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dieliking to undergo the usual to form in his bladder ; and as he surgical operation for that com- did not choose to try the wire a plaint, his ingenuity suggested to second time, these continued to him a method of reducing the increase until the end of the year stone, so curious in itself, and so 1800, when they occasioned his difficult in its execution, that we death. should have doubted the fact, Though he lived so long among were it not attested by the most the English, he acquired but an positive evidence of several gen- imperfect knowledge of our lantlemen of the first respectability. guage ; notwithstanding this he He took a very fine stout wire of chose to write his will in Enabout a foot long, one end of glish, which is altogether a very which he cut in the manner of a singular production. It is too file. The wire thus prepared he long for insertion, but the followintroduced by a catheter, through ing are its principal bequests.the urethra, into the bottom of The amount of his fortune was the bladder, where the stone was thirty-three lacs of rupees, or seated. When he found the wire 330,0001. sterling. To his relastruck the stone, he gently work- tions at Lyons, he bequeathed ed the wire up and down, so as to 25,000l. as we have already nogive it the effect of a file ; and ticed ; and he left the same sum this he continued to do for four to the municipality of that city, or five minutes at a time, until for the purpose of appropriating the pain which the operation of it to the benefit of the poor within the wire produced, was

their jurisdiction, in whatever cruciating, that it obliged him to

manner they should think fit. withdraw it. But finding small For the same purpose he beparticles of the stone discharged queathed 25,0001. to the city of along with the urine after the Calcutta, and the like sum to operation, he repeated it in the Lucknow. To the church at same manner from time to time, Chandernagore, in Bengal, he betill, in the course of twelve queathed 15,0001. as a fund, the months, he succeeded in com- interest of wbich is to be appropletely reducing the stone. priated to the support of the es

This circumstance exhibits a tablishment; and the like sum to curious and remarkable trait of be laid out in the same manner, the eccentricity of his character. for the benefit of the Romish The contrivance was in itself in- Chapel at Calcutta. He also left genious, but his patience and per- 15,0001. to endow an alms-house severance in carrying it into effect, for poor children at Lucknow. are so very extraordinary, that The remainder of his fortune we apprehend there are few men, (nearly one half) he left in legawho, in a similar situation, would cies to the women of his zenanah, not rather endure the complaint and his principal servants. The than have recourse to the remedy. will concludes with a curious ex

Some years after the operation, position of the principles by which gravelly concretions began again he regulated his conduct through

SO ex

life. He avows that self-interest he hopes this sincere confession was his sole motive of action, and of his wickedness will avail to obthat the sins of which he had tain. been guilty were very great and Such are the anecdotes which manifold; and he concludes by are related of this extraordinary praying forgiveness of God, which character.

MANNERS,

MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.

OF

NATIONS AND CLASSES or PEOPLE.

THE

SHOSHONE!

INDIANS.

and as that fish disappears on the

approach of autumn, they are (From Lewis and Clark's Truvels.) obliged to seek subsistence else

where. They then cross the ridge TIE Shoshone s are a small to the wil ers of the Missouri,

tribe of the nation called down which the proceed slowly Snake Indians, a vague denomic and cautiously, till they are joined nation, which embraces at orice the three forks by other the inhabitants of the southern bands, either of their own nation par's of the socky mow tains and or of the Fluiheids, with whom of the plains on each side. The they ass ciate against the comShoshonees with whom we now mon enemy. Being now strong are, amount to about one hundred in numbers, they renture to hunt warriors, and three times that buffaloe in the plains eastward of number of women and children the mountains, near which they Within their own recollection they spend the winter, till the return forme ly lived in the pliins, but of the salmon invites them to the they have been driven into the Columbia. But such is their turmountains by the Pawkees, or the ror of the Pau kees, that as long roving Indians of the Sascatcha- as they can obtain the scantiest wain, and are row obliged io visit subsistence, they do not leave the occasionally, and by stealth, the interior of the mountains; and as country of their ancestors. ' heir soon as they collect a large stuck lives are indeed mig atory. From of dried meat, they again jethe middle of May to the begin- treat, thus alternately obtaining ning of September, the resiile on their food at the hazard of their the waters of the Columbia, where lives, a d hiding themselves to they con-ider themselves perfectly consume it. In this loose and secure from the Paukees, who wandering existence they suffer have never yet found their way the extremes of want : for twoto that retreat. During this time thirds of the year they are forced they subsist chiefly on salmon; to live in the mountains, passing

near

whole

whole weeks without meat, and cause, or it may be formed by, the with nothing to eat but a few fish nature of their government, and roots. Nor can any thing which is perfectly free from any be imagined more wretched than restraint. Each individual is his their condition at the present own master, and the only control time, when the salnion is fast re- to which his conduct is subjected, tiring, when roots are becoming is the advice of a chief, supported scarce, and they have not yet ac- by his influence over the opinions quired strength to hazard an en- of the rest of the tribe. The chief counter with their enemies. So himself is in fact no more than insensible are they, however, to the most confidential person these calamities, that the Shosho among the warriors, a rank neinees are not only cheerful, but ther distinguished by any extereven gay; and their character, nal honour, nor invested by any which is more interesting than ceremony, but gradually acquired that of any Indians we have seen, from the good wishes of his comhas in it much of the dignity of panions, and by superior merit. misfortune. In their intercourse Such an officer has therefore strictwith strangers they are frank and ly no power; he may recommend communicative, in their dealings or advise or influence, but his perfectly fair; nor have we had commands have no effect on those during our stay with them, any who incline to disobey, and who reason to suspect that the display may at any time withdraw from of all our new and valuable wealth their voluntary allegiance. has tempted them into a single shadowy authority, which cannot act of dishonesty. While they survive the confidence which suphave generally shared with us the ports it, often decays with the little they possess, they have al- personal vigour of the chief, or is ways abstained from begging any transferred to some more fortuthing from us. With their live- nate or favourite hero. liness of temper, they are fond of In their domestic economy, the gaudy dresses, and of all sorts of man is equally sovereign. The amusements, particularly of games man is the sole proprietor of his of hazard ; and, like most Indians, wives and daughters, and can barfond of boasting of their own war- ter them away, or dispose of them like exploits, whether real or fic- in any manner he may think protitious. In their conduct towards per. The children are seldom ourselves, they were kind and corrected ; the boys, particularly, obliging, and though on one oc- soon become their own masters; easion they seemed willing to they are never whipped, for they neglect us, yet we scarcely knew say that it breaks their spirit, and how to blame the treatment by that after being flogged they newhich we suffered, when we re- ver recover their independence of collected how few civilized chiefs mind, even when they grow to would have hazarded the comforts manhood. A plurality of wives or the subsistence of their people is very common; but these are for the sake of a few strangers. not generally sisters, as among This manliness of character may the Minnetarees and Mandans,

but

but are purchased of different fa- deed we observed among them thers. The infant daughters are some women who appeared to be often betrothed by their father to held in more respect than those of men who are grown, either for any nation we had seen. But the themselves or for their sons, for mass of the females are condemnwhom they are desirous of provi- ed, as among all savage nations, ding wives. The compensation to to the lowest and most laborious the father is usually made in drudgery. When the tribe is stahorses or mules ; and the girl re- tionary, they collect the roots, and mains with her parents till the age cook; they build the huts, dress of puberty, which is thirteen or the skins and make clothing; fourteen, when she is surrendered collect the wood, and assist in to her husband. At the same taking care of the horses on the time the father often makes a pre- route; they load the horses, and sent to the husband equal to what have the charge of all the baghe had formerly received as theprice gage. The only business of the of his daughter, though this re- man is to fight; he therefore turn is optional with her parent. takes on himself the care of his Sacajawea had been contracted in horse, the companion of his warthis way before she was taken fare ; but he will descend to no prisoner, and when we brought other labour than to hunt and to her back, her betrothed was still fish. He would consider himself living. Although he was double degraded by being compelled to the age of Sacajawea, and had walk any distance; and were he two other wives, he claimed her, so poor as to possess only two but on finding that she had a horses, he would ride the best of child by her new husband, Cha- them, and leave the other for his boneau, he relinquished his pre- wives and children and their bagtensions, and said he did not want gage ; and if he has too many her.

wives or too much baggage for The chastity of the women does the horse, the wives have no alnot appear to be held in much es- ternative but to follow him on timation. The husband will for foot; they are not however often a trifling present lend his wife for reduced to those extremities, for a night to a stranger, and the loan their stock of horses is very ample. may be protracted by increasing Notwithstanding their losses this the value of the present. Yet, spring they still have at least sestrange as it may seem, notwith- ven hundred, among which are standing this facility, any con- about forty colts, and half that nexion of this kind not authorized number of mules. There are no by the husband, is considered horses here which can be consihighly offensive and quite as dis- dered as wild; we have seen two graceful to his character as the only on this side of the Musclesame licentiousness in civilized shell river which were without societies. The Shoshonees are not owners, and even those, although so importunate in volunteering shy, showed every mark of having the services of their wives as we been once in the possession of found the Sioux were ; and in

The original stock was

procured

man.

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