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terminates in the tail of the ani- is drawn so high as to conceal the mal, which is left entire, so as to parts usually kept from view, in fold out wards, though sometimes which respect their ress is much the edges are cut into a fringe, more decent than that of any and ornamented wth quills of the nation of Indians on the lis-owi. porcupine. The seams of the The seams of the leggings down shirt are
on the sides, and are the sides, are also fringed and orricily fringed and adorned with namented, and occasionally decoporcupine quills, till within five rated with tufts of hair taken or six inches of the sleeve, where from enemies whom they have it is left open, as is also the under slain. In making all these dresses, side of the sleeve fronutheshoulder their only thread is the sinew to the elbow, where it fits closely taken from the backs and loins round the arm as low as the of deer, elk, buffaloe, or any other wrist, and has no fringe like the animal. sides, and the under part of the The moccasin is of the deer, sleere above the elbow. It is elk, or buffaloe skin, dressed kept up by wide shoulder straps, without the hair, though in winter on which the manufacturer dis- they use thie buffaloe skin with plays his taste by the variety of the hairy side inward, as do most figures wrought with porcupine of the Indians who inhabit the quills of different colours, and buffaloe country. Like the lansometimes by beads when they dan moccasin, it is marle with a can be obtainerl. The lower end single seam on the outer edge, of the shirt retains the natural and sewed up behind, a hole shape of the fore legs and neck of being left at the instep to admit the skin, with the addition of a the foot. It is variously ornasligit fiinge, the hair too is left mented with figures wiought with on the tail and near the hoofs, porcupine quills, and sometimes part of which last is retained and the voung men mo-t fond of dress, split into a fringe
cover it with the sain of a poleThe lezgins are generally mad. cat, and trail at their heels the of antelope skins, dressed without tail of the animal. the hair, and with the legs, tail, The dress of the women conand neck hanging to them. Each sists of the same articles as that legging is former of a skin nearly of their husbands. The robe entire, indieaches from the ancle though smaller is worn in the to the upper part of the thigh, same way: the moccasins are preand the legs of the skin are tucked cisely similar. The shirt or chebefore and behind under a girdle mise reaches half way down the round the waist. It fits closely leg, is m the same form, except to the ley the tail being worn
that there is no shoulder-strap, upwards, and the neck, highly the seam coming quite up to the ornamented with fringe and por shoulder ; though for women who cupine quills, crags on the grounid giie suck both sides are open, behind the heels. As the legs of almost down to the waist. It is the animal are tied round the also ornamented in the same way girdle, the wide part of the skin with the addition of little patches
of red cloth, edged round with animals is as distinguished an beads at the skirts. The chief achievement as to have put to ornament is over the breast, death an enemy, and in fact with where there are curious figures their weapons is a more dangerous made with the usual luxury of
trial of courage.
These claws porcupine quills. Like the men are suspended on a thong of they have a girdle round the waist, dressed leather, and being ornaand when either sex wishes to mented with beads, are worn disengage the arm, it is drawn up round the neck by the warriors through the hole near the shoulder, with great pride. The men also and the lower part of the sleeve frequently wear the skin of a fox, thrown behind the body.
or a strip of otter skin round the Children alone
beads head in the form of a bandeau. round their necks; grown per
In short, the dress of the Shos. sons of both sexes prefer them honees, is as convenient and desuspended in little bunches from cent as that of any Indians we the ear, and sometimes inter
have seen. mixed with triangular pieces of They have many more children the shell of the pearl oyster. than might have been expected, Sometimes the men tie them in considering their precarious means the same way to the hair of the of support and their wandering forepart of the head, and increase life. This inconvenience is how. the beauty of it by adding the ever balanced by the wonderful wings and tails of bir«ls, and par- facility with which their female ticularly the feathers of the great undergo the operations of childeagle or calumet bird, of which birth. In the most advanced they are extreniely fond. The state of pregnancy they continue collars are formed either of sea their usual occupations, which shells procured from their rela- are scarcely interrupted longer tions to the south-west, or of the than the mere time of bringing sweet-scented grass which grows the child into the world. in the neighbourhood, and which The old men are few in numther twist or plait together, to ber, and do not appear to be the thickness of a man's finger, treated with much tenderness or and then cover with porcupine respect. quills of various colours. The The tobacco used by the Shos. first of these is worn indiscrimi- honees is not cultivated among mately by both sexes, the second them, but obtained from the Inprincipally confined to the men, dians of the Rocky mountains, while a string of elk's tusks is a and from some of the bands of collar almost peculiar to the their own nation who live south women and children. Another of them : it is the same plant collar worn by the men is a string which is in use among the Minof round bones like the joints of netarees, Mandans, and Ricaras. a fish's back, but the collar most Their chief intercourse with preferred, because most honour other nations seems to consist in able, is one of the claws of the their association with other Snake brown bear. To kill one of these Indians, and with the Flatheads
when they go eastward to hunt which he acquired when he first buffaloe, and in the occasional signalized himself. As each new visits made by the Flatheads to action gives a warrior a right to the waters of the Columbia for change his name, many of them the purpose of fishing. Their have had several in the course of inte purse with the Spaniards is their lives. To give to a friend much more rare, and it furnishes his own name is an act of high them with a few articles, such as courtesy, and a pledge, like that mules, and some bridles, and of pulling off the moccasin, of other ornaments for horses, which, sincerity and hospitality. The as well as some of their kitchen chief in this way gave his name utensils, are also furnished by to captain Clarke when he first the bands of Snake Indians from arriver, and he was afterwards the Yellowstone. The pearl or- known among the Shoshunees by naments which they esteem so the name of Cameahwait. highly come from other bands, The diseases incident to this whom they represent as their state of life may be supposed to friends and relations, living to be few, and chiefly the result of the south-west beyond the barren accidents. We were particularly plains on the other side of the anxious to ascertain whether they mountains: these relations they say had any knowle.ge of the venereal inuabit a good country, abound- disorder. After inquiring by ing with elk, deer, bear, and an- means of the interpreter and his telope, where horses and mules wife, we learnt that they someare much more abundant than times suffered froin it, and that they are here, or to use their own they most usually, die with it ; expression, as numerous as the nor could we discover what was grass of the plains.
their remedy. It is possible that The names of the Indians this disease may have reached vary in the course of their life: them in their circuitous commuoriginally given in childhood, nications with the whites through from the mere necessity of dis- the intermediate Indians; but tinguishir.g objects, or from some the situation of the Shoshonees accidental resemblar.ce to ex- is so insulated, that it is not proternal ubjects, the young warrior bable that it could have reached is impatient to change it by some them in that way, and the existachievement of his own. Any ence of such a disorder among important event, the stealing of the Rocky mountains seems rather horses, the scalping an enemy, or a proof of its being aboriginal. killing a brown bear, entitles him at once to a new name which he
NATIONS OF THE COAST. then selects for himself, and it is The Killamucks. Clatsops, Chinconfirmed by the nation. Some nooks, and Cathlamahs, the four times the two names subsist to- neighbouring nations with whom gether : thus, the chief Cameah- we have had most intercourse, wait, which means, “one who preserve a general resemblance in never walks," has the war name person, dress, and manners of Tooettecone, or “ black gun," They are commonly of a diminu. Vol. LVIII.
tive stature, badly shaped, and western Indians, with the exceptheir appearance by no means tion of the Alliatan or Snake prepossessing. They have broad nation, are designated by the thick flat feet, thick ankles, and coinmon name of Flatheads. This crooked legs : the last of which singular usage, which nature deformities is to be ascribed, in could scarcely seem to suggest to part, to the universal practice of remote nations, might perhaps squatting, or sitting on the calves incline us to believe in the comof their legs and heels, and also mon and not very ancient origin to the tight bandages of beads of all the western nations. Such and strings worn round the an opinion might well accommoanklez, by the women, which date itself with the fact, that prevent the circulation of the while on the lower parts of the blood, and render the legs, of the Columbia, both sexes are unifemales particularly, ill shaped versally flatheads, the custom diand swollen. The complexion minishes in receding eastward, is the usual copper-coloured from the common centre of the brown of the North American infection, till among the remoter tribes, though the complexion is tribes near the mountains, nature rather lighter than that of the recovers her rights, and the Indians of the Missouri, and the wasted folly is confined to a few frontier of the United States : the females. Such opinions, howmouth is wide and the lips thick; ever, are corrected or weakened the nose of a moderate size, by considering that the flattening fleshy, wide at the extremities, of the head is not, in fact, pecuwith large nostrils, and generally liar to that part of the continent, low between the eyes, though since it was among the first obthere are rare instances of high jects which struck the attention of aquiline noses ; the eyes are ge- Columbus. nerally black, though we occa- But wherever it may have sionally see them of a dark yel- begun, the practice is now unilowish brown, with a black pupil. versal among these nations. Soon
after the birth of her child, the FLATTING THE HEAD.
mother, anxious to procure for The most distinguishing part her infant the recommendation of of their physiognomy, is the pe- a broad forehead, places it in the culiar flatness and width of their compressing machine, where it is forehead, a peculiarity which they kept for ten or twelve months ; owe to one of those customs by though the females remain longer which nature is sacrificed to fan- than the boys. The operation is tastic ideas of beauty. The cus- so gradual, that it is not attended tom, indeed, of flattening the with pain; but the impression is head by artificial pressure during deep and permanent. The heads infancy, prevails among all the of the children, when they are nations we have seen west of the released from the bandage, are Rocky mountains. To the east not more than two inches thick of that barrier, the fashion is so about the upper edge of the foreperfectly unknown, that there the head, and still thinner above :
nor with all its efforts can nature which being twisted are interever restore its shape; the heads woven with silk-grass, or the of grown persons being often in bark of the white cedar, in such a straight line from the nose to a manner that the fur appears the top of the forehead.
equally on both sides, so as to The hair of both sexes is parted form a soft and warın covering. at the top of the head, and thence The skins of the racoon or beaver falls loosely behind the ears, over are also employed in the same the back and shoulders. They way, though on other occasions use combs, of which they are very these skins are simply dressed in fond, and, indeed, contrive, with the hair, and worn without furthe aid of them, to keep their ther preparation. The garment hair in very good order. The which covers the body from the dress of the man consists of a waist as low as the knee before small robe, reaching to the middle and the thigh behind, is the tissue of the thigh, tied by a string already described, and is made across the breast, with its corners either of the bruised bark of hanging loosely over their arins. white cedar, the twisted curds of These robes are, in general, com- silk-grass, or of flags and rushes. posed of the skins of a small ani- Neither leggings nor moccasins mal, which we have supposed to are ever used, the mildness of the be the brown mungo. They have, climate not requiring them as a besides, those of the tiger, cat, Security from the weather, and deer, panther, bear, and elk, which their being so much in the water last is principally used in war rendering them an incumbrance. parties. Sometimes they have a The only covering for the head is blanket woven with the fingers, a hat made of bear-grass, and the from the wool of their native bark of cedar, interwoven in a sheep; occasionally a mat is conic form, with a knob of the thrown over them to keep off rain; same shape at the top. It has no but except this robe, they have no brim, but is held on the head by other article of clothing during a string passing under the chin, winter or summer, so that every and tied to a small rim inside of part of the body, but the back the hat. The colours are geneand shoulders, is exposed to view. rally black and white only, and They are very fond of the dress of these are made into
squares, the whites, whom they call pasbi- triangles, and sometimes rude sheooks or clothmen ; and when- figures of canoes and seamen harever they can procure any clothes, pooning whales. This is all the wear them in our manner : the usual dress of females ; but if only article, indeed, which we the weather be unusually severe, have not seen among them is the they add a vest formed of skins shoe.
like the robe, tied behind, withThe robe of the women is like out any shoulder-straps to keep that worn by the men, except it up. As this vest covers the that it does not reach below the body from the armpits to the waist. Those most esteemed are waist, it conceals the breasts, but made of strips of sea-otter skin, on all other occasions, they are
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