivated and sent prepared in its various intoxicating shapes to the low country, where it meets with a ready sale.

“ Both men and women engage in the labours of agriculture, but their departments are generally distinct. The men exclusively guide the plough and sow the corn; the women weed the fields, break the clods, &c. Both sexes reap the corn; but this is principally an employment allotted to the women, who use a small sickle, ruder than that employed in Europe, and bind it into small sheaves, which, when the weather is fine, are left to dry on the field; but when it threatens rain they carry them to places formed of large flat slabs of slate, surrounded by a small wall, on which they likewise tread out the corn by means of cattle: here the reflected heat of the sun soon dries it, and any water that falls, quickly running off, has less effect on the sheaves than when lying on the moist fields. When freed by treading from the stalk, the grain is stored in the second story of the house, and the straw is preserved in stacks or houses for the use of the cattle, and for their own beds.

“ The straw, however, is seldom in sufficient abundance to serve as fodder for their cattle during the winter months, especially in the more inclement parts of the mountains, and they supply the deficiency by collecting grass from the jungles, and where that is less plentiful, the fallen leaves of trees, particularly fir-trees, which serve as a substitute for fodder and for beds." (P.117-119.)

The breed of cattle appears to be the same as the smaller sorts found in the plains, but they are somewhat larger and better of their kind, chiefly black, but occasionally red, brindled, or pied. They are, in general, fat and handsome; and the people, who pay them much attention, make great use of their milk in its different preparations.

Villages, either inhabited or in ruins, are scattered all over the hills; and, if it could be supposed that all of them had ever been occupied at the same time, it would give a strong impression of former populousness and present desolation. But the fact appears to be, that, as one place became exhausted, or as inclination or various accidents might determine them, the people quitted one village which fell into decay, and established themselves in another that consequently was new and flourishing. These villages are for the most part mean, though frequently very pleasantly situated; and are almost always adorned with a few "lemon or walnut trees; or, where they will grow, with mango trees, that throw a grateful shade over the houses, while the stone terraces built at their roots yield a comfortable seat to the inhabitants under their branches. The houses are flat roofed, built of stone, and seldom exceed one story in height. They are very rudely constructed, the side of the hill frequently serving for one of the walls, whence beams project, and are supported by the external wall or front. Their interior, however, though not arranged in the most commodious manner, is stated to be well swept and clean. A respectable share of the house is always appropriated to the cows, though the opening allowed to them, like the entrance to the dwelling itself, is inconveniently small and narrow.

In the course of our author's excursions, he witnessed at a village, called Bahun, a very extraordinary practice, to which the inhabitants of the hills submit their young children.

“ Several straw sheds are constructed on a bank, above which a cold clear stream is led to water their fields, and a small portion of this, probably of three fingers breadth, is brouglit into the shed by a hollow stick or piece of bark, and falls from this spout into a small drain, which carries it off about two feet below.

“ The women bring their children to these huts in the heat of the day, and having lulled them to sleep, and wrapt their bodies and feet warm in a blanket, they place them on a small bench or tray horizon, tally, in such a way that the water sliall fall upon the crown of the head, just keeping the whole top wet with its stream.

“ We saw two under this operation, and several others came in while we remained, to place their children in a similar way. Males and fem males are equally used thus, and their sleep seemed sound and unruffledi

“ The mode too of lulling asleep was singular: seizing the infant with both arms, with these, aided by the knee, they gave it a vinlent rotatory motiun, that seemed rather calculated to shake the child to pieces than to produce the soft effect of slumber.

" It was, however, unerring in its effects. One of the children was intently looking at the strangers, and eyeing the dresses and arms with every symptom of strong curiosity and excitement: no signs of drow. siness could be traced, yet the vigorous operation admitted of no pause; its eyes gradually closed, and in thirty seconds it was fast asleep.

« On inqairy, we were informed that this singular process, for sleep ing and bathing the children is universally used throughout the hills where there is the means of using it, under a notion that it is very salutary to keep the head cool, and that it increases hardihood and strength. One or two women usually sit with the children of the rest, whilst they are employed in domestic or agricultural pursuits.” (P. 105, 106.)

2. Joobul is a 'hill-state of considerable extent, and is one of the principal states of the second class, if not in the amount of its revenues, at least in consequence and position. It is bounded on the south and south-east by Sirmore, on the east and north-east by the state of Gurwhāl, from which it is divided by the river Pabur; and on the north, north-west, and west, by several petty states, which are now merged in the territories of Bischur. Previously to its conquest by the Ghoorkhas, Joobul was governed by an hereditary chief of its own, under the title of Rāna; who was, generally speaking, in a state of tolerable independence, but who nominally acknowledged himself tributary to one or other of the more powerful neighbouring states, and most frequently to the Rajah of Sirmore, whose dominions were contiguous.

After the Ghoorkhas had reduced Sirmore to their power, the petty states successively fell under their sway, with little or no resistance; and Joobul became an integral part of the Nepaulese territories. The reigning Rāna was deposed, and had since lived in retirement, supported by the private charity of some of his former subjects, who bore the yoke of their conquerors with impatience, and gladly seized the opportunity of transferring their allegiance to the British government. Of the population and revenues of this state little can be stated; the only fact known is, that it produced an annual sum of 24,000 rupees to the Ghoorkha. The chief place, (capital it can scarcely be called) is the fortress of Choupal, originally nothing more than the house of a chieftain, but converted into a fortified post by the Ghoorkhas.

# The fort is a square building of no great extent, with a tower at three of its corners, and inclosing a court of about twenty feet

square. The largest tower was occupied as a temple by the divinity only, and this is ornamented with considerable neatness. A second contained the apartments of the commandant, a soubahdar.

• The whole is three stories high: in the lower one cattle of all sorts were stowed : probably in time of siege, these gave room to stores of different sorts. In the second and third the garrison was lodged. A great part consists of open yerandah ; but the soldiers of the East are not nice with respect to their accommodations, generally stretching themselves in their rosais wherever there is room, with little care about the apartment. Still 'less do the Ghoorkhas or hill-men care where they lay their wearied limbs.

About the court-yard lay several large pieces of fir trees, hollowed to hold water, which had been done by the soubahdar when preparing to resist the attack he saw approaching: they would not have held more than four or five days' consumption for the garrison, which consisted of 100 men.

“ Around the building they had planted a good stockade, not more than six feet from the walls, which was a formidable defence, and would have prevented such troops as were likely to oppose them from an assault; and the walls were bored into loopholes for musketry in all directions.

The troops were all under cover; but as there was no room for them to move about in, they would have been forced to remain continually motionless in their rooms, which would of itself have been no trifling inconvenience. The stockade, when we now visited it, had since the evacuation of the post gone nearly to ruin.

“ The soubahdar who had commanded it was with me at the time I examined the fort, and pointed out all his projects and contrivances; .but,' said he, God willed it otherwise, and I am now your servant.'

“ The sensations with which a brave soldier views the place he once commanded in, and which he has been forced to yield up without fighting, from the dread of famine and of certain destruction to his troops, must be painful, however blameless he deems himself, and the soubahdar showed that he felt them so.

“ But, as he observed, what must be done at last had better be done with a good grace at first. He had no means of resisting the overpowering force that sprang up against him, nor any hope of assistance, nor the means of subsistence till such could arrive.

“ He pointed out the corn he had sowed never to reap, and the improvement he meditated but could not complete, with somewhat of a bitter smile. He was a steady, determined, and zealous officer ; and it is pleasing to think, that in his change of service he has been so far fortunate as to lose nothing in emolument or respect, and that while with us he met with all proper regard and attention.

“ It is well known that in the East no obloquy attaches to a man who changes his side, and fights against the cause he once contended for, especially if the train of original service has once been broken ; and although the point of honour seems to be tenaciously kept by the Ghoorkhas, and their attachment to their country is perhaps greater than among other eastern people, it does not appear to be considered a dishonourable act, if, when forced by an enemy to surrender prisoner, an officer of theirs should enter the service of that enemy.

“ In this way Runjeet Sing, the Sikh chief, the deadly enemy of the Ghoorkha government, has inlisted a considerable body of the Ghoork. has and others; and the deserters from the forts of Malown and Jyo, tock, when forced by famine to leave their garrisons, inlisted with the armies investing these places." (P. 150, 151.)

3. Comharsein is a petty state or lordship, governed by a Rāna: during the period it was held by the Ghoorkhas, it was assessed at 7500 rupees per annum, and could muster two hundred and fifty fighting men, one hundred of whom were armed with matchlocks. The reigning sovereign, as usual, was deposed by the conquerors, and detained in prison for some time, on the commencement of the war with the British ; but he effected his escape to the camp of General Ochterlony, with whom he remained for a short time, after which he returned to his exhausted territories. The town of Comharsein, which Mr. Fraser states cannot be so little as three thousand feet above the river Sutlej, is mean and poor, consisting only of a dozen houses, built, like the rest of the villages, on the hills, of dry

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