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the riches of his minit; such was The great moralist* justly oba the active employment of all his serves, that “to temperance every faculties ; so constant was his ha- day is bright, and every hour is: bit of giving expression to his propitious to diligence." The exthoughts in an extensive corres- treme temperance of Dr. Rush in pondence, in the preparation of like manner enabled him to keep his public discourses, and in his his mind in continual employdaily intercourse with the workt, ment, thereby “setting at defithat few persons ever left his so- ance the morning mist and the ciety withot receiving instruc- evening damp—the blasts of the tion, and expressing their aston- east, and the clouds of the south."'+ ishment at the perpetual stream He knew not that “ lethargy of of eloquence in which his thoughts indolence" that follows the inordiwere communicated.
nate gratifications of the table. It hus frequently been the sub- His ciesto did not consist in inject of surprise that amidst the dulgence upon the bed or in the numerous invocations of Dr Rush, armed chair, to recover those as a practitioner and a teacher of powers which had been paralysed medicine, that he found leisure or suspended by an excessive for the composition and the pub- meal, or the intemperate use of lication of the numerous medical vinous or spirituous drinks. and literary works which have Dr. Johnson during his tour been the production of his peri.
to the Ilebrides, when fatigued by Although Dr. Rush possessed his journey, retired to his chania by nature an active and discrimi- her, and wrote his celebrated nating n:ind, in which were blend- Latin ode addressed to Mrs. el great quickne-s of perception, Thrale. I Dr. Rush, in like mananda retentive memory; although ner, after the fatigues of profeshe enjoyed the benefits of an ex- sional cluty, refreshed liis mind by celient preliminary and profes- the perasal of some favourite sional education, it was only by poet, some work of taste, some liabits of uncommon industry, volume of travels, biography, or punctunlity in the performance of history. These were the pillows all his engagements, the strictest on which he sought repo:e. temperance and regularity in his But the virtues of the heart, like mode of life, that enabled him to the faculties of his mind, were accomplish so much in his pro- also in continuei exercice for the fession, and to contribute so large- benefit of his fellow men ; while ly to the medical literature of his the numerous humane, charitable, country. Dr. Rush, like most and religious associations, which men who liave extended the boun- do honour to the city of Philadeldaries of any department of hu- phin, bear testimony to the phiman knowledge; who have con- lanthropy and piety which anitributed to the improvement of mated the bosom of their departed any art or science, was in habits benefac'or, let it also be rememof early rising by which lie. al- bered that, as with the good Saways secured what Gibbon has weil denominated “the sacred • Dr. Johnson. + Boswell. Buswell, portion of the day.”
maritan, the poor were the ob- Pacific ocean, and so were conjects of his peculiar care; and sidered by Captain Cook. that in the latter and more pros- When Captain Cook, in 1778, perous years of his life, one- discovered the Sandwich islands, seventh of his income was ex- Tereoboo was king of Owhyhee; pended upon the children of af- Teteree, of Moratai ; and Pedeofliction and want. Dr. Boerbaare ranne of Waoho, and the islands said of the poor, that they were to the leeward. Tamaahmaah, his best patients, because God was the present king, is known in their paymaster.
Cook's voyage under the name of Let it also be recorded, that Maiha-maiha, and was present at the last act of Dr. Rush was an the death of that illustrious nari. act of charity, and that the last gator : he was only brother to expression which fell from his Tereoboo. lips was an injunction to his son, From the departure of the Re. “ Be indulgent to the poor.” solution till the year 1787, no
“Vale egregium academiæ de- ship visited these islands. In cus! tuum nomen mecum sem- 1788, Captain Douglas, in the per durabit ; et laudes et honores Iphiginia, touched at Owhyhee. tui in æternum manebunt." Tamaahmaah at this time having
These words were addressed by obtained the assistance of Boyd, Dr. Rush, upon his taking leave a ship carpenter, built a small of the University of Edinburgh, tender, and it was at this period to his particular friend and pre- that Young and Davis, the perceptor, Dr. Cullen.
sons subsequently noticed, became resident at Owhyhée. After the arrival of Captain Vancouver,
the king, with the assistance of The King of the Sundwich Islands ;, the ships carpenters, constructed
from Campbell's Voyage round this first decked vessel; and in the World.
order to ensure the good-will of
the English, a formal surrender The sudden revolution produced of the sovereignty of these islands in the customs of the natives of was made by the king, reserving, the Sandwich islands, from their however, freedom in all matters intercourse with the Europeans, of religion, internal government, gives a peculiar interest to any and domestic economy. Tamaahrecent accounts of them, from maah, after various successes, which we may be enabled to trace had in 1810 reduced all the islands the progress of society in one of in this group under his domiits earliest stages. These islands, nions, except Atooi and Onehooi
. from their situation, midway be. Scarcely 30 years have elapsed tween the continents of Asia and since the period of the discovery America, the fertility of their of these islands; and we already soil, and the natural talents and find a chief who has made rapid industry of the natives, are ren- progress towards civilization, and dered by far the most interesting who on all occasions has availed of the recent discoveries in the himself of every opportunity of
intercourse with the Europeans, Canton, he was enticed from his surrounded by artificers, with ship by the commander of an guards regularly trained to the American vessel, bound to the use of fire-arms, and a navy of north-west coast of America, on 60 sail of decked vessels, built on which coast the vessel was afterthe island; almost every vessel wards wrecked. Before they that navigates the Pacific, finds reached Kodiak, his feet becoming shelter, provisions, or trade in mortified from the extreme cold, his harbour. Much is to be as- were both amputated at Kodiak, cribed to the natural ingenuity by a Russian surgeon; here he and unwearied industry of the remained some time, employed to inhabitants; but added to this, teach the children of the natives they have received all the benefits English. In the hope, however, which are conferred on rising of meeting with American vessels communities, by the appearance at the Sandwich islands, in which of their chief, Tamaahmaah, he might return home, he was
one of those great men who go induced to leave Kodiak, in the before their age.'
Neva (the ship commanded by The death of Captain Cook, Captain Lisianski, in Captain and the frequent murders by the Krusenstern's expedition.) From natives of the subsequent navi- Kodiak they proceeded to the gators, gave such ideas of the island of Wahoo, being the one savage nature of the inhabitants, of the Sandwich islands now that for many years few ships chosen by Tamaahmaah for his ventured to touch there. But residence.
Campbell's appearsince the present chief has esta- ance having excited the comblished his power, his conduct passion of the queen, he was has been marked with such jus- invited to reside in her house, tice, that strangers are as safe in and being recommended by the his ports as in those of any other Russian captain to the king, was nation. He is known in this employed as a sail-maker in the country from the accounts of royal arsenal. After remaining Turnbull, Lisianski, and Langs- in the king's establishment for dorf, and much interest has been several months, he removed to excited respecting him ; but none the house of Isaac Davis, a Welchof these navigators ever saw him. man, who had been on the island From a volume recently pub- about twenty years. Soon afterlished, “ A Voyage round the wards a tract of land of about World, by Archibald Campbell," sixty acres, on which fifteen fawe have some further account of milies resided, was granted to Tamaahmaah, and from one who, him by the king. After having by residing with him, had every overhauled all the sails of the opportunity of personal observa- fleet, he managed to construct a tion. Campbell was a native of loom, and began to weave sail a village near Glasgow, and hav- cloth; and being by trade a ing escaped from an English weaver, he succeeded in making man of war, entered himself on some before he quitted the island. board an Indiaman. Whilst at But in July 1810, a South-Sea
whaler, whaler, bound for England, hav- tions of life, are possessed of ing touched there, the desire of more intelligence or information, revisiting his native country, and and with the advantages common the hopes that the wound in his to his countrymen, he seems to legs (which had, never healed have neglected no means of imsince amputation) might be cured, provement." The greater portion he was tempted to abandon his of this book is occupied in a narpossessions, and leave his situa- rative of what occurred during tion of ease, for one which in his Campbell's stay at ihe Sandwich helpless situation must at least islands, and a description of them be precarious. On applying to and of the manners of the inhaTamaahmaah for permission to bitants. This is by far the most depart, he said, “if his belly interesting ; and we shall contold him to go, he was at liberty clude this article by a few exto do so," sending by him his tracts from that part of it. compliments to King George ; “ The king's residence is built expressing, however, much asto- close on the shore, and is disnishment at hearing, that Camp- tinguished by the British colours, bell, together with many thou- and a battery of sixteen guns besands of others, his subjects, had longing to his ship, the “ Lilly never seen their sovereign. By Bird," then uprigged in the harthe captain of the ship he sent a bour ; there was also a guardpresent to the king, of a feather house and powder-magazine, and cloak, accompanied by a letter, two extensive store-houses built which he dictated, reminding hinn of stone for the reception of Euof Captain Vancouver's promise ropean goods
ropean goods. His mode of life of sending a man of war, and re- is very simple, breakfasting at gretting that the distance pre- eight, dining at noon, and supping vented his assisting him in his at sun-set. His principal chiefs wars. From Wahoo, Campbell are always about his person On went to Rio Janeiro, and after a concluding his meal he drinks residence there of two years, re- half a glass of rum, but the bottle turned to Scotland. On his return is immediately taken away, the he procured admission to the in- liquor being interdicted to the firmary, at Erlinburgh; but was guests. At one period, it is said, at length discharged as incurable. he was much addicted to the use He was noticed by Mr. Smith on of spirits, but foreseeing the baneboard one of the steam boats on ful effects arising from indulging the Clyde, playing on the violin in their use, he made a resolution for the amusement of the steerage to abstain from them, and wbich passengers. Mr. Smith took him he has since religiously mainhome, and struck with the intel- tained. The greatest respect is ligent manner and the interesting paid to his person by all: even nature of the incidents he related, when his meat and drink passes was induced to become the editor by, his subjects uncover theniof his narration, and to publish selves, and stoop down by way of it for his benefit.
reverence. The white people, Mr. Smith, “ in the same situa- however, on the island, are not
“ Few," says
required to pay these honours. them were convicts who had esDavis and Young, the two per- caped from New South Wales. sons before noticed, are much Many in ducements are held out favoured by the king, and are to sailors to remain ; if they conraised to the rank of chiefs, and duct themselves with propriety, have extensive grants of land. they raak as chiefs, and are at all The lands are in the highest state events certain of being mainof cultivation. The island cf tained, as the chiefs are always Wahoo, though only secondary anxiou s to have white men about in size, is one of the most im- them. Many artificers are in the portant on account of its fertility, king's employ; all that are inand because it possesses the only dustrious are well rewarded by secure barbour to be met with in him; many, however, are idle the group. During the thirteen and dissolvte, particularly the months Campbell was at Wahoo, convicts; the latter have introabout twelve ships touched there. duced distillation into the island, The nary, in 1809, was about and give themselves up to drinksixty vessels : these were then all ing. Davis, a Welchman, who hauled on shore, and preserved was very industrious, so puzzled with great care, it being time of the natives, that they could only peace : these were chiefly sloops account for his singularity by and schooners under forty tons, supposing him one of their own built by native carpenters under counirymen, who had gone to the «lirection of Boyd. The “Lilly Cahiete, or England, and after Bird” is, however, about two his death had returned to his hundred tons ; but this vessel was native land. Most of the whites bought from the Anericans. In- have married native women, by dian corn and many garden ve. whom they have families, but yetables are cultivated with suc- no attention is paid by them to cess; and in a short time the their education or religious inbreed of cattle, borses, and sheep, struction. The chiefs about the left there by Captain Vancouver, king have each a separate office will be abundant. The king has assigned to him--as treasurer, &c. several horses, and is fond of The king is entirely absolute. riding. Many individuals have Though the people are under large focks of sheep: and in the dominion of some chief, for some of the large islards there whom they work or cultivate the are censiderable herds of wild grouni, and by whom they are cattle. The chiefs are proprie- suppoi ted in old age, they are by tors of the soil, and let the land means to be considered as in small farms to the lower slaves attached to the soil, but orders, who pay rent in kind; are at liberty to change masters the chiess pay a rent and other when they think fit. The prinsubsidies to the sovereign. There cipal duty of the executive is enwere at Wahoo at one time, during trusted to the priests, and by our author's stay, about sixty them the revenue is collected and whites, chiefly English, left by the laws enforced. They believe Anjeriean vessels ; several amongst in a future state, when they will