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partisans on either side. He sympathizes with rich and poor, the higher and the lower classes ; and so he may calmly and kindly lend the hand of fellowship to both, and reconcile them one with another..

As to the subject matter of this volume it may be properly asked how far is it merely translation, how far adaptation, and how much of original matter does it contain ? It would be very difficult to give a precise answer to this question, nor would it help much in the general appreciation of the volume before the reader. The chief object has been throughout the following pages to reproduce in a readable form the arguments of the original author intact, and hence translation in a condensed form has been adopted to a great extent in this volume. The same desire has led the presentauthor in some few instances to translate almost literally the words of the German work, even at the risk of incurring censure from the critics for using a phraseology bearing the impress of German modes of thought and expression. The intelligent reader will make allowances for this peculiarity, since what he loses in style he will gain in the value of a faithful translation, where that is most desirable.

The work of adaptation at all times is one surrounded by all but insuperable difficulties. Still there are cases where it is preferable to mere translation. To some extent it has been adopted in this volume, and that for two reasons. In the first place, it was necessary to reduce the original work to one third of its size without the omission of any essential matter; and in the second place

the peculiar style of the German work had to be simplified, and to some extent popularized, for English readers. This could only be done by considerably modifying the form, whilst writing entirely in the spirit of the original. In some cases it was found necessary to add original notes, illustrative passages, and other quotations from modern, especially English, authors. In some places it was necessary to recast the matter of the book entirely, so as to adapt it to the varying conditions and ideas prevalent in England and America. The more critical reader may discover from a comparison of this volume with the original work, “Kapitalismus und Socialismus,” how far this plan has been successful. The general reader may rest satisfied with the assurance of the present author that he has the sum and substance of Dr. Schäffle's ideas before him in this volume, confirmed by the latter's approval after a careful perusal of the proof-sheets as the book was passing through the press.

Thus much having been premised for general guidance, the work is submitted to the consideration of those whom it may concern, with the prayer for an indulgent hearing from



April, 1874.

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