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this colonization and consequent original population of the islands civilization flowed, and the periods were doubtless of the Tartar race, at which it was introduced into and probably from the same stock different states, is a subject new as the Sianiese. The Javans dlate to the historian, and not uninter- the commencement of their era esting to the philosopher.

from the arrival of Adi Sakia, the If we admit the natural in- minister of Prabu Joyo Boyo, soference, that the population of the vereign of Hastina, and the fifth islands originally emigrated from in descent from Arjuno the fivothe continent, and, at the same rite of Krisna, and the leading time, the probability, that the hero of the B'rata Yud’ha. This country lying between Siam and epoch corresponds with that of China, is the immediate source the introduction of a new faith from whence such emigration ori- into China, and the further peginally proceeded, the history of ninsula, by Saka, Shaka, or Sakia, the Eastern Islands may, with as he is differently termed, and reference to that of Java in par- with the chronology of the Hinticular, in which a powerful Hindu dus, as explained by Sir William government was without doubt Jones, in which Saka is supposed early established, be divided into to have reigned seventy-nine years five distinct periods.

subsequent to the commencement The first division would include of the christian era. But whether the period commencing with the Saka himself, or only some of his earliest accounts of the popula- followers, assuming this name, tion, down to the first establish- found their way to Java, may be ment of a foreign colony in Java, questionable; and it is not imof which the written annals of the possible that the Javanese тау country make mention. The date have subsequently adopted the of this is pretty accurately ascer- era, on a more extended intertained, and may be fixed at about course with the further peninsula. the commencement of the sixth A connection would at any rate apcentury of the Javanese era, or pear to have existed bel ween Java A. D. 600; at which time only the and Siam ; as this Adli Saka is not period of authentic history can be only represented to have founded considered to commence.

the present era of Java, but to The origin of all nations is bu- have introduced the original letried in obscurity; and, unless we ters of the Javanese alphabet, by may succeed in obtaining new a inodification of the letters used lights from Siam or China, we in Western India, and in Siam. shall have but little to guide us. It does not appear that either he during the early part of this divi- or his followers established themsion, beyond conjecture, and such selves in any authority; and we general inferences as may be can trace but little with certainty drawn from a similarity in per- during the following five centuson, language and usages, still ries. Some of the Javanese acfound to prevail among the less counts refer to the arrival of vacivilized tribes. According to the rious settlers during this period; division of Sir William Jones, the but we find no traces either of a government having existed, or of that which includes the consethe establishment of any extensive quences of the invasion of India colony, until the commencement by Alexander the Great. That of the sixth century. I should ob- the fabulous history of Rama as 'serve, in this place, that the Ja- well as the exploits of Alexander, vanese year corresponds pretty have been current in the Malayan nearly with the Sindu year of Sa- Archipelago from time immemolivarna ; and that the word Saka, rial, cannot be questioned; and in Sanscrit, means an epoch or it may be remarked, that while era, and is applied to the founder the Javans use the term Rama for of an era.

father, the Malays universally atThe Javanese occasionally use tempt to trace their descent from the numerals for recording dates; Alexander or his followers. Subut more generally, and parti- matra was long considered to have cularly in dates of importance, been the Taprobanè of the anthey adopt an hieroglyphical in- cients; and, when we advert to vention, termed “Chondro Sang- the single circumstance, that this kolo,” in which the different nu- was said to be a country in which merals, from one to ten, are re- the north polar star was not visipresented by particular objects. ble, or only partially, we must This is either effected, in buibile still doubt the correctness of the ings and sculpture, by the actual modern conclusion in favour of representations of these objects ; Ceylon. The eastern islands furor, in writing, by the insertion nish that peculiar kind of produce of their names, the meaning fre- which has from the earliest times quently having some allusion to been in deinand by continental the fact which the date records : nations, and the same avidity with thus, the date of the destruction which, in modern days, Europeans of Majapahit, in the Javanese contended for the rich products of year 1400, is recorded as follows, the Moluccas, actuated, in all prothe order of the numerals being bability, at a much earlier period, reversed :

adventurers from Western India. Sirna ilang Kertaning--Burni. Traces of intercourse with EthioGonc-gone- is the work of the land. pia may be found at this day, in 0 0 4


the scattered tribes of the woolly. Anterior to this supposed ar- haired race peculiar to Africa, rival of Adi ka, the two most which are to be found in the eventful periods in the history of Andamans, in the southern part these countries of which tradition of the further peninsula, and and history make mention, are- throughout the Archipelago; and first, that wbich includes the ex- that the Hindus were at one pecursions of the far-famed race, riod an enterprizing and comwhich have been supposed to have mercial nation, may, I think, be peopled South America, and ac- established, with little difficulty, cording to Sir William Jones, from the incontestable proofs “ imported into the furthest parts which at this day exist in Java, of Asia, the rites and fabulous and the traffic which still exists history of Rama ;" and secondly, in native vessels and on native



capital between the Coromandel testimonies of tradition, and the coast and the Malayan penin- written compositions of the counsula. If any country, therefore, try, the numerous inscriptions in the Archipelago, lays claim and dates, on stone and copper, to this distinction

than the characters of which we are another, it is Java; but, proba- now able to decypher, as well as bly, it was rather to the Eastern the ancient coins, would lend esIslands generally, than to one sential aid in establishing a corisland in particular, that the ap- rect chronology. On the one pellation was given. Both Pto- hand, it would be our task to lemy and the Arabians would direct our inquiries to the history seem to have distinguished the of the various continental nations islands by one general name.

whence these foreigners may have By the one they were termed proceeded; and, on the other, to “ Jabadios Insulæ ;" hy the the nature and extent of the esothers, Jau or Jawa;" and tablishments, intercourse, and cihence, probably, the confusion vilization introduced by them into in the travels of Marco Polo, the different islands. and the still disputed question, This period will commence from between Java Major and Java the arrival of Awap, the reputed Minor.

son of Balia Aicha, sovereign of The second division would in- Kudjirat, who came in search of clude the period between this first a celebrated country, described regular establishment from West- in the writings of Saka; and ern India, and the decline and who, under the name of Sewelo fall of the first Eastern Empire in Cholo, established the first reJava, which may be fixed with gular monarchy of which the tolerable accuracy at about the Javanese annals make mention ; Javanese year 1000, or A.D. and include the adventures of the 1073.

celebrated Panji, the pride and During this period, by far the admiration of succeeding ages. most eventful in the history of Our attention would also be diJava, we shall find that colonies rected, in a particular manner, to of foreigners established them- the intercourse between Java and selves, not only in Java, but in the other islands, and the nature various other islands of the Ar- and extent of the foreign estachipelago ; that the arts, parti- blishments formed by Java. Tracularly those of architecture and dition, and the popular romances sculpture, flourished in a su- of the country, represent, not perior degree, and that the lan- only the kingdoms of Goa and guage, literature and institutions Luhu in Celebes, but even the of the continent of India were kingdom of Menangkabaú, in Sutransfused in various directions matra, to have been established through the oriental islands. It about the conclusion of this pewas during this period, that the riod, by princes from Java. principal temples, of which the The third division would inruins now exist in Java, were clude the period from the above built; and, beside the concurring date to the final overthrow of the second Eastern Empire, in the where we find, that notwithstandJavane-e year 1400. Some idea ing attempts to make proselytes may be forined uf the power and were as early as the commenceopulence of this secon: enpire, ment of the twelfth century, such established at Majapahit, from was the attachment of the people the extensive ruins of that city, to their ancient faith and instistill extant. These I took an op- tu ions, that these efforts did not portunity of visiting during my effectually succred till the latter late tour; and I believe I am end of the fifteenth century of within the mark, when I repre- the Christian era. sent the walls to have enclosed a A fuurth division would coinspace of upward of twenty miles mence with the establishment of in circumference.

second that ceived

the Mahometan government in Within this period will be in- Java, and might be brought down cluded the establishment of the to the establishment of the Dutch Western Empire at Pajajaran, the in the Eastern Seas, which may subsequent division of the island be taken as A. D. 1600; and a under the princi's of Majapahit ôfth, and by no means uninterand Pajajaran, the ev: ntual -u- esting perio:l, might include the premacy of Mijpahit, and the history of the European establishfinal overthrow of the government ments, down to the conquests by and ancient institutions of the the British arms in 1811. country, by the general establish- The further prosecution of this ment of the Mahometan fith. extensive inquiry would lead me

It is during this period that beyond the limits at present preJara may be said to have risen to scribed; and I must, therefore, the highest pitch of her civiliza- conclude with drawing your attion yet known, and to have com- tention to the striking similarity mandled a more extensive inter- between the early state of Greece, course, throughout the Archipe- and that of the Malayan islands. lay, than at any former period. Change but the names, and the Colonies from Java were succes- words of Mitford's Introduction sively planteil in Sumatra, the to his History of Greece will be Malayan peninsula, Borneo and found equally applicable to this Bali, the princes of which coun- more extensive Archipelago. tries still trace their descent from “Thus,'' he observes, the house of Majapahit ; and th:t in its early days, was in a state of adventures from Western India, perpetual marauding and pirafrom Siam, from Charpa, from tical warfare ; cattle, as the great *China and from Japan, frequented means of subsistence, were first Java in the greatest number. But the great object of plunder: then, the object of the first importance as the inhabitants of some parts will be, to trace the introduction, by degrees settled to agriculture, progress and final e-tablishment men, women anii children were of the Mahometan faith in the sought for as slaves. But Greece various countries where it now is had nothing more peculiar than ackuow ledged is the es.ablished its adjacent sea, where small religion, and particularly in Java, islands were so thickly scattered,

Greece that their inhabitants, and in some fertility of the soil may serve to measure those of the shores of account for the extensive populathe surrounding continents also, tion of Java, compared with that were mariners by necessity. Water of the other islands; and, when, expeditions therefore were soon to the peaceable and domestic found most commodious for car- habits of an agricultural life, are rying off spoil. The Greeks, added the facilities for invasion moreover, in their more barba- along an extensive line of coast, rous state, became acquainted accessible in every direction, it with the precious metals; for, will not have been surprising that the Phænicians, whose industry,' she should have fallen an easy ingenuity and adventurous spirit prey to the first invader. She of commerce led them early to appears to have lost, by these inexplore the further shores of the vasions, much of that martial Mediterranean, and even to risk spirit and adventurous enterprize the dangers of the ocean beyond, which distinguishes the populadiscovered mines of gold and tion of the other isles; but, at silver in some of the islands of the same time, to have retained, the Ægean; and, on its northern not only the primitive simplicity coast they formed establishments of her own peculiar usages, but in several of the islands, and all the virtues and advantages of Thasus, which lay convenient the more enlightened institutions for communication with the most which have been introduced at productive mines, became the seat different periods from a foreign of their principal factory. Thus source. At all events, when we was offered the most powerful in- consider that her population cancentive to piracy, in a sea whose not be less than four millions, innumerable islands and ports and when we witness the chaafforded singular opportunity for racter and literature of the people the practice. Perhaps the con- as it is even now exhibited, we duct of the Phænicians, towards must believe that Java had once the uncivilized nations among attained a far higher degree of whom the desire of gain led civilization than any other nation them, was not always the most in the southern hemisphere, upright or humane; hostilities

Japan. would naturally ensue, and hence might first arise the estimation You will, however, expect from of piracy which long prevailed me some notice regarding Japan among the Greeks ag

_" that celebrated and imperial nourable practice."

island," which, to use the words Java has long been advanced of Sir William Jones, bears “a beyond that state in which piracy pre-eminence among eastern kingand robbery are held to be ho- doms, analogous to that of Brinourable in the eyes of men; but tain among the nations of the the picture will be found pretty west;" and, however slender may correct of those islands strictly have been the information prodenominated Malayan.

cured, such as it is, I venture to The superior and extraordinary submit it to you, nearly as I reVol, LVIII.

2 M

an ho.

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