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SiMEoN of DURHAM, an eminent English historian, and the contemporary of William of Malmsbury, lived in the twelfth century. He both studied and taught the sciences, and particularly the mathematics at Oxford, and became precentor to the church of Durham. He died probably soon after the year 1130, where his history ends. He took great pains in collecting our ancient monuments, especially in the north of England, after they had been scattered by the Danes in their devastations of that country. From these he composed a history of the kings of England from the year 616 to 1130, with some smaller historical pieces. It was continued by John, prior of Hexham, to the year 1156. This work, and Simeon’s account of the church of Durham, are printed among Twisden's “ Decem Scriptores;” but of the latter a separate edition was published in 1732, 8vo, by Thomas Bedford.' SIMEON, surnamed METAPHRASTEs, from his having written the lives of the saints in a diffuse manner, was born of noble parents at Constantinople, in the tenth century, and was well educated, and raised himself by his merit to very high trust under the reigns of Leo, the philosopher, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus his son. It is said, that when sent on a certain occasion by the emperor to the island of Crete, which the Saracens were about to surprize, a contrary wind carried his ship to the isle of Pharos. There he met with an anchorite, who advised him to write the life of Theoctista, a female saint of Lesbos. With this he complied, and we may presume, found some pleasure

* Cave, vol. II.


in the undertaking, as he gradually extended his researches to the lives of an hundred and twenty other saints, which, with respect to style, are not disgraceful to a scholar, but, cardinal Bellarmin says, he describes his saints rather as what they onght to be, than as what they were. There are Latin translations of this work by Lipoman, Surius, and others, but no edition of the original Greek; and his translators are accused of having added much of a fabulous nature. Some other religious tracts of Metaphrastes are extant, and some “Annals.” He died in 976 or 977." SIMLFR (Josias), a learned divine of the sixteenth century, who co-operated in the reformation, was born Nov. 6, 1530, at Cappell, a village near Zurich in Swisserland. His father, Peter Simler, after having been for many years a member of, and afterwards prior of the monastery there, embraced the reformed religion, became a preacher of it, and died in 1557. After being educated for some time in his father's monastery, he went to Zurich in 1544, and studied for two years under the direction of the celebrated Bullinger, who was his god-father. He removed thence to Basil, where he studied rhetoric and mathematics, and afterwards to Strasburgh, where Sturmius, Martyr, Bucer, and others of the reformers resided ; but as he had no thoughts at this time of divinity as a profession, he improved himself chiefly in other branches of learning. He continued here about two years, and passed three more in visiting various universities, and hearing the lectures of the most eminent professors. In 1549, he returned home, and with such visible improvement in learning, that Gesner often employed him to lecture to his scholars, both in geometry and astronomy. In 1552 he was appointed to expound in public the New Testament, which he did with so much ability as to be greatly admired by the learned of Zurich, as well as by the English who had taken refuge there from the Marian persecution. In 1557 he was made deacon; and when Bibliander, on account of his advanced age, was declared emeritus, Simler was appointed to teach in his place, and was likewise colleague with Peter Martyr, who had a high opinion of him, and on his death in 1563, Simler succeeded him as professor of divinity. He filled this office with great reputation until his constitution became impaired by a hereditary gout, which in his latter years interrupted his studies, and shortened his useful life. He was only forty-five when he died, July . 2, 1576. He is represented as a man of a meek, placid, and affectionate temper, and although never rich, always liberal, charitable, and hospitable. His works are very numerous, some on subjects of divinity, commentaries on the scriptures, &c. and some on the controversies most agitated in his time. He wrote also the lives of Peter Martyr, Gesner, and Bullinger, each in a thin 4to volume; published an epitome of Gesner's “Bibliotheca,” 1555, fol. and was editor of some of the works of Martyr and Bullinger. To those we may add, 1. “AZthici cosmographia, Antonini Itinerarium, Rutiliani Numantiani Itinerarium, et alia varia,” Basil, 1575, 12mo, with valuable scholia. 2. “Helvetiorum Respublica,” often reprinted, and esteemed one of the best of that collection of little books called “Republics.” 3. “Vallesiae descriptionis libri duo, et de Alpibus commentarius,” 1574, 8vo. - 4. “Vocabularia rei nummariae ponderum et mensurarum, Gr. Lat. Heb. Arab. ex diversis autoribus collecta,” Tiguri, 1584, 8vo, &c. &c." SIMMONS (SAMUEl FoART), a late learned physician, and physician extraordinary to the king, was born March 17, 1750, at Sandwich, in Kent, where his father, who followed the profession of the law, was so respected, that, at the coronation of their present majesties, he was deputed by the cinque ports one of their barons to support the king's canopy, according to ancient custom. His mother, whose maiden name was Foart, and whose family was likewise of Sandwich, died when he was an infant. He was educated at a seminary in France, where he not only improved himself in the learned languages, but acquired such a perfect knowledge of the French tongue, as to be able to write and speak it with the same facility as his own. He pursued his medical studies for nearly three years at Edinburgh, and afterwards went to Holland, and studied during a season at Leyden, where he was admitted to the degree of doctor of physic: he chose the measles for the subject of his inaugural discourse, which he inscribed to Cullen, and to Gaubius, both of whom had shewn him particular regard. After taking his degree at

* Leo Allatius de Simeouum Scriptis.—Vossius de Hist. Graec.—Baronii Airmales.-Cave, vol. II.-Saxii Onomast.

1 Melchior Adam.—Bezae icones.—Niceron, vol. XXVIII.

Leyden, he visited and became acquainted with professor Camper in Friesland, who had at that time one of the finest anatomical museums in Europe. From thence he proceeded to Aix-la-Chapelle and the Spa, and afterwards visited different parts of Germany; stopped for some time at the principal universities; and wherever he went cultivated the acquaintance of learned men, especially those of his own profession, in which he was ever anxious to improve himself. At Berne, in Switzerland, he became known to the celebrated Haller, who afterwards ranked him among his friends and correspondents. He came to reside in London towards the close of 1778, being then in his 28th year, and was admitted a member of the College of Physicians, and was elected a fellow of the Royal Society 1779, and of the Society of Antiquaries 1791, as he had been before of different foreign academies at Nantz, Montpellier, and Madrid: he was afterwards admitted an honorary member of the Literary and Philosophical Society at Manchester, and of the Royal Society of Medicine at Paris, at which place he was elected one of the Associés Etrangers de l'Ecole de Medicine; and in 1807, Correspondant de la Premiere Classe de l’Institut Imperial. Previous to 1778, he had written an elementary work on Anatomy, which was greatly enlarged and improved in its second edition, 1781 : and he had communicated to the Royal Society the History of a curious case, which was afterwards published in their Transactions, “Phil. Trans.” vol. LXIV. He became also the sole editor of the London “Medical Journal;” a work which, after going through several volumes, was resumed under the title of “Medical Facts and Observations:” these two works have ever been distinguished for their correctness, their judicious arrangement, and their candour. About this time he published an account of the Tape-worm, in which he made known the specific for this disease, purchased by the king of France. This account has been enlarged in a subsequent edition.—He likewise distinguished himself by a practical work on “Consumptions,” which, at the time, became the means of introducing him to considerable practice in pulmonary complaints. In 1780, he was elected physician to the Westminster General Dispensary; a situation he held for many years, and which afforded him ample scope for observation and experience in the knowledge of disease. These opportunities he did not neglect; and though,

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