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12. What is the meaning of Apocryphal ?--Hidden or concealed, because their origin is doubtful.

13. What are the names of the Apocryphal books ? (See Article.)

14. What books of the New Testament should we receive as canonical ?-All that were received when the Article was written, viz., all that we now have.


Of the Old Testament. “The Old Testament is not contrary to the New; for both in the Old and New Testament, everlasting life is offered to mankind by Christ, who is the only Mediator between God and man, being both God and Man, Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises. Although the law, given from God by Moses, as touching ceremonies and rites, do not bind Christian men, nor the civil precepts thereof ought, of necessity, to be received in any commonwealth ; yet notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience of the commandments which are called moral.”

1. What does the seventh Article treat of?_Of the Old Testament. 2. What is the meaning of the word Testament?-A


3. Why are the Scriptures so called ?-Because they contain the will of God to man.

4. What do you mean by the Old Testament ?- That part of the will of God revealed to man before the coming of Christ.

5. Is the Old Testament contrary to the New?-No; the Old Testament is not contrary to the New. Acts, xxvi. 22, 23; Luke, xxiv. 44.

6. How do you show it is not?—Because everlasting life is offered to mankind in both by Christ. * Gen. iii. 15; John, v. 39; Gal. iii. 8.

* The Jews were saved by looking to a Saviour to come, as we are by looking to a Saviour already come.

7. What is Christ here declared to be ?— The only Mediator between God and man. 1 Tim. ii. 5; John, xiv. 6.

8. What do you mean by a Mediator ?—One who goes between two persons at variance, as a friend of both, to make peace between them. 1 Tim. ii. 5.

9. How is Christ peculiarly qualified for this office?By being Himself both God and man. Phil. ii. 6, 7; Heb. i. 2, 3.

10. Ought we believe them who say the Old Fathers looked only for transitory promises ?*—No ; they are not to be heard. Heb. xi. 13: Job, xix. 25, 26.

11. Who are meant by the Old Fathers ?—The Old Testament saints.

12. What are meant by transitory promises ?-Promises that pass away and end with this life.

13. Into how many parts is the law of Moses here divided ?—Into three parts :41. The rites and ceremonies. 2. The civil precepts. 3. The commandments called moral.

14. Who gave the law to Moses ?-God.

15. What do you mean by rites and ceremonies ?Forms and observances of religion.

16. Are we bound by the rites and ceremonies of the Jews ?-No; they do not bind Christian men.t Heb. x. 1; Col. i. 17.

17. What do you mean by civil precepts ?— The precepts concerning civil government.

18. Are we bound to receive the civil precepts of the Jews ?-No; not of necessity. I

19. What do you mean by the commandments called moral ?-I mean those commandments that relate to our moral conduct with regard to God and man.

* Who, that reads the Scriptures with any tolerable care, can doubt that they, as well as we, looked forward for everlasting glory, only through the atonement of Christ Jesus, our Lord.

† All the Levitical sacrifices and services were but types or shadows of Christ, and intended only to represent Him; but now that He has come and offered Himself, we have the reality, and, consequently, no longer look to types or shadows.

We may or may not receive any one or all of the civil precepts of the Jews, as we think most profitable to the country in which we live, but are not bound by Scripture to them.

B 2

20. Are these binding on us ?—Yes ; no Christian man whatsoever is free from the obedience of the commandments called moral.* Matt. v. 17; Rom. xiii. 8, 9, 10; Rom. iii. 31.


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Of the Three Creeds. The three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius' Creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed, ought thoroughly to be received and believed; for they may be proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.”

1. What does the eighth Article treat of? Of the three creeds.

2. What are they called ?—The Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the Apostles' Creed.

3. Why is the Nicene Creed so called ?-Because it was drawn up at the Council of Nice, A.D. 325.

4. Why is the Athanasian Creed so called ?-Because it sets forth the divinity of Christ, which Athanasius so firmly contended for.t

5. Why is the Apostles' Creed so called ?-Because it was principally drawn up in the time of the Apostles, or very soon after. Rom. vi. 17.

6. Does our Church receive and believe these three creeds ?-Yes, they ought thoroughly to be received and believed. I 2 Tim. i. 13; Rom. vi. 17.

* Because Christ has bound them on us. John, xiv. 15.

† Athanasius was bishop of Alexandria about A.D. 350. He maintained the divinity of Christ and the doctrine of the Trinity against almost the whole professing Church of that day, so that he was obliged to give up his diocese and fly into the wilderness, where he lived for thirty years, but was afterwards, on the death of Julian, the Roman Emperor, restored to his diocese. This creed was principally extracted from his writings.

# These three Creeds contain the belief of the early Church on all important points, and were the only ones which she had. The Creed of Pope Pius IV. which Romanists add to these, and without the belief of which they think no one will be saved, was never heard of till the Council of Trent, 1564. Our Church, therefore, introduced nothing new at the Reformation, but merely protested against and shook off the false doctrines, which had from time to time been falsely introduced, and were now established by the Council, and formed into this creed. This shows which is the old Church. The creed of Pope Pius IV. is given at page 59.

7. Why ought they ?-Because they may be proved by the most certain warrants of Holy Scripture. Is. viii. 20 ; 1 Thess. v. 21.


Of Original, or Birth-Sin. " Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk), but it is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit; and, therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated; whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek (phronema sarkos), which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized ; yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.”

1. What does the ninth Article speak of ?-Of original, or birth sin.

2. What do you by mean original, orbirth sin?-I mean that sinful nature derived from our first parents, which we have when we are born. Ps. li. 5; Rom. v. 12, 19.

3. Does original sin arise from the following or imitating of Adam's disobedience ?—No, it does not.

4. What, then, is it?-It is the fault or corruption of the nature of every man that is born of Adam. Ephes. ii. 3 ; Job, xiv. 4; Rom. v. 12, 14, 19.

5. What sect held that original sin did consist in the imitating of Adam ?-The Pelagians.

6. What were their errors on this point?—They taught that our nature derived no taint from Adam's fall, but that we have perfect liberty, as Adam, to do good or evil, and that all our sin arises from falling as he fell.

* From this Article to the nineteenth mark out the peculiar state of each individual as he stands before God. At first sight, to a mind not thoroughly instructed in gospel truths, some of them may appear difficult, but as we advance in grace and knowledge, and become more and more enlightened, their true scripturalness will appear remarkably striking and manifest.

7. Has every one original sin ?-Yes, every one that is naturally engendered of the offspring of Adam.*

8. What, then, is the state of every man by nature now ?-He is very far gone from original righteousness. Ec. vii. 29.

9. What do you mean by original righteousness? That righteousness in which God originally made man.t Gen. i. 27.

10. How is every man disposed by nature now ?-He is of his own nature inclined to evil. Gen. vi. 5 ; Jer. xvii. 9; Rom. iii. 9, 12, 18, 23.

11. What is the result of this natural inclination to evil ?—It is, that the flesh always lusteth contrary to the spirit.

Rom. viii. 7, 8; Gal. v. 17. 12. What does this sinful nature which is in every man, deserve from God ?—God's wrath, and damnation. Rom. iii. 19; Gal. vi. 7, 8.

13. Is every man, then, under the curse and condemnation of God ? Yes, every man. Rom. v. 12; John, iii. 18.

14. Is this infection of man's nature ever taken away? -No, it remains even in them that are regenerated. Rom. vii. 19, 21, 22; Gal. v. 17; Is. lxiv. 6.

15. Who are the regenerated ?—Those who are born of God through Christ, by the power of the Holy Ghost. John, iï. 3, 5, 6; Eph. iv. 24.

16. How do you know this infection of nature remains in the regenerated ?—Because the lust or affections of the flesh, even in them, is not subject to the law of God. || Eccles. vii. 20.

* This clause is directed against the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, which Romanists hold.

+ Man was originally made upright and holy, with a free-will and power to do either good or evil, but he sinned and lost his holiness, and at the same time the power and the will to do good ; ever after the thoughts of his natural heart are only evil continually. Gen. vi. 5.

I Sin does not reign (Rom. vi. 12, 14) in the regenerate, but still it exists. The greatest saint that ever lived was at no time of his life free from sin, and there. fore, from beginning to end, Christ was his only hope of glory. Col. i. 27.

§ Being born in sin, man is, at the moment of his birth, a sinful creature, and therefore under the curse of God, and unfit for the presence of Him who is of purer eyes than to behold iniquity.

|| The Greek words, Phronema sarkos, might mean either the wisdom, the sensuality, the affection, or the desire of the flesh ; but no one of these is subject to the law of God--they are all opposed to it.

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