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precaution they conceive requisite The amusements of this class is to place it so, that one piece are so correspondent with those shall not touch another.

already described of the BelooThe Brahovés are equally faith- ches, that I need not particula-' ful in an adherence to their pro- rize them : in general the Bramises, and equally hospitable with hooés pride themselves on being the Belooches, and on the whole better marksmen than the BelooI greatly prefer their general cha- ches, who admit the fact, and asracter. From what I have already cribe it to their having more said on it, it is evident that they practice, for none of them ever are a more quiet and industrious quit their Ghedans, even to go a class, and their habits are decided- few hundred yards, without a ly averse from that system of ra- matchlock: they are likewise good pine and violence pursued by the swords-men, but never use spears, other ; nor can we fairly ascribe considering themi a useless cumthis to any sentiment save a good bersome weapon. A Brahooé alone, for in personal bravery and ways dresses in the same style, endurance of privations and hard- and whether it be summer or ships, the Brahooés are esteemed winter, freezing hard, or under a superior to the inhabitants of all vertical sun, his whole clothes the neighbouring countries: their are comprised in a loose white chiefs exercise a much more despo- shirt, a pair of trowsers of the tic authority in the various tribes same texture, and a felt cap : the andKheils,than among the Beloo- shepherds sometimes wear a cochés, and the people are equally vering of white felt, made so as tenacious of their respectability, to wrap round the body, and though they obey them from a come to a peak above the crown different feeling : in manner they of the head ; this habit will keep are mild and inoffensive, though off a vast deal of rain or snow, very uncivilized and uncouth; and is exclusively used for that but as the latter is evidently the purpose. The domestic life of effect of a want of worldly know- the Brahooću is simple in the exledge and guile, their awkward treme; the men tend the flocks, attempts to be civil please, because till the ground, and do other outwe see that they are incited to door labour, in which they are, make them by a natural propen- if needful, assisted by the women; sity to oblige, unaccompanied by but commonly the duties of the any interested motive. They are latter are to attend to the housefree from the worst traits of the hold affairs, such as milking, Belooches, which are comprised making butter, cheese, and Ghee, in being avaricious, revengeful, and they also weave and work and cruel, and they seldom look carpets, felts, and coarse white for any reward for their favours cloth. They are not, as I have preor services : their gratitude is viously remarked, secluded from lasting, and fidelity such, that the society of the men, but all even the Belooche chiefs retain live and eat together. Their dress them as their most confidential consists of a long shift and pair and trust-worthy servants. of trowsers, both of cotton cloth,

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and after they arrive at the age of The door is invariably in one puberty they wear over the former corner, at the opposite end of the a kind of stays, made to lace be- building to that in which the firehind, the fronts of which are de- place is built. The building apcorated with ridiculous devices of pears to be first constructed with birds or animals worked in co- the ordinary roof, but along the loured worsted. In religion the front, is an enclosed veranda or Brahooés are all Soonnitte Moo- gallery of about eight feet broad, sulmans, and their external forms with a less inclined pitch in the of religion, marriage and inter- roof, formed of bamboos, which ment, are practised according to are so placed as to slide out, either the tenets of that sect.

for the admission of air, or to

afford a channel for the smoke to People of the T'eng'gar Mountains. escape, there being otherwise no (From Gov. Raffles's Speech, delivered to aperture, except a small opening, the Literary and Scientific Society at

of about a foot square, at one end Java, Sept. 1815.)

of the building, above the fireTo the eastward of Surabaia place, which is built of brick, and on the range of hills connect- and so highly venerated, that it ed with Gunning Dasar, and ly. is considered sacrilege for any ing partly in the district of Pasu- stranger to pollute it by the touch. raun and partly in that of Probo- Across the upper part of the buildlingo, known by the name of the ing, rafters are run across, so as Teng'gar mountains, we find the to form a kind of attic story, in remnant of a people still follow. which they deposit their valuables ing the Hindu worship, who merit and instruments of husbandry. attention not only on account of The head of the village takes their being the depositaries of the the title of Petingi, as in the low last trace of that worship disco- lands, and he is generally assisted vered at this day on Java, but as by a Kabayan; both elected by exhibiting a peculiar singularity the people from their own vil. and simplicity of character. lage. There are four priests, who

These people occupy about 40 are here termed Dukuns, having villages, scattered along this range charge of the sacred records. of hills in the neighbourhood of These Dukuns, who are in gethe Sandy Sea, and are partly un- neral intelligent men, have no der Pasuraun and partly under tradition of the time when they Probolingo. The site of the vil. were first established on these lages, as well as the construction hills; from what country they of the houses is peculiar, and dif- came or who intrusted them with fery entirely from what is else- the sacred books to the faith conwhere observed in Java. The tained in which they still adhere. houses are not shaded by trees, These latter, they state, were but built on spacious open ter- handed down to them by their races, rising one above the other, fathers, their office being heredieach house occupying a terrace, tary, and the sole duty required and being in length from thirty of them being to perform the puja to seventy, and even eighty feet. according thereto, and again to


hand them down in safety to their bride and bridegroom respectfully children. They consist of three present them with betel-leaf. compositions written on the Lon

At the marriage feast which tar leaf, describing the origin of ensues, the Dukun repeats two the world, the attributes of the puja, which will be found in the Deity, and the forms of worship collection. The marriage is not to be observed on different occa- consummated till the fifth day sions. Copies were taken on the after the above ceremony-which spot; and as the language does delay is termed by the undang not essentially differ from the or- mantu. A similar delay is, in dinary Javanese, I hope at an some cases, still observed by the early period to place the Society Javanese in other parts of the in possession of translations. In island, under the term undoh the mean time some notices of mantu. their custoins, and of the cere- On the death of an inhabitant monies performed at births, mar- of Teng'gar, the corpse is lowered riages, and funerals, may be in- into the grave, the head being teresting

placed to the south (contrary to When a woman is delivered of the direction observed by the Maher first child, the Dukun takes a hometans) and bamboos and leaf of the Alang Alang grass, and planks are placed over, so as to . scraping the skin of the hands of prevent the earth from touching the child and of the mother with it, it. When the grave is closed, as well as the ground, pronounces two posts are planted over the a short benediction.

body, one perpendicular from the When a marriage is agreed breast, the other from the lower upon, the bride and bridegroom part of the belly. Between these being brought before the Dukun two a hollowed banboo is inserted within the house, in the first in the ground, into which, during place, bow with respect towards seven successive days, they daily the south--then to the fire. place, pour a vessel of pure water, plac-then to the earth, and lastly, ing beside the bamboo, two dishes on looking up to the upper story also daily replenished with eatof the house, where the imple- ables. At the expiration of the ments of husbandry are placed, seventh day, the feast of the dead perform the same ceremony. The is announced, and the relations parties then submissively bowing and friends of the deceased asto the Dukun, he repeats a prayer semble to be present at the cere-, commencing with the words, mony and partake of the enter

Hong! Gendogo Bromo ang'gas tainment, which is conducted as siwong'go nomo siwoho sany yang follows: g'ni siro kang, &c." while the An image of leaves, ornamented bride washes the feet of the bride- with variegated tlowers, made to groom. This ceremony over, the represent the human form, and friends and family of the parties of about a cubit high, is prepared make presents to each of creeses, and placed in a conspicnous place, buffaloes, implements of husban. and supported round the body by dry, &c. in return for which the the clothes of the deceased. The


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Dukun then places in front of unanimous and ready; that crimes the garland an incense-pot, with of the kind were unknown to burning ashes, and a vessel con- them, and that consequently no taining water, and repeats the punishment was fixed either by two puja to fire and water; the law or custom ; that if a man did former commencing with Hong wrong the head of the village Gendogo Bromo ang gas siwong'go chid him for it, the reproach of nomo siwoho,” &c, and the latter which was always sufficient pu

Hong, hong gong'go moho nishment for a man of Teng'gar. terto roto nejel saking hati," &c. This account of their moral chaburning dupu (incense) at stated raeter is fully confirmed by the periods during the former, and Regents of the districts under occasionally sprinkling the water whose authority they are placed, over the feast during the repetic and also by the Residents. They tion of the latter.

literally seem to be almost withThe clothes of the deceased are out crime. They are universally then divided among the relatives peaceable; interfere with no one; and friends; and, the garland neither quarrel among themselves. burned, another puja commencing It may be superfluous to add, that Hong ! awigno mastu nomo sidam, they are unacquainted with the hong! araning," &c. is then re- vices of gaming and opium-smokpeated, while the remains of the ing ! sacred water is sprinkled over the The

aggregate population feast; after which the parties sit amounts to about twelve hundown to the enjoyment of it, in- dred souls. They occupy, withvoking a blessing from the Al- out exception, the most beautiful, mighty on themselves, their houses rich and romantic spots in Java. and their lands. Nothing more The thermometer, in their counoccurs until the expiration of a try, is frequently as low as 42o. thousand days; when, if the me- The summits and slopes of the mory of the deceased is beloved hills are covered with alpine firs, and cherished, the ceremony and and the vegetation common to a feast are repeated : otherwise no European climate generally prefurther notice is taken.

vails. On questioning them regarding Their language does not differ the tenets of their religion, they much from the Japanese of the replied, that they believed in a present day, though more guttudewa, who was all powerful; that rally pronounced: in a compathe term by which the dewa was rison of about a hundred words designated, was Bumi Truko San- of the vernacular Javanese, two gyang Dewoto Bator; and that the only differed. They do not interparticulars of their worship were marry nor mix with the people of contained in the book called Pan- the low lands, priding themselves glawa, which they presented to on their independence and purity maining in Java, (for the Bedui, list, an average of four to a fathough descendants of the fugi- mily may be fairly taken, giving tives of Pajajaran, scarcely merit a total population for the whole notice in this respect), I proceed island exceeding eight hundred to mention some of the leading thousand souls. observations which I made in Bali. The form of government, inThe notices regarding the preva- stitutions and prevailing habits, lence of Hinduism in Bali, and of are represented to be the same the nature of the government and throughout the island; and the country, have hitherto been so following sketch of B'liling may scanty, that on such interesting afford à just notion of the ground I may be pardoned for whole. entering into some detail, with- The government is despotic, out which it is impossible to con- and vested in the prince alone, vey a just notion of the subject. who is assisted in all affairs re

in this respect On being questioned regarding the adat against adultery, theft Passing from this last vestige and other crimes, their reply was of the Hindu worship now re




The island of Bali is at present lating to the internal administradivided under seven separate au- tion of the country, by a head Perthorities, each independent of the bakal, (immediately under officers other; and, of this heptarchy, of this name, are placed the heads the state of Klongkong is acknow- of villages), and by a Radin Tuledged to be the most ancient ; its inung-gung, who conducts the princes tracing their descent from details of a more general nature, the princes of Java, and having of commerce and foreign interonce possessed authority over the course. The constitution of each whole island. Among the regalia village is the same; the head or of this state are reported to be chief is termed Perbakal, and the still preserved the creese of Ma- assistant, Kalian Tempek. These japahit, and the celebrated gong officers are invariably selected named Bentur Kadaton; and, al- from among the people of the though the other governments do village ; the son, however, genot at the present day admit of nerally succeeding the father, if any interference on the part of competent to perform the duties. this state, they still evince Under the head Perbaikal, who marked respect and courtesy to has the designation of Perbakal that family, as the Asal Rajah Rajah, are several inferior PerBali, (the stock from which they bakals for general duties and sprung).

communications with the villages; The population is roughly estic and under the Radin Tumun'gung mated by the number of male in- a similar establishment, bearing habitants whose teeth have been the rank and designation of Kafiled, and whose services each lian Tempek. Among the heads prince can command, and who of villages are many whose famiamount to upward of 200,000. lies have formerly distinguished The female population is under themselves in the wars of Bali, stood rather to exceed the male; and who are termed Gusti. The and, as it may be considered that command of the military is at only the active and able bodied present vested in a chief of the men are included in the above Bramana cast, and who seems to



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