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be rewarded or punished for their with muskets and bayonets : in conduct in this world. There were their exercises, rapidity is more no missionaries on the islands. regarded than precision. All the

“ The use of ava is now giving natives are trained to arms, and way to that of ardent spirits; are bound to attend the king's they are very fond of smoking person in his wars. Although he tobacco, which grows in great is anxious to induce white people abundance. Many of the natives to remain, no encouragement is who are employed as car,penters, given to deserters ; nor are those coopers, blacksmiths, and tailors, who wish to depart detained. In do their work as skilfully as Eu- 1809, says Campbell, the king ropeans; and at the king's furge seemed about 50, stout and well none but natives were employed. made ; the expression of his counAll dealings are conducted by tenance agreeable; mild and affabarter; they know, however, the ble in his manners, and appeared value of dollars, and take them to possess great warmth of feelin exchange ; but these are rarely ing; and though a conqueror, is brought out again into circula- very popular amongst his subjects : tion : vessels are supplied with he has amassed by trade a confresh provisions, live-stock, salt, siderable store of goods, and treaand other articles of out-fit, sure in dollars. He encourages giving, in return, fire-arms and his subjects to make voyages in all other European articles. Sandal the ships which touch at the wood, pearls, and mother of pearl, island : and many have been to the produce of these islands, are China, and even to the United frequently purchased for the China States, and has amongst the namarket. It is probable that the tives many good sailors. His reRussians will in future derive sidence was built in the European from hence the principal supplies style. He had two wives, and for their settlements on the Fox was about to take a third. islands, and north-west coa:t of We shall conclude our extracts America, and even Kamschatka. from this book, with the followWhilst the author was with the ing description of the author's Russians, it seems it was in con- journey to take possession of his templation to establish a settle- farm. “We passed by foot paths ment at one of these islands, though winding through an extensive this project was afterwards aban- and fertile plain, the whole of doned; and it is obvious that at which is in the highest state of no very distant period, these cultivation; every stream was islands must become objects of carefully embanked to supply great importance to America. water for the taro beds; where Provisions, from the frequent there was no water, the land was arrival of ships, are not cheap. under crops of yams and sweet

“ There is no regular armed potatoes ; the roads and numerous force, except about fifty men of houses are shaded by cocoa-nut the guard, who constantly do duty trees, and the sides of the mounabout the king's residence ; twenty tains covered with words to a mounting guard each day, armed great height; we halted two or


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three times, and were treated by against him, and transmitted to the natives with the utmost hos- France';' and many officers of dispitality. Fifteen persons with tinction resigned their appointiheir families resided on my farnı, inènts. He, nevertheless, perseand they cultivated the ground vered in his injudicious system of as my servants; there were three discipline, with an unremitting houses on the property, but l' strictness, unmindful of the refound it more agreeable to live presentations of some officers who with one of my neighbours, and were in his confidence, and totally get what I wanted from my own blind to the dangers he was thus land."

foolishly drawing on himself, till it was too late to avert them.

Though he must have been sensiAuthentic Anecdotes of the Life of ble that he had lost the affections Major-General Claude Martine.

of the army, yet he seemed not

aware of the consequences to General Martine, à man which that loss might lead. The well known in India, both by his troops were so dissatisfied, that eccentricity and his riches, was . when the English army laid siege the son of a silk-manufacturer at to Pondicherry, great numbers Lyons in France, in which city he deserted fioin the garrison; and was born, and in which some of at last his own body-guard went his father's family still reside. over in a body to the enemy, car

At an early age he expressed a rying their horses, arms, &c. dislike to follow his father's in- along with them. This corps wag active profession, and determined well received by the English comto choose one more congenial to manders, by whom Martine was his disposition. He accordingly soon noticed for the spirit and enlisted in the French army, and ability which he displayed on many soon distinguished himself occasions. On the return of the much, that he was removed from British army to Madras, after the infantry to the cavalry, and the surrender of Pondicherry, afterwards appointed a trooper in Martine obtained permission of Count Lally's body-guard, a small the Madras government to raise corps of select men, that was a company of Chasseurs from formed for the purpose of accom- among the French prisoners, of panying that offcer to Pondicher whom he got the command, with ry, of which place he had then the rank of ensign in the Combeen appointed governor.

pany's service. Soon after Lally's arrival at A few weeks after he received Pondicherry, he began to exercise this appointment, he was ordered his power with such oppressive to proceed with his Chasseurs to severity, and to enforce the disci- Bengal. On their passage, the pline of the army with such a ri- ship in which they were embarked gid minuteness, that his eonduct sprung'a leak, and Martine, by excited the disgust and detestation great fortitude and perseverance, of the whole settlement. Several but with much difficulty, saved remonstrances were drawn up himself and some of his men, in Vou, LVIII.

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one of the ship's boats. The ship of his being permitted to retain foundered off Point Guadawar, Jus rank, and to continue in the tie pronontury which separates service of the labob lizir This the coast of Coromandel froin proposal was complied with; and that of Orissa; and thence Mar- from this his subsequent plustine and his men proceeded in the perity commenced. ship's boat to Calcutta, which He was now admitteil into place they reached, after sur- the confidence of the Vizir ; and mounting many dangers and great in the different changes which hardships.

took place in the councils of his He was received with much Highness, as well as in tie various kindness by the Bengal govern- negociations with the Englishgoment. and appointed a cornet of vernment, he was bis secret adcavalry, in which service le con- viser ; heeldom however aptinued until he had risen by re- peared at the Durbar; and he gular succession to the rank of never héld any ostensible situacaptain in the line, when he got tion in the administration of the a company of infantry.

Vizir's government; but there is Shortly after this promotion, reason to believe, that few meahe was employed by government sures of importance were adopted to survey the north-east districts without his advice being preof Bengal, being an able drafts- viously taken. Hence his infuman, and in every respect well ence at the court of Lucknow bequalified for that purpose. When came very considerable, not only he had completed his journey to with the l'izir, but with his mithe north-east district, he was nistars, and that influence was sent to Oude, in order to assist in the source of the immense fortune surveying that province. While which he amassed. Besides a employer in this service, he re- larve salary witi: extensive persi led chiefly at Lucknow, where quisites annexed to it, he used to he amused himself in showing his receive from the Nabub frequent i' genuity in several branches of presents of considerable value; mechanics, and his skill in gun- and when any of the Nabob's mi. nery, which are the Nabob Vizir nisters, or other men of conseSujah-ud-Dovah so high a 10- quence about the court, had any tion of the value of his services, part.cular measure to carry with that he solicited and obtained per- their master, or personal farour mission from the Governor and to ask of hin, it was their custoni council of Calcutta, to appoint to go privately to Martine, and bim superintendant of his artil- obtain his interest in their cause, lery park and arsenal. Martine which, if he was at times induced was so well satisfied with his ap- to refuse, he took due care to poir.tment, and with his prospects procure for them ultimately, by in the service of the Natub Vizir, oher mean- anti with adequate that he proposed to the Governor compensation and council, to relinquish his During the reign of Asophi-udpay and allowances in the Com- Dowlah, father of the present pany's service, on the condition Vizir, Martine made a considerable sum of money by encoura- But the principal object of his amging that prince's taste for the bition, and wish of his heart, productions of Europe, with which seems to have been to amass imhe undertook to supply him. An- mense treasures in order to graother mode by which he realized tify himself by the possession of money was, by establishing an them while he lived ; and by beextensive credit with the shroffs, queathing almost the whole of or bankers, in Oude, and the ad- them on his death, to the support jacent provinces; so that no pub- of pious institutions, and public lic loan could be made without his charities, to leave behind him the having a share in it. The extra- reputation of a philanthropist. ordinary degree of favour and Meanwhile every sensible reader credit which he thus acquired in will judge of his title to that the Vizir's dominions, induced all name, not from the bequests of descriptions of people to repose his will, but from the actions of in him such an implicit confidence, his life. that in times of public commotion, After having lived twenty-fire they flocked to him from all quar- years at Lucknow, he had attainters, to deposit their moveable ed by regular succession the rank property, which on the condition of Lieutenant-Colonel in the of paying him twelve per cent. on Company's service. its full value, he engaged to ge- At the commencement of the cure and return them on demand. war with Tippoo Sultan in 1790, This alone must have been a he presented the Company, at his source of immense profit, in a private expense, with a number country where, for upwards of of fine horses, sufficient to mount twenty years of his residence in a troop of cavalry. He was soon it, personal property was so often afterwards promoted to the rank exposed to danger.


of Colonel in the Company's army, The vast riches which he ac- which object the present of horses cumulated by these various and was obviously designed to obtain. singular modes, he does not ap- In 1796, when the Company's pear to have laid out with a very officers received brevet rank from generous spirit. He is said, in- his Majesty, Martine was include!! deed, to have been hospitable to in the promotion of colonels to the English gentlemen who re- the rank of Major-General. sided at Lucknow, but his table Some years before this he had was little calculated to invite his finished a spacious dwelling-house acquaintance to it, either by the on the banks of the river Goomelegance of the entertainment, or tee, in the building of which he the conviviality that presided at had long been employed. This it. Very few instances have come curious edifice is constructed ento our knowledge of his private tirely of stone, except the doors bounty and benevolence. He is and window-frames. The ceilings said to have assisted his family at of the apartments are formed of Lyons, by occasionally remitting elliptic arches, and the floors made small sums of money; and by his of stucco. The basement-story will he has lefi them 25,0001. comprises two caves or recesses

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within within the banks of the river, and highness that such an experiment level with its surface when at its would be attended with considerlowest decrease. In these caves able hazard to the lives of the he generally lived in the hot sea- men ; upon which the Vizir reBon, and continued in them until plied, “Give yourself no concern the commencement of the rainy about thatbe you so good as season, when the increase of the to make a balloon.”

The er. river obliged him to remove. He periment, however, was never then ascended another story, to tried. apartments titted up in the form Besides his house at Lucknow, of a grotto; and when the further he had a beautiful villa about fifty rise of the river brought its sur- miles distant, situated on a high face on a level with these, he pro- bank of the Ganges, and surceeded up to the third story, as a ronnded by a domain of almost ground-floor, which overlooked eight miles in circumference, the river when at its greatest somewhat resembling an English height. On the next story above park. Here he used occasionally that, a handsome saloon, raised to retire in the hot season. on arcades, projecting over the In the latter part of his life he river, formed his habitation in laid out a large sum of money in the spring and winter seasons. constructing a gothic castle, which By this ingenious contrivance he he did not live to finish. Beneath preserved a moderate and equal the ramparts of this castle he temperature in his house at all built casemates, secured by iron seasons: on the attic story he had doors, and gratings thickly a museum, well supplied with va- wrought. The lodgments within rious curiosities, and over the the walls are arched and barred, whole, he erected an observatory, and their roofs completely bombwhich he furnished with the best proof. The castle is surrounded astronomical instruments. Ad- by a wide and deep ditch, fortified joining to the house there is a on the outer side by stockades, garden, not laid out with taste, and a regular covered way, so Eat well filled with a variety of that the place is sufficiently profine trees, shrubs, and flowers, tected to resist the attacks of any together with all sorts of vegeta- Asiatic power. Within this castle bles. In his artillery-yard, which he built a splendid mausoleum, was situated at

some distance in which he was interred; and from his house, he erected a on a marble tablet over his tomb steam-engine, which had been is engraved the following inscripsent to him from England; and tion, written by himself some here he used to amuse himself in months before his death :making different experiments with Here lies Claude Martine. He air-balloons. After he had ex- was born at Lyons, A. D. 1732. hibited to some acquaintances his He came to ludia a private soldier, first balloon, the Vizir Asoph-ud- and died a Major-General. Dowlah requested he would pre- During the last fifteen years of pare one large enough to carry his life, he was much afflicted twenty men. Martine told his with the stone and gravel; and


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