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DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,

War, the

the two Richmonds. What cele- What is known of the character brated Teacher flourished at one and history of Dicky Gossip of them ?-and who were his most eminent Disciples ?

13. What were the various sorts of paper in use amongst the English? To what purpose was HISTORY.—The district of Cowhited-brown

chiefly applied ? lumbia was originally inhabited What was size? Distinguish be- by a tribe of Indians called the tween this and College Sizings, Manahoacs, who, who according and state the ordinary expense of to Smith, were at constant enpapering a room.

mity with the Powhatans of Vir14. "For every one knows lit- ginia. Their history is but imtle Matt's an M.P." Frag. Com. perfectly known. Inc. ap. Morp. Chron. vol. 59, p. small-pox, and the introduction 1624.

of spirituous liquors, thinned the What reasons can you assign population rapidly. In 1669 a for the general knowledge of this

census was taken; and it was fact? Detail, at length, the cere- found that in sixty-two years onemony of chairing a Member. third of their former number: What were the Hustings? Who

was wanting. They are said to paid for them? Explain the ab- have migrated westwardly, and breviations-Matt.-M.P.Tom.

to have become blended with the Dick.-F.R.S. - LL.D.--and Tuscaroras. This district wa A.S.S.

ceded by Virginia and Maryland 15. What was the distinguish- in 1794, and became the permaing title of the Mayors of Lon- nent seat of the general governidon? Did any other city share ment in 1800. At the time of its the honour! Give a list of the cession, the principal proprietor Mayors of London from Sir Rich

on the eastern side of the Poto ard Whittington to Sir William

mac were D. Carrol, N. Young Curtis, with an account of the and D. Burns, who cultivate

. Cat of the first, and the Weight of corn, tobacco, and wheat, where the last. What is meant by Lord the city now stands. The selecMayor's day? Describe the Apo- tion of this site enriched those thecaries' Barge, and give some proprietors, particularly the foraccount of Marrow-bones and

mer, who, however, from a misCleavers.

taken policy, has withered the 16. When was Spyring and Marsden's Lemon Acid invented ? in which most of his property

growth of that section of the city Distinguish between this and Es- lies. The heir of the latter, Mr. sential Salt of Lemons. Enu- Von Ness, pursued a different si merate the principal Patentees, tem, and by disposing of his especially those of Liquid Black ground on moderate terms, ha: ing

contributed to the rapid improve 17. Scan the following Lines ment of his section of the metro. But for shaving and tooth-drawing, Bleeding, cabbaging and sawing,

polis, and to the consequent inDicky Gossip, Dicky Gossip is the man! crease of value in property.

TOPOGRAPHY

Topography.—This district is alluvium, which contains “frag10 miles square, and includes ments of primitive mountains, within its limits the city of Wash- pyrites, gravel and sand, shells, ington, Alexandria, and George and the remains of vegetable subtown; its diagonal lines are north stances." Mr. Goden says, that and south, east and west. The Rock Creek, which divides Georgesouthern angle is at Fort Colum- town from the city, separates the bus, at the mouth of Hunting primitive from the alluvian soil. Creek, on the left bank of the Though the soil in parts of the Potomac. From this the lines district is steril, it is capable of run at an angle of 45 degrees to being highly improved by the apthe distance of 10 miles.

plication of plaster or any other The district is composed of por- species of compost, and might, tions of Virginia and Maryland from its convenience to an excel

on the east and west side of the lent market, be made, by enter. Potomac, a grand and beautiful prising and industrious agricultu

river, which rises in the Allegany raliste, eminently productive and Mountains, and after a meander- fertile. Its natural productions ing course of near 400 miles, are such as are common to the empties itself into the Chesapeake adjacent states. There is, conBay. The Potomac is navigable venient to it, an extensive quarry to vessels of considerable burden of free-stone on the Acquia Creek, as high as George-town ; and by and another of beautiful marble means of locks which have been on the Seneca, which has recently erected at the great and little been discovered. falls, a navigation is afforded CLIMATE, &c.—The climate of to boats of no inferior mag- the district is liable to frequent nitude, for 100 miles nearer its and sudden changes in summer source.

excessively hot, and in winter There are several fisheries on very cold; but it does not appear the Potomae very productive and to be more pregnant with diseases valuable, not only to the proprie- than other portions of the United tors, but to the inhabitants, who States. The healthy appearance are thus easily and cheaply fur- and longevity of the inhabitants nished with the means of subsist- indicate its salubrity ; and, inence during the remainder of the deed, when we consider the flowyear. Shad are sold at the dif- ing nature of its surface, the free ferent landings for three dollars admission of pure and wholesome per hundred, and herrings at fifty air, and the excellence of its wacents per thousand. The follow- ter, in which it stands unrivalled ing is a list of the principal fish in the United States, we cannot caught at these fisheries :--viz. but believe it must be healthy.shad, herrings, sturgeon, rock, Mr. Blodget estimated the annual gar, carp, pike, six varieties of deaths in Washington at one of the perch, mullett, and cat-fish. 48 to 50: at New York, one of

The soil is various-on the 44 to 50; Baltimore, one of 42 banks of the Eastern Branch and to 49; and in Charleston, one of Potomac there is a deep and rich 35 to 40, which establishes the superior healthiness of Washing- tion, and open to it all the trade ton to those cities. In European' of the west, it is impossible that cities, the annual deaths are, one it can avoid becoming the most to 28, making a vast difference in wealthy and eligible territory in favour of Washington.

2 R2

superior WASHINGTON

the Union. POPULATION.-The population MANUPACTURES.--Its manufacof the district of Columbia, at tures are in a flourishing condithe last census (1810,) amounted tion, and are daily increasing in to 24,023-now, in all probabi- variety and capital, lity, 30,000. The city contained CONSTITUTION AND LAWS.8,209, Georgetown 4,948, and By the constitution of the United Alexandria 7,227 ; Washington States the national legislature have county 2,315, and Alexandria the power to exercise exclusive lecounty 1,325 inhabitants.

gislation over this territory, and COMMERCE.molts conimercial to enact such laws in relation to importance has, perhaps, never it, ils may be deemed necessary been duly appreciated. From its and proper. Whether Governcentral situation, surrounded by ment could assume this right, a rich, fertile, and, flourishing consistently with the nature and country, commanding the most principles of our political instituextensive internal resources, it tions, and thus exclude a large must soon become one of the population from the privileges of richest commercial territories in freemen, we shall not now pause the United States. In 1813, it to examine. It is, however, cerexported, in domestic productions tain, we are for many years

des. and inanufactures, to the amount tined to be deprived of the right of 1,387,000 dollars ; thus sur- of suffrage ; a privilege so much passing in exports alone, both and so highly prized by our counConnecticut and Vermont; and trymen. in 1803 it paid in duties on in- The laws of Virginia and Mary. ports 143,000 dollars. Its rising land, prior to the year 1800, are prosperity is marked and percep- still in force in the district, ex. tible; and though it has been op- cepting such as have been repealposed by all the violence of pre- ed or modified by the national lejudice, and all the obstacles of gislature, who have exclusive juconflicting interests, it has risen risdiction

it. Congress with great rapidity, and promises have, however, lately passed a to be of vast political and com- law authorizing the Judges of the mercial importance to the United Circuit Court, in conjunction States. Its natural advantages with the Attorney General of the are calculated to promote that ob- United States, to form a code of ject. Situated on the great post- laws for its government, which road from the northern to the we trust will obviate all those southern extremities of the Uni- difficulties hitherto experienced ted States, and almost equi-distant from the various and conflicting from the Atlantic on the one side statutes of the adjacent States, and the Ohio on the other, which and from the inconvenient organyield it every facility of naviga- ization of the District Courts.

over

WASHINGTON CITY.--The city naturally elegant. The avenues of Washington, which forms an are called after the different states important section of the district which constituted the union at the of Columbia, was selected by Ge- time the city was laid out, and are neral Washington, from whom it from 130 to 160 feet wide, inclutakes its name, as the metropolis ding a pavement of 10 feet, and a of the United States; and no se gravel walk of 30 feet, planted on lection could have been more ju- ench side with trees. The other dicious or excellent. Its central streets are from 90 to 110 feet situation—the romantic and pic- wide, and are named numerically turesque beauty of its site-the when they run from north to salubrity of its climate--and the south, and alphabetically when excellence of its water-ul coin- from east to west. The Eastern bine to render it the most desira- Branch, or Anacostia river, affords ble spot in the United States. It from the depth of its channel, comprises a square of four miles and its security from storms, one in extent, and is watered by the of the safest and most commodiPotomac and Anacostia rivers, ons harbours in the United States, which add to its natural beauty, and will unquestionably become, and will contribute to the facility from the convenience which the of its commerce. There are on canal, now nearly completed, will each side of those rivers, and, in afford, the most commercial pordeed, in almost every possible di- tion of the metropolis. rection, the most beautiful eleva- The capitol is a large and mastions, calculated for the residence sy edifice of free-stone, built acof private gentlemen, of those cording to the Corinthian order, who may wish to retire from and situated on a beautiful elevathe turmoil and bustle of the tion of ground, equidistant from town. These heights command the Eastern Branch and the Preextensive and variegated pros- sident's house. But two wings of pects of the district, of the sur- this elegant edifice have yet been rounding country, and of the me- completed, and these were unanderings of the Potomac, as fortunately very much injured far as the eye can reach : while by the rude hand of our late their convenience to the neigh- foe. They are, however, in a fair bouring towns of the district en- way to be speelily repaired, and ables them to afford every advan- restored to more than their pristage and pleasure that can result tine beauty and elegance : which from a union of town and coun- will be augmented when the catry. The city is divided into pitol square, lately authorized to squares by streets running north he graduated, shall have been laid and south, cast and west ; but to off into walks, planted with trees, destroy the sameness and insipid- and decorated with taste. The ity which this plan would produce wall around the square is nearly there are diagonal streets, or are- completed; the coping of stone nues, leading from one public is now on one third of it, and a place to another, which tend to portion of the iron-railing will go diversify and variegate prospects on this season. A delightful ave..

nue

nue leads from the capitol to the depth and excellence of the har. President's house, another elegant bour, and its security from de edifice, built also of free-stone, struction by storms and enemies, according to the lonic proportions. particularly when the Chesapeake, This, like its companion, the ca- which is now in contemplation, pitol, has been partially de- shall be properly and effectually stroyed by the hand of our late defended, contribute to render it enemy. The barbarous and ab- an essential object of governniensurd policy of waging a savage talattention. In this yard, near its and destructive warfare against entrance, the officers of the navy the productions of art cannot be have erected a monument to the sufficiently reprobated. We had memory of Wadsworth, Israel, hoped that at this period of the &c., those gallant young men world, when the refinements of who voluntarily sacrificed themcivilization had introduced a libe- selves on the altar of freedom, rarality of sentiment and generosi- ther than become the slaves of ty of feeling into modern war, despotic barbarians. This monusuch arts of Vandalism would ment, which is of marble, was have been avoided. We had executed in Italy, by eminent arhoped, that a nation that had so tists. It has not yet, however, frequently boasted of her refine- received its last polish, and still * ment, and of the encouragement remains for the hand of the masand protection she has afforded to ter. It is a small column of the the productions of human ingenu- Doric order, with emblematical ity, would have been the last to embellishments, and erowned have cast the firebrand amid the with an eagle in the act of flying. monuments of those arts she 'af- This pillar rests on a base, sculpfects to be solicitous to protect tured in basso-relievo, representing and defend.

Tripoli, its fortresses, the MediThe next object in the city to terranean, and our fleet in the which the attention is attracted is fore-ground; and on each corner the naval yard. This establish- stands an appropriate figure, element is at present resuscitating gantly executed. The one repre. from the smouldering ruins of sents Columbia, directing the atwar, and will, from the attention tention of her children to History, Government seems to pay it, soon who is recording the daring and surpass the flourishing condition intrepid action of the American which it had once attained. They heroes; the third represents have now nearly completed the Fame, with a wreath of laurel in line of battle ship, and promise to one hand, and a pen in the other; be speedily able to build vessels and the fourth represents Merof any magnitude less than a 74. cury, or the God of Commerce, There is, perhaps, no situation in with his cornucopia and caduceus. the United States better calculated These are the principal monuthan this for a national establish- ments of art which Washington ment of this kind.

The facility contains. We must not, howwith which materials and muni- ever, neglect to mention, among tions of war can be procured, the other curiosities of the metropolis

, a curiosity

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