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which they had filled, their en rien relativement aux fonctions conduct, or their political opi- qu'ils occupent, ou auroient occunions ; but it was never intended, pées, à leur conduite et à leurs and could not be intended, to opinions politiques." prevent either the existing Fiench By whom were these private government, under whose autho- properties and persons to be in rity the French commander in like manner respec!ed ? By the chief must have acted, or any allied generals and their troops, French government which should mentioned in the 10th and lith succeed to it, from acting in this Articles ; and not by other parrespect as it might deem fit.” ties to whom the Convention did

It is obvious from this letter, not relate in any manner. that the Duke of Wellington, one The 13th Article provides, that of the parties to the capitulation “ les troupes etrangères” shall not of Paris, considers that that in- obstruct the carriage of provisions strument contains nothing which by land or water to the capital. can prevent the King from bring- Thus it appears, that every Aring Marshal Ney to trial, in such ticle in the Convention relates exmanner as his Majesty may think clusively to the operations of the proper.

different armies, or to the conduct The contents of the capitulation of the Allies, and that of their fully contirm the justice of the generals, when they should enter Duke's opinion. It is made be- Paris ; and, as the Duke of W'eltween the commanders in chief lington states in his dispatch of of the contending armies respec- the 4th of July, with which be tively, and the first nine articles transmitted the Convention to relate solely to the mode and time England, “ decided all the miliof the evacuation of Paris by the tary points then existing at Paris, French army, and of the occupa- and touched nothing political." tion of the British and Prussian But it appears clearly that not armies.

only this was the Duke's opinion The tenth Article provides, that of the Convention at the time it the existing authorities shall was signeil, but likewise the opibe respected by the two com- nion of Carnot, of Marshal Vey, manders in chief of the Allies; and of every cther person who the 11th, that public property shall had an interest in considering the be respected, and that the Allies subject. will not interfere “ en

Carnot says, in the Exposé de la manière dans leur administration, Conduite Politique de M. Carnot, et dans leur gestion ;” and the page 43,—" Il fût resolu d'en12th Article stat's, “ seront pa- voyer aux Généraux Anglois et reillement respectées les personnes Prussiens une commission spéet les proprietés particulières, les ciale, chargée de leur proposer habitans, et en général tous les une Convention purement miliinvidus qui se trouvent dans la taire, pour la remise de la Ville capitale, continueront à jouir de de Paris entre mains, en écartant leurs droits et libertés, sais pou- toute question politique, puisqu'on voir être inquietéus, cu recherchés ne pouvoit préjuger quelles se


roient les intentions des Alliées Chambers should decide upon lorsqu'ils seroient réunis.”

their fate. It appears that Marshal Ney Did the Duc d'Otrante, did any fled from Paris in disguise with a of the persons who are the obpassport given to him by the Duc jects of this proclamation, did any d'Otrante, under a feigned name, persons on their behalt, even then, on the 6th July. He could not or now, claim for them the probe supposed to be ignorant of the tection of the 12th Article of the tenor of the 12th Article of the Convention ? Convention, and he must then Certainly the Convention was have known whether it was the then understood, as it ought to intention of the parties who made be understood now, viz. that it it, that it should protect him from was exclusively military, and was the measures which the king, then never intended to bind the then at St. Denis, should think proper existing government of France, to adopt against him.

or any government which should But if Marshal Ney could be succeed it. supposed ignorant of the intention of the 12th Article, the Duc

Convention between the Emperor of d'Otrante could not, as he was

Russia, the Emperor of Austria, at the head of the provisional

and the King of Prussia. government, under whose authority the Prince d'Eckmuhl must In the name of the Most Holy have acted when he signed the and Indivisible Trinity. Convention.

Their Majesties the Emperor of Would the Duc d'Otrante have Austria, the King of Prussia, and given a passport under a feigned the Emperor of Russia, having, name to Marshal Ney, if he had in consequence of the great events understood the 12th Article as which have marked the course of giving the Marshal any protec- the three last years in Europe, tion, excepting against measures and especially of the blessings of severity by the two comman- which it has pleased Divine Proders in chief?

vidence to shower down upon Another proof of what was the those States, which place their opinion of the Duc d'Otrante, of confidence and their hope on it the king's minister, and all the alone, acquired the intimate conpersons most interested in esta- viction of the necessity of foundblishing the meaning now at- ing the conduct to be observed by tempted to be given to the 12th the Powers in their reciprocal reArticle of the Convention of the lations upon the sublime truths 3d of July, is the King's Procla- which the Holy Religion of our mation of the 24th July, by which Saviour teachesnineteen persons are ordered for They solemnly declare that the trial, and thirty-eight persons are present act has no other object ordered to quit Paris, and to re- than to publish, in the face of the side in particular parts of France, whole world, their fixed resol, under the observation and super- tion, both in the administra; intendence of the police, till the of their respective states, an


ion their political relations with every branches of the one family, other Government, to take for namely, Austria, Prussia, and their sole guide the precepts of Russia ; thus confessing that the that Holy Religion ; namely, the Christian world, of which they precepts of justice, Christian cha- and their people form a part, has, rity, and peace, which, far from in reality, no other Sovereign being applicable only to private than Him to whom alone power concerns, must have an immedi- really belongs, because in Him ate influence on the Councils of alone are found all the treasures Princes, and guide all their steps, of love, science, and infinite wisas being the only means of con- dom, that is to say, God, our Disolidating human institutions, and vine Saviour, the Word of the remedying their imperfections. Most High, the Word of Life. In consequence their Majesties Their Majesties consequently rehave agreed on the following ar- commend to their people, with the ticles :

most tender solicitude, as the sole Art. 1. Conformably to the means of enjoying that peace words of the Holy Scriptures, which arises from a good conwhich command all men to con- science, and which alone is dusider each other as brethren, therable, to strengthen themselves three contracting Monarchs will every day more and more in the remain united by the bonds of a principles and exercise of the dutrue and indissoluble fraternity, ties which the Divine Saviour has and considering each other as fel- taught to mankind. low countrymen, they will on all Art. 3. All the Powers who occasions, and in all places, lend shall choose solemnly to avow the each other aid and assistance ; and sacred principles which have dicregarding themselves towards tated the present act, and shall their subjects and armies as fa- acknowledge how important it is thers of families, they will lead for the happiness of nations, too them, in the same spirit of frater- long agitated, that these truths nity with which they are anima- should henceforth exercise over ted, to protect religion, peace, the destinies of mankind all the and justice.

influence which belongs to them, Art. 2. In consequence, the sole will be received with equal ardour principle in force, whether be- and affection into this holy al. tween the said Governments or liance. between their subjects, shall be Done in triplicate, and signed that of doing each other recipro- at Paris, the year of grace, 1815, cal service, and of testifying, by 14th (26th) September. unalterable good will, the mutual (L.S.) FRANCIS. affection with which they ought (L.S.) Frederick WILLIAM. to be animated, to consider them- (L. S.) ALEXANDER. selves all as niembers of one and the same Christian nation, the three Allied Princes looking on Decree of the Prince Regent of Porthemselves as merely delegated tugal, respecting Brazil. by Providence to govern three Don John, by the grace of God, Prince Regent of Portugal and of 3. That for the titles inherent the two Algarves, &c. I make in the crown of Portugal, and known to all who shall see these which it has hitherto used, shall presents, that having constantly be substituted in all public acts, in my royal mind the most lively the new title of Prince Regent of wish to cause the prosperity of the United Kingdom of Portugal, the states which Divine Provi- Brazil, and the two Algarves, &c. dence has intrusted to my sove- Given at the palace of Rio de reign administration : giving, at Janeiro, this 16th Dec. 1815. the same time, due importance to (Signed) THE PRINCE. the vast extent and locality of my (Countersigned) dominions in America ; to the The Marquis De AGUIAR. abundance and variety of the precious elements of riches which they contain within themselves; A Convention to regulate the Comand besides, perceiving how merce between the territorics of advantageous to my faithful the United States and those of subjects in general must be a per- his Britannic Majesty. fect union and identity of inte- The United States of America rests between my kingdoms of and his Britannic Majesty, being Portugal and the two Algarves, desirous by a Convention to reand my dominions of Brazil, by gulate the commerce and navigaraising the latter to that political tion between their respective counrank and scale to which, for the tries, territories, and people, in above-mentioned reasons, they such a manner as to render the are entitled ; and in which my same reciprocally beneficial and said dominions have already been satisfactory, have respectively considered by the Plenipotenti- named Plenipotentiaries, and givaries of the Powers who formed en them full powers to treat of the Congress at Vienna, both in and conclude such Convention ; the treaty of alliance concluded that is to say, the President of the on the 8th of April this year, and United States, by and with the in the final treaty of the said Con- consent of the Senate thereof, gress : I have therefore determin- hath appointed for their Plenipoed, and it is my pleasure to ordain tentiaries John Quincy Adams, as follows: merce.

Henry Clay, and Albert Gallatin, 1. That from and after the pub- citizens of the United States; and lication of these presents, the state his Royal Highness the Prince of Brazil shall be raised to the Regent, acting in the name and dignity, pre-eminence, and deno- behalf of his Majesty, has mination of the Kingdom of Bra- named for his Plenipotentiaries, zil.

the Right Hon. Frederick John 2. That my kingdoms of Por- Robinson, Vice President of the tugal, the two Algarves, and Bra- Committee of Privy Council for zil, shall in future, form one sole Trade and Plantations, Joint kingdom, under the title of the l'aymaster of his Majesty's Forces, United Kingdom of Portugal, and and a Member of the Imperial of Brazil, and the two Algarves. Parliament; Henry Goulburn, Esq.


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a Member of the Imperial Par- articles, being the growth, proliament, and Under Secretary of duce, or manufacture of any other State, and William Adams, Esq. foreign countries ; nor shall any Doctor of Civil Laws; and the higher or other duties or charges said Plenipotentiaries having mu- be imposed on either of the two tually produced and shewn their countries, on the exportation of said full powers, and exchanged any articles to the United States, copies of the same, have agreed on or to his Britannic Majesty's terand concluded the following Ar- ritories in Europe respectively, ticles, viz.

than such as are payable on the Art. 1. There shall be between exportation of the like articles to the territories of the United States any other foreign country; nor of America, and all the territories shall any prohibition be imposed of his Britannic Majesty in Eu- on the exportation or importation rope, a reciprocal liberty of com- of any articles, the growth, pro

The inhabitants of the duce, or manufacture of the Unitwo countries respectively shall ted States, or of his Britannic have liberty freely and securely Majesty's territories in Europe, to to come with their ships and car- or from the said territories of his goes to all such places, ports, and Britannic Majesty in Europe, to rivers in the territories aforesaid or from the said United States, to which other foreigners are per- which shall not be equally exmitted to come, to enter into the tended to all other nations. same, and to remain and reside in No higher or other duties or any parts of the said territories re- charges shall be imposed in any spectively; al-o to hire and occupy of the ports of the United States houses and warehouses for the pur- on British vessels, than those pay. poses of their commerce; and gene- able in the same ports by vessels rally, the merchants and traders of of the United States, nor in the each nation respectively shall en- ports of any of his Britannic Majoy the most complete protection jesty's territories in Europe, on and security for their commerce, the vessels of the United States, but subject always to the laws and than shall be payable in the same statutes of the two countries re- ports on British vessels. The same spectively.

duties shall be paid on the impor2. No higher or other duties tation into the United States of shall be imposed on the importa- any articles the growth, produce, tion to the United States of any or manufacture of his Britannic articles, the growth, produce, or Majesty's territories in Europe, manufacture of his Britannic Ma- whether such importation shall be jesty's territories in Europe, and in vessels of the United States, or no higher or other duties shall be in British vessels, and the same imposed on the importation into duties shall be paid on the importhe territories of his Britannic tation into the ports of any of his Majesty in Europe of any articles, Britannic Majesty's territories in the growth produce, or inanufac- Europe, of any article the growth, ture of the United States, than produce, or manufacture of the are ur shall be payable on the like United States, whether such im


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