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which was made in the eye of the world without the least deference to a good and gracious Sovereign, to an illustrious Nobility, to a learned and knowing Gentry, to a great and valiant People: I say, let even this step be forgiven for a good peace; but let not that peace receive its fanction from the repetition of it. If men cannot carry on the business of the nation without such helps, they may as well in plain terms tell us they cannot maintain the constitution, but they will alter it to one which they can. But how is this received with so much indifference? Why, men qualified for power direct mankind by consulting their interest, and managing their affections; but pretenders to administration indulge the passions of the multitude at the expence of their real interest and advantage. It is by this latter method all the anarchical proceedings, which have of late distracted this unhappy nation, have been tolerated. When the minds of men are prejudiced, wonderful effects may be wrought against common-sense. One weak step, in trying a fool for what he said in a pulpit, with all the pomp that could be used to take down a more dangerous and powerful man than ever England yet has seen, cost the most able Ministry that ever any Prince was honoured with, its being. The judgement of the House of Lords was by this means insulted and evaded, and the anarchical fury ran so high, that Harry Sacheverell swelling, and Jack Huggins laughing,


marched through England in a triumph more than military. Many extraordinary things which have happened since, have been brought about upon a maxim no deeper than pax bello potior, peace

is better than war.” A great many lies, grafted upon this unquestionable truth, could not but produce wonders among all who pay taxes. But arithmetick is so common an art, that the very common people, now their passions are fallen, see their case in one sheet of paper, called, “ A View of the Taxes, Funds, and “ public Revenues of England. Printed for “ Tim. Child, at the White Hart, at the West « end of St. Paul's *."

As for myself, what I have here suggested is from a very honest heart, and I have an armour in my integrity against all gainsayers. My comfort is, that the laws of England are still in force; and, though what I have said may be unacceptable, I am sure it is not illegal. While the laws are in being I am safe, and no man can be safe who outlives them. May I, whenever they expire, die with them!

I wish you the long possession of the honour in which your generous behaviour has placed you in the minds of all true Englishmen; and am, with great respect, your most obedient fervant,

Francis Hicks F. * In a paper called “ The Protester," by Mr. Ralph, published in 1753, No 5, this piece is quoted as she production of Mr. Walpole. + Acknowledged by Steele as his own in 1715.


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To the Earl of WHARTON .

[1712-13]. THE author of the Spectator, having pre

fixed before each of his volumes the name of some great person to whom he has particular obligations, lays his elaim to your Lordship’s


* Prefixed to the fifth volume of “ The Spectator."

+ Thomas Wharton was appointed by King William Comptroller of the Houshold, Justice in Eyre South of Trent, and Lord-lieutenant of Oxfordshire; created Vifcount Winchendon and Earl of Wharton, Dec. 23, 1706; appointed Lord - lieutenant of Ireland, Nov. 25, 1708 (when Mr. Addison became his Secretary); Lord Privy-seal, Sept, 24, 1714; and, Dec. 24, Marquis of Wharton and Malmesbury, in England; and Earl of Rathfarnham and Marquis of Catherlough, in Ireland. He died April 12, 1715, in the 76th year of his age. He was succeeded by his fon Philip, whom King George I. in 1718, created Duke of Wharton, purely in confideration of the merits of his noble father, as appears from the patent of his creation, which mentions o's

King William's obligations to Lord Wharton for his “ constant and vigorous defence of the public liberty, and the “ Proteitant religion ;” and states, “how vigorously he supported " the interest of King George, by the weight of his counsels, the “ force of his wit, and the firmness of his mind, when his said “ Majesty's title to the fucceflion to this realm was in danger.” An eminent historian says, “he had as many friends as the con“ stitution, and that only its enemies were his ; that he made no “ merit of his zeal for his country; and that he expended above " 80,000l. for its service in elections,” &c. There is in the British Mufeum a transcript, by Dr. Birch, of a most curious letter of Lord Wharton to King William, copied, it is said, from an original, communicated to that indefatigable transcriber by Mr. Anle, which we do not recollect to have seen in print, though it well deserves publication. See MSS, Birch. 4107


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patronage upon the same account.

I must confess, my Lord, had not I already received

great instances of your favour, I should have been afraid of submitting a work of this nature to your perusal. You are so thoroughly acquainted with the characters of men, and all the parts of human life, that it is impossible for the least misrepresentation of them to escape your notice. It is your Lordship's particular distinction that you are master of the whole compass of business, and have signalized yourself in all the different scenes of it. We admire some for the dignity, others for the popularity of their behaviour ; some for their clearness of judgement, others for their happiness of expression; some for the laying of schemes, and others for the putting of them in execution. It is your Lordship only who enjoys these several talents united, and that too in as great perfection as others potless them fingly. Your enemies acknowledge this great extent in your Lordship's character, at the same time that they use their utmost industry and invention to derogate from it.

But it is for your honour that those who are now your enemies were always so. You have acted in so much consistency with yourself, and promoted the interests of your country in so uniform a manner, that even those who would misrepresent your generous designs for the public good, cannot but approve the steadiness and intrepidity with


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which you pursue them. It is a most sensible pleasure to me that I have this opportunity of professing myself one of your great admirers, and, in a very particular manner, my Lord, your Lordship’s moft obliged, and most obedient, humble servant, THE SPECTATOR.

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To the Earl of SUNDERLAND H.

[1712-13.] ERY many favours and civilities (received

from you in a private capacity) which I have no other way to acknowledge, will, I hope, excuse this presumption ; but the justice I, as a SPECTATOR, owe your character, places me above the want of an excuse. Candour and openness of heart, which shine in all your words and actions, exact the highest esteem from all who have the honour to know you; and a winning condescension to all subordinate to you, made business a pleasure to those who executed * Prefixed to the sixth volume of “ The Spectator.”

+ Charles Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, who succeeded to that title, Sept. 21, 1702, on the death of his father Robert. He was made Secretary of State, Dec. 5, 1706; and dismissed, June 14, 1719. Sept. 1, 1915, he had a pension of 12001. per annum settled on him. April 16, 1717, was again appointed Secretary of State ; March 16, 1717-18, Lord President of the Council; Feb. 6, 1718-19, Groom of the Stole; and died April 19, 17:2. He married Lady Anne Churchill, second daughter of John Duke of Marlborough; to whose titles her eldeit surviving fon, Charles, fucceeded in 1733. You


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